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sS„^„f h ^ or ?OULE CT/ ^ 

ALBANY, N. Y. 



CLASS. 



-NO. 



HALL'S 



JOURNAL OF HEALTH 



FOE 1856 



HEALTH IS A DUTY. — Anon. 



" MEN CONSUME TOO MUCH FOOD AND TOO LITTLE PURE AIR J 
THEY TAKE TOO MUCH MEDICINE AND TOO LITTLE EXERCISE." Ed. 

" I labor for the good time coming, when sickness and disease, except congenital, 
or from accident, will be regarded as the result of ignorance or animalism, and will 
degrade the individual, in the estimation of the good, as much as drunkenness now 
does. — Ibid. 



/ 




EDITED BY 

W. W. HALL, M.D., 

42 IRVING PLACE, N. Y. 



VOL. III. 



$Uto Ink : 

PUBLISHED BY HEKEY B. PKICE, 

No. 3 EVEEETT HOUSE, UNION 8QUAEE. 

1856. 



INDEX FOR VOLUME III. 



Agriculture 23, 140 

Aristocracy of Blood 150 

Air In and Out Door 199 

Bath Rooms 91 

Bathing 269 

Bamum's Failure 78 

Bread. Healthy 144 

Bad Colds 192 

Brandy Drinking 254 

Bronchitis 207 

Buckwheat Cakes 267 

Consumption 8,182,205,229 

Corns 22 

Clerical Mortuary 68 

Civilization, True 94 

Church Sleeping 95 

Church Leaving 118 

Checked Perspiration 121 

Cough Remedy 123,184 

Clerical Recreation 128 

Children's Health 149 

Count Confalioneri 153 

Cinders in the Lye 198 

Christmas Happified 270 

Clerical Employments 276 

Disease and Providence 1 

Domestic Receipts 47 

Death, Cause of 85 

Dress 98 

Dead of a Dinner 114 

Donation Parties 138 

Damp Walls 160 

Daughters 245 

Dietetics 250 

Disease Foreshadowed 263 

'• Dred " Noticed 275 

Equanimity of Mind 15 

Editors 31,39,97,126,156 

Exercise 112,147 

Early Marriages 153 

Eyes 198,208,158 

Easy Circumstances 195 

Felt Hats 95 

Food 10,157,250 

Forgetting 274 

Family Peace 119 

Feet, Care of 133 

Fruits 154 

Filth, Reproductive 20 1 

Godey's Lady's Book 140 



Hall, Alice 275 

Health Seeking 13,56,70,93,115 

Hard Study 42 

Hair Dye 99 

Healthy Bread 144 

Hats, Best 95 

Hereditary Disease 191 

Ideal Value 270 

Inhalation 156,226 

Insanity 53,224 

Influenza 1 ,30, 139 

irritabilities of Life 209 

Instructive Narrative 204,252 

Keep Mouth Shut 21 

Long Life 204,252 

Life Lost 258 

Memory Improved 262 

Mental Health 15,87,111 

Medical Phantasies 36 

Money Lending 84 

Model Minister 101 

MacFarland, John 101 

Medicine, Our 120 

Mushrooms 200 

Marriage, Early 153,200 

Memory Improved 24 

Morals of the Press 31,72 

Milk, About 274 

Out-Door Activities 234 

Newspaper Patronage 264 

Nervous Diseases 272 

Night Air 142 

Providence and Disease 1 

Poverty 7 

Practical Knowledge l9 

Physical Education 253 

Physician, The Good 263 

Proclivities of the Age 12 

Preserved Sunshine 33 

Physiognomy 41 

Presentiments 44 

Physic and Politics 61 

Patent Medicines 63 

Piles, Cause of 66 

Polar Sea, Health in 70 

Popular Fallacies 141 ,77 

Peace in the Family 119 

Poisonous Mushrooms 120 

Pulse 229,291 

Perspiration 248 



IV 



Index to Vol. III. 



QuoModo 63 

Quackery 130 

Religious Press 31 

Review Morals 72 

Railroad Safety 75 

Receipts, Domestic 47,100.204 

Rules for Sick-Room 202 

Respirators 265 

Seeking Health 13 

Sick Mind 16 

Sunday Dinners 34 

Sleeplessness 46 

Spiritualism 88 

Sleeping in Church 95,156 

Sense and Nonsense 112 

Sea Voyages 

Sleep of Nature 160 

Sick Room Rules 202 

Spitting Blood 209 

Southern Climate 249 



Small Pox 271 

Sharpe, Ebenezer 271 

Schooling Errors 275 

Suicide 259 

Simple Medicines 260 

Sleep, Sound 261 

Thermometers, Uses of 119 

Tooth Wash 228 

Throat Ail 135,206 

Tight Lacing 188 

Temperance 203,246 

Tubercle Described 208,214 

Theological Studies 272 

Unhealthy Bread 47 

Use of Fruits 155 

Why] 11 

Wives 41,119,247 

Weak Eyes 203 

Wisdom of the Wicked 203 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS : FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABL1 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH ; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] JANUARY, 1856. [NO. L 



SALUTATORY FOR 1856. 

A healthy New Year to you, reader ! and as many returns 
of the same, as you will be entitled to by the moderate use of 
allihe good things of this life, and a wise avoidance of the evil. 
And remember, that it is for yourself to determine, whether 
your aggregate conduct for the year eighteen hundred and 
fifty-six, shall be as wood, hay, stubble, in the great structure 
which is to lift humanity from want and sin, and raise it to the 
skies, or whether it shall be a grain of sand, a key-stone or a 
corner. 



PROVIDENCE AND DISEASE. 

We do not believe that Providence has any thing to do with 
the production of sickness or disease, beyond the institution of 
certain laws which he has made for the government of the 
world, any more than that he has an agency in the burning of 
our flnger ; if we put it in the fire. We think that very many 
obituary notices are impious, so far as the agency of the Al- 
mighty in removing valuable lives is specially charged. That 
He mercifully overrules, we thankfully admit, but that he chan- 
ges any organic law, or throws up miraculous barriers to resist 
the ordinary results of their infringement, we do not believe. 
Our meaning practically is this : had we gone to Norfolk to 
help the sick, we should have uttered no prayer for protection 
against the disease per se, we would have looked for no preter- 
natural shield to have been thrown around us, but we would 
have steadily sought for guidance to live in such a manner as 
was most wisely calculated to give us strength, vital force to 



♦5 HaWs Journal of Health. 

resist, and to throw off the causes of the epidemic ; we would 
have hoped for no favor because of the humanity of our mis- 
sion, but we would have looked for immunity in proportion as 
we lived up to the laws of our being. Let no weak brother 
take offence at this doctrine, but take courage when we assure 
him that our view of the subject is the ground of more heart- 
felt thankfulness than his, while its rationality is so much the 
more ennobling. We feel thankful, not that He throws around 
us an abnormal, or preternatural barrier against disease, but 
that the laws of our being are so lovingly instituted, that their 
observance is inevitable of safety, health, and happiness, thus 
offering the highest premium for the cultivation of our intellect 
in the study of His ways ; this very cultivation happyfying us 
here, and preparing us for a nearer elevation to Himself when 
time has passed away. 

Norfolk was sickly, because it was unwisely located : more 
sickly this last summer than usual, because its inhabitants have 
not had the industry and forethought to remove far enough 
from them, the accumulating garbage of successive years, and 
to interpose those contrivances which an elevated science would 
have indicated, had she been importuned. The elements of 
disease have been accumulating from year to year by a succes- 
sion of impressions on the constitution of the inhabitants until 
the culminating point was reached, and nothing more was 
wanting to the terrible explosion but the application of the 
match, which was nothing more than a greater variation than 
common in the warmth and moisture of the season. Either of 
two things would have caused an immediate disappearance of 
the pestilence. Submerging the city and suburbs with a foot 
deep of running water, or a temperature steadily below seventy 
degrees of Fahrenheit. The reason for these sentiments are not 
given now, but we propose doing so in some more inviting 
form in one of our subsequent numbers. We merely hint enough 
to set our intelligent readers thinking. We love to make peo- 
ple think ; it is only the thoughtful who are of any account in 
a world like this ; it is the thoughtless, the heedless multitude 
who heap want and calamity and disease on themselves and on 
too many of those with whom they are brought in frequent 
association. Now for the bone to pick ; untying the Gordian 
knot. 



Cold Blows the Wind. 7 

A heat of ninety degrees will always generate miasm in 
damp and dirty localities. This miasm is the cause of epidemic 
diseases, but it cannot rise through running water, nor can it 
exist as such at seventy degrees. The reason that epidemics 
do not promptly abate on the advent of either of the conditions 
named is, that at any given time, there are some systems just 
ripening into disease. The great practical lesson taught by 
these considerations is, that in times of individual or general 
sickness, our wisdom consists in industriously searching out, 
and removing the causes of disease, looking humbly to God for 
suggestive guidance in these investigations, for strength in the 
prosecution of our activities, with thankful reliance on the 
triumphant working of the laws which He has ordained. 



COLD BLOWS THE WIND 



This January night, chilling the heart's blood of many a 
toiling widow, of many an orphan or more than orphan child, 
in this multitudinous city, in its damp and noisome basements, 
in its dark and cheerless garrets, its filthy alleys and its reek- 
ing lanes. Have a thought for them, you more favored few ! 
who this blessed hour revel in happiness, well warmed, well 
clothed, well fed, gathering around your parlor fires, sur- 
rounded by wife, children and friends. Stop the music, hush 
the laughter, think and make note of it, how many a garment 
thrown aside to be worn no more, lies useless in the many 
lockers of your mansion, then bid the music and the mirth go 
on : it will be sweeter than before. But to-morrow send those 
rejected dresses, coats, shoes, &c. to No. 11 Clinton Hall, 
Astor Place, New York ; and if you please, a few dollars cash 
inside the box. Send them, freight-paid, by some city express. 
Friend Crafts says who lives at 130 East Twenty-first street, or 
office 74 Maiden Lane, for a shilling he will take a good sized 
box there, where will be found a gentleman of talents and stand- 
ing, and who has a heart just large enough to induce him to 
spend his whole time in finding out, not where such things are 
needed simply, but where they may be worthily and judiciously 
bestowed. You need not send your name, " its record is on high" 



8 Ball's Journal of Health. 

CONSUMPTION CUKE. 

There will soon be so many methods of curing this formi- 
dable malady, it would seem good policy for people to do all 
they possibly can to become consumptive, on the general prin- 
ciple, that as two distinct diseases do not prevail in the system 
at one time, and consumption being cured without any difficulty, 
such as by smelling sugar, smoking arsenic, or less laboriously 
still, drinking brandy, that being to a large number no trouble at 
all, not the slightest, in fact rather pleasurable if any thing, 
the most direct road to health for those who have any thing 
the matter with them is to get consumption, get cured of it by 
selecting the most agreeable method of the many proposed, and 
be permanently well. 

A statement was recently made in a European Journal, that 
arsenic smoking has been successful in the hands of some, in 
restoring consumptive persons to fulness of flesh and to the 
soundness of health ; this article, in consequence of the reckless 
and careless manner with which newspapers are " scissored " 
up, daily becoming more common, has been very extensively 
copied, and without a warning may do injury. It is a fact that 
smoking arsenic, or eating it, will give plumpness to the flesh, 
and so will porter or cod liver oil ; it will paint upon the cheek 
the ruddy hue of health, and so will good brandy ; it will re- 
move shortness of breath with astonishing promptitude, and so 
will a plug of tobacco or opium, or a good breath of ether or 
laughing gas. We have no objection at all to the arsenic 
treatment, except that as soon as the patient ceases to use it, he 
dies ; and if he continues its use, he dies any how, only more 
rapidily than he would with either opium, cod liver oil, porter 
or brandy. 

Let it not be forgotten, that no agent is curative of con- 
sumption which does not impart vigor to the digestion, and 
capacity to the lungs to use a larger amount of that which 
great nature has expressly provided for their nourishment, the 
pure air of heaven ; and which, as every educated man must 
know, is the only thing in the wide universe which can put 
the finishing stroke to that which is then called " blood" the 
only thing which can perfectly unload the blood, when 
diseased or impure, of that which has rendered it so. When 



Practical Knowledge. 9 

will intelligent men learn to think for themselves, and cease to 
place their own lives and health and those of their families and 
friends, in the hands of the specious, reckless, and unprincipled 
charlatan ! A publication is in press, and perhaps now out, by 
Fowler and Wells, 308 Broadway, New York, entitled, " The 
Alcoholic Controversy" which we feel justified, considering the 
character of the house, in recommending, unseen, to the American 
people, exposing as it will, the Brandy, Gin, and Arsenic 
fallacies. 



PRACTICAL KNOWLEDGE. 

The world little imagines how largely it is indebted to the 
laborious researches of scientific medical men for many of the 
most important truths relative to human health, happiness 
and life. As population increases, and the value of food is 
enhanced, the knowledge which Chemistry has elicited is be- 
coming more and more valuable in a practical point of view. 
In our number for June, 1855, under the article "The Food 
we Eat " use was made of some of these truths. 

" How much ability to labor can I derive from eating a pound 
of potatoes, or a dollar's worth of brandy, beer or gin V are 
items which could be turned to large account by multitudes of 
the toiling poor. 

Some kinds of food are more nutritious than others, and if it 
should be found that articles which are cheapest, have most 
nutriment, and give the highest ability to labor, then knowledge 
becomes money to the poor. Tables vary, but some of the 
general results are as follows : one pound of rice, prepared for 
the table, gives eighty-eight per cent, of nutriment, and conse- 
quently, a relatively proportional ability to labor, compared 
with other articles of food. A pound of beef, costing fifteen 
cents, gives only twenty-six per cent, of nutriment. According 
to these estimates, therefore, rice as an article of food, is one 
hundred per cent, cheaper, one hundred per cent, more 
valuable to the common laborer than roast beef, yet countless 
numbers of the poor in New York, strain a point daily to pur- 
chase beef at fifteen cents a pound, when they could get a 
pound of rice for one-third the amount, the rice too, having 
three times as much nutriment as the beef, making a practical 



10 



Hall's Journal of Health. 



difference of six hundred per cent., aside from the fact, that 
boiled rice is three times easier of digestion than roast beef, 
the rice being digested in about one hour, roast beef requiring 
three hours and a half. There is meaning, then, in the reputed 
fact, that two-fifths of the human family live mainly on rice. 
We compile, therefore, the following tables for preservation, as 
being practically and permanently useful. All the economist 
requires, is to compare the price of a pound of food, with the 
amount of nutriment which it affords. 



Kind of Food. 


Mode of 


Preparation. 


Per centage 


! of Nutriment. 


Oils, - 


- 


raw, 


- 


95. 


Peas, - 


- 


boiled - 


- 


93. 


Barley, 


- 


boiled - 


- 


92. 


Corn Bread, 


- 


baked - 


- 


91, 


Wheat Bread, 


- 


baked - 


- 


90. 


Eice, - 


- 


boiled - 


- 


88. 


Beans, 


- 


boiled - 


- 


87. 


Eye Bread, - 


- 


baked - 


- 


79. 


Oat Meal, - 


- 


porridge 


- 


74. 


Mutton, 


- 


broiled 


- 


30. 


Plums, 


- 


raw 


- 


29. 


Grapes, 


- 


raw 


- 


27. 


Beef, 


- 


raw 


- 


26. 


Poultry 


- 


roast - 


- 


26. 


Pork, - 


- 


roast 


- 


24. 


Yeal, - 


- 


fried 


- 


24. 


Yenison 


- 


broiled - 


. 


22. 


Cod Fish, - 


- 


boiled - 


- 


21. 


Eggs, - 


- 


whipped 


- 


13. 


Apples, 


- 


raw 


- 


10. 


Milk, - 


- 


raw 


- 


7. 


Turnips, 


- 


boiled - 


- 


4. 


Melons, 


- 


raw 


- 


3. 


Cucumbers, 


- 


raw 


- 


2. 



A Beautiful Compliment to the Physician.— I dare 
not place any gift, however beautiful, or any success however 
brilliant, above the talent or the skill which can relieve a sin- 
gle pang, and the self-devotion which lays them at the feet of 
the humblest fellow creature. — Oliver Wendell Holmes. 



Why? 11 

WHY? 

Why will a sensible man attempt to enter an omnibus on a 
rainy day with the large end of his umbrella foremost ? 

Why do ladies from the country and un-self-possessed ladies 
from the town, walk the streets with one end of their parasol 
stuck in the mouth or near the chin ? We knew a lady to be 
run against by a man in a hurry, the end of the parasol was 
driven against a tooth, knocked it out, and passing on, pierced 
the roof of the mouth. 

Why are points made to parasols and umbrellas ? A year 
or two ago a person was walking along the streets of New 
York rapidly, another being ahead of him with the sharp point 
of his umbrella sticking out under his arm or over his shoul- 
der, and stopping suddenly, the point entered the eye of the 
man following, causing a wound which terminated in death. 

Why do the architects of New York persist in having great 
wooden cornices to their buildings ? They are children's make- 
believe ; resemble nothing under the sun but themselves ; are 
not only useless, but are eminently dangerous, in case of fire. 
I have seen a quarter million of dollars destroyed in two hours 
of a winter's night by the cornices taking fire from a building 
on the opposite side of the street. 

Why will a gentleman who pretends to any degree of per- 
sonal neatness and deportment, especially if he has cough, cold 
or consumption, evacuate his mouth and nose on the side- walk 
in preference to stepping to the gutter ? 

Why does a gentleman or lady, after service, stop another in 
the church aisle and engage in conversation, thus arresting all 
in their rear? 

Why do nine women out of ten have the vis-inertia of the 
Cordilleras when another person wishes to occupy a vacant seat 
beside them in an omnibus, pew, or rail-car ? 

Why do sensible people often sit down to table and begin to 
eat "when they don't feel like it" and force it down, when they 
know that a pig could not be hired to such a performance, to say 
nothing of the loss of that much food to the world, which 
many a poor brother in humanity would be glad to get ? 

Why do many people take bitters before meals to inreaso 
their appetites, when without that stimulus they eat more than 



12 EaWs Journal of Health. 

they can healthfully digest ? If they must stimulate at all, 
why not take it after meals, to allow its force to be expended 
in helping the stomach to digest more perfectly what nature 
called for, uninterfered with? 

Why do we pursue the seemingly suicidal course of instruct- 
ing people how to avoid disease and physical injuries, when 
we make our living by endeavoring to relieve them ? Because 
man's vanity prompts to the acquisition of knowledge, while not 
one in a thousand has common sense enough to practice it; 
hence we sell the knowledge first and the physic afterwards. 



THE PROCLIVITIES 

Or the age are towards every man becoming his own shoe- 
black. Newspaperdom is getting wise, very. Every editor 
who can boast of a circulation of fifteen, dead heads and ex- 
changes not included, sets himself up as Sir Oracle on every 
subject under the sun — some even going higher, not a few 
daring to interpret the meaning of Scripture for the gui- 
dance of their readers, and meeting with no resistance, they 
have made bold to invade the time-honored domain of us 
Doctors. Now, having some considerable affinity for Friends' 
principles, we content ourselves with a decided protest, not 
however wishing it to be understood to guarantee a literal adher- 
ence, or that we might not M bolt" if provocations are intensified. 

We have no doubt that the world would be the better for it, 
if every newspaper in the land were to rigidly exclude from 
its columns everything which had a bearing on health, except 
such as referred to the daily habits of life, and even these to 
admit with caution, knowing, as we do, that many things 
which, at the first glance appear rational and useful, will not 
bear the light of investigation. 

The N. Y. Observer for Nov 27 informs its readers that teeth 
are rendered insensible to pain by inserting a pill into the hollow 
of the tooth made of Canada Balsam and slacked lime, and 
that immediate relief is afforded in all tooth-aches but those 
arising from chronic inflammation — closing with the usual 
twaddle about its being 'safe, simple, and can be easily tried 
by any person.' Suppose this were so, how many people know 



Seeking Health. 13 

what Canada Balsam is, or where to get it? Certainly it would 
require less time to consult an intelligent dentist or physician, 
with the advantage of being on the safe side, for if it did arise 
from 'chronic inflammation,' from a sac at the root, the pill, 
by hardening and closing the natural vent, would aggravate the 
pain to an extent unendurable, or force a fistulous ulcer in some 
part of the jaw. Our advice is, if any thing is the matter with 
your teeth, go to a good dentist at once, and even if nothing is 
the matter, consult him twice a year, and compel each one of 
your children to do the same, from the age of five years up to 
the time of marriage, and these children will have reason to 
thank you for it to the close of life. 



SEEKING- HEALTH. 



In our June number for last year, there were some sugges- 
tions made to invalid clergymen as to the means of regaining 
their health without the necessity for intermitting the labors 
of their office. Among these were instructions for literally 
carrying out one of the last injunctions of the master, " As 
ye go, Preach /" A happy confirmation of the practicability of 
our suggestions, is found in the statement of a Missionary in 
the North of England. A servant girl was sent to show him the 
way at a particular part of his journey. On parting with her, he 
spoke a kindly word to her, closing with a scripture expression, 
" Seek ye the Lord while he may he found" and passed on, not 
expecting to meet her again, until the judgment. Some years 
after he did meet her, a grown woman, a widow and long 
a consistent Christian ; on inquiry it was found, that the text 
which he quoted was like a nail planted in a sure place, fixed 
by the master of assemblies. 

The clergy of this country are hard worked men, and if any 
class in the community ought to have some weeks recreation in 
summer time, they should. Without therefore dictating to them 
how that recreation ought to be enjoyed, we simply suggest a 
manner of taking it, rather different from the common method 
of going to the sea-shore and visiting watering places. 

What does a hard working clergyman want, in the heat 
of mid-summer, when both mind and body are so worn and 
relaxed, that thought becomes an effort and a burden ? Does 



14 HalVs Journal of Health. 

he want to be put to sleep on the shelf of a steamboat, to 
occupy some pent-up room with scarcely space to turn around, 
to inhale the air already tainted by the natural and artificial 
perfumery of the five or six hundred other invalids under the 
same roof; or if he takes a walk, to breathe an atmosphere satur- 
ated with the clouds of dust which a thousand coming and 
departing vehicles, raise in the vicinity of the Hotels of New 
Port and Saratoga ; to lounge about in semi-drowsiness for 
hours and hours of the day time, to be deprived of all connect- 
ed slumber during the night by late coming or early going 
guests, as well as by the " hoppers" who do not retire until the 
small hours of the morning come ; to be tempted beyond nature 
by highly seasoned food, more disease-engendering than any 
thing he can get at home ; to guzzle down every morning, 
whole pints, miscalled spring- water, whose villanous smell turns a 
healthy stomach a mile off; and last, not least, to be kept on 
the strain of his proprieties, more unrelenting than among his 
own parishioners ? Does a worn out mental worker require any 
of these to aid in his restoration ? What infatuation of fashion ! 
There have been times among the warring of nations, when sol- 
diers from the able bodied were too few to meet the emergencies 
of the occasion, and levies had to be made among the feeble, the 
sick, and the aged. All reflecting men must admit that now, as 
in the Saviour's day, the Harvest truly is great, but the laborers are 
few. Under ordinary circumstances this is so, but it becomes a 
truth with an emphasis when we look at the hordes of refugees, 
criminal and atheistic foreigners which flock to our shores at the 
rate of nearly a thousand a day into the port of New York alone. 
We think that fact of itself makes it an emergency of the times 
which warrants a levying on the abilities of the sick and feeble 
folk of the church, for every little helps. 

Our plan for clerical summer recreation is this: let every man 
leave his door on a good horse, with a Bible, Hymn Book and 
Concordance, and one change of inner clothing in his saddle-bags, 
let him take a direct line for any point a hundred and fifty 
miles west of the Mississippi, making his appointments ahead, 
as stump politicians and the good old methodist circuit riders 
used to do; a sermon for twelve o'clock and " candle lighting" 
at another place, of each day, at some hotel, post office, or 
country village, having family prayers wherever he passes a 



Equanimity of Mind. 15 

night, and leaving some kindly impressive word or phrase 
with almost every person with whom he is brought in contact. 
Can any rational mind doubt that with such a general course, 
a better footing up will result for health here, reflection in after 
life, for reward at the judgment day, than there would be from 
a summer at the Spa ? 



EQUANIMITY OF' MIND, 



How health-saving, how dignified, how philosophical ! per 
contra, the Fiery Folk, the lapdog sort, how terribly fierce they 
are, in a moment blazing hot — about nothing ! when you 
come to examine into the merits of the case. Spasmodic people^ 
who take the world by fits and starts ; in the skies to-day ; to- 
morrow — in the cellar ! every thing, any thing, nothing : doubt- 
less they have their uses, like the insect of an hour, or an atom 
in the air, but if ever any single individual of this, not in- 
numerous tribe, came to anything, we have yet to arrive at 
the knowledge of the fact ; their more obvious uses are, by 
misapprehensions, to set people by the ears, to excite family 
quarrels, and originate ill will among neighbors. Whipper- 
snappers are they, busy-bodies, never happier than when up to 
their eyes in other people's business, at the expense of their 
own ; marvellously benevolent towards every body else but 
their own wives and children. The end of such is to die 
early, and to die poor ; or if they live long, their lives are 
more a burden than a blessing to the community among whom 
it was their lot to fall. 

Widely different is the aim and end of the man who takes 
the world calmly, who takes time to make himself master of 
the whole fact before he moves a step ; such a man seldom 
acts wrong, is seldom found in a false position, and is conse- 
quently under no necessity of resorting to humiliating quibbles, 
or even questionable expedients, to extricate him from a pre- 
dicament ; the necessary result being, in the course of years, 
an abiding impression on his own mind that he has acted right 
in all things, and being conscious of no wrong, of no quibble, 
feels always safe, is subject to no unpleasant surprises. Such a 
man, having no ground for apprehensions, and yet being open 



16 HalVs Journal of Health. 

to all the enjoyments which other, men are, has that stereotyped 
equanimity of mind, which, while it closes the gate against the 
host of ills which wrong-doing entails on the wicked, opens 
a door to pleasures innumerable, boundless ! These are the 
men who uniformly " succeed" in life, in any country, and in 
every clime : — succeed, not merely in the accumulation of 
money, but in that which is of greater worth, in securing a 
position in society, and a name, which is the synonyme for all 
that is solid, manly and good — not only so, the pulses of life 
beating regularly, they necessarily beat long, for the system is 
subject to no shocks, is racked by no explosions : — so that 
they have not only made a fortune and a name, but secured 
long life to enjoy them, that very enjoyment consolidating both. 
This is not a beautiful theory spun out at our own office fire 
of a bright frosty morning in December, nor yet under the un- 
reliable exhilaration of a cup of tea or a glass of wine, but it is 
the result of convictions founded on the observation of men 
and things, confirmed by a living truth, in the persons of a 
whole community of people, whose increasing fewness in the 
old world, as well as in the new, we on some accounts do sin- 
cerely deplore, we mean the " Society of Friends," commonly 
called Quakers. Eecent published statistics in England show, 
that while the average duration of human life is estimated at 
thirty-three years, that average among these people is fifty-one 
years, exhibiting thus, this broad practical fact, that a course 
of life which promotes an habitual EQUANIMITY OF MIND, the 
feature which stands out above all others in the every-day 
character of Friends in this country as well as in England, is 
highly conducive to bodily health and length of days. 



A SICK MIND. 

Not a diseased mind ; that might imply something akin to 
insanity ; such is not our meaning. The body may be diseased 
functionally ; the whole machinery is perfect as to parts, no 
portion is broken or destroyed, but it does not work well, — so 
we mean as to the mind, when we term it " sick ;" it is perfect, 
it is sound, no decay, but it does not work smoothly, effec- 
tively. We all sometimes feel as to the body, a general tired- 



* A Sick Mind. 17 

ness, or discomfort, without being able to locate it precisely, or 
even give it a name, but we feel very sensibly that something 
is wrong ; there is no elasticity, no vigor, no desire for activity. 
If under such circumstances we work at all, it is a dragging 
effort, it is an up-hill business, it is a labor ; under different 
circumstances, work is an actual pleasure, and what we do tells ; 
every stroke counts, and there is progress. Now apply this to 
the mind, and men who are accustomed to mental effort will 
feel our meaning at once. To accomplish much work physical- 
ly, the whole powers of the body must be steadily engaged; 
but if called frequently away to do something else, or if only 
one hand be employed in the work proper, while the other is 
engaged in some secondary object, we see at once that a full 
day's work cannot be done. Precisely so with the mind. 
That man works efficiently, whose whole mental energies, un- 
diverted, are laid out on the thing before him. Any one 
can make a practical experiment in this direction, by writing an 
hour alone in a private room, and writing another hour on a 
similar subject in his public office. There is not one of our 
thinking readers but sees our meaning, and feels its force. 
But, while all admit it theoretically, few indeed act upon it 
practically, as applied to an object, which is second in import- 
ance to none other known to man — we mean the diffusion" 
of pure Christianity. We beseech our readers to hear us 
patiently, for we argue ad Hominum. 

This article has been suggested by an item in the New York 
Independent for November 1st, by a " Maine Subscriber," on 
the Retrogression of " Congregationalism." In the next column 
is one of similar import from the Christian Witness. They 
intimate that the church is declining from want of the right 
kind of preaching. Other denominations have churches in 
various parts of the country, whose membership is not as large, 
nor influence as great, as it was twenty years or more ago in a 
population about the same. The churches with which we were 
ourselves familiar in boyhood, have nearly all dwindled as to 
influence, numbers and efficiency : and in New York city 
itself, several denominations number less, in proportion to the 
population, than they did many years ago, while the number 
of conversions a year, are most disco uragingly few. We pro- 
pose to show where the fault lies. Why is it that Bible EeligioD 



18 HaWs Journal of Health. 

does not more rapidly widen in its influences ? To advance 
any interest among men, there are three elements of success 
essential ; 

It must be important, 

It must be practicable, 

It must be strongly presented. 
But as to Eeligion, nothing can be more "important," as all 
will allow. 

It is " practicable" for all men to become religious, for who- 
soever will let him come ; ye WILL NOT come unto me that ye 
might have life, is a " bone," or file, or fence rail, which the di- 
vine must gnaw, not the doctor ; but the general idea is, that 
men could become religious, if they wanted to do so : hence, 
religion is not " impracticable," that it does not spread more 
rapidly must therefore arise from the manner of its presentation 
to the irreligious ; there is where we trace the defect. Church 
members do not present it in their conduct, with that bold and 
beautiful distinctness which compels admiration and convic- 
tion. But this is not the main reason, this is not the point at 
which we are driving. As a doctor, we can find no rest, no 
starting point, no foundation, — until we discover the great 
cause ! 

It is because the mind is sick, the mind of the ministers of 
religion is sick, so that they cannot present that great subject 
to men as it ought to be presented, and as never has failed 
of success in time past, nor ever can in time to come, when thus 
presented. The mind of the ministry is sick, because the 
people are at fault, in not affording the clergy that material 
aid, which, while it places them above all fear of want, at the 
same time releases them from all pecuniary care, and would 
enable them to concentrate, uninterruptedly, every energy of 
mind and heart in the great one work of urging upon men the 
first chief aim of life, due preparation for an immortal exist- 
ence. What would become of any army, whose officers and 
men had to toil for their daily bread, or of any government 
whose leaders had to work for a living. What would be the 
results of any great national undertaking, if the energies of the 
leading men were constantly diverted or interrupted by neces- 
sary efforts to obtain and cook each daily meal. In every de- 
partment of life, in every institution of society, involving 



TJiermometers. 19 

responsibility, requiring talent, learning, cultivation, industry, 
men are paid for their management to an extent which enables 
them to spend their whole time, and their unfrittered energies 
in such management, and no undertaking can succeed, if its 
officials are not thus abundantly paid ; there is not an instance 
of it in all history, and with these facts before us, it is past 
conjecture, except from innate indifference, how the common 
mind in this country has practically settled down upon the 
impression — that clergymen are to support themselves pecu- 
niarily, — and being left to themselves thus, except an average 
pittance (out of cities and large towns) barely enough to feed 
a good horse, their capabilities are squandered in one way and 
another in efforts to provide food and clothing for their 
wives and children, while the surplus of time only is given 
to their appropriate calling ; this indeed they are commanded 
to do, family first — the Church next, for if any man provide 
not for his household he is worse than an infidel. In the 
vain effort to give more of their time to the Church than 
their pecuniary situation allows, these excellent men, with 
all their learning, talents and capabilities, fall into embarrass- 
ments more wearing upon the bodily health, more wasting 
to the mental energies, than the hardest labor in the fields 
or on the highway. The medical reader of all schools will 
bear us out unhesitatingly, and without one dissenting voice, 
founded on the first principles of physical] and mental science, 
that the human mind works efficiently in the proportion 
that it is exempted from all distracting influences. This 
subject merits the mature study of all Christian men, gfrnd 
then, the practical personal application as involved in the 
question, — Is MY Minister's salary fully adequate to his whole 
family expenditure f 



THERMOMETEES ! 



If property used, might be made one of the most money- 
saving articles of the household. We noticed sometime ago 
an advertisement in one of the papers that Fowler & Wells, 308 
Broadway, New York, had them for sale at all prices, from 
fifty cents to dollars. 



20 HaWs Journal of Health. 

There should be a thermometer in every chamber in the 
house, one in each hall or passage, and a large one at some 
easily accessible northern exposure out of doors, with a red 
column, and which could be seen without opening a door or 
window ; they should be hung about five feet from the floor, 
not only for the purpose of enabling the children to see the in- 
dex, but as indicating the temperature of the air which is 
breathed, as that at the floor is coldest, while that at the ceiling 
is the most heated as well as the most impure. With these 
facilities we can tell accurately whether our apartments are of 
a proper temperature ; and also whether to put on more and 
heavier or lighter garments in the morning. By attention to 
these things we will save ourselves time and suffering, and 
many a doctor's bill, one of which would supply every room 
in the house with these useful articles, which, when once pur- 
chased, last for life if taken care of. 

Speaking of changing the clothing, we consider it hazardous 
to lessen its amount after dressing in the morning, unless active 
exercise is taken immediately. No under-garment should be 
changed for lighter ones during the day ordinarily. The best, 
safest and most convenient time for lessening the clothing, is 
in the morning when we first dress for the day. Hence, the 
first thing after rising should be to notice the thermometer. If 
you have but one, place it outside before getting into bed. Not 
less than twenty degrees from the temperature of the preceding 
morning should justify any special change in the clothing, un- 
less persons are very sensitive. 

There is a moral advantage in thermometers which merits 
the attention of every parent. All children love novelty, which 
is nothing less than knowledge to them, and they will take as 
much interest in what is usefully true, as in what is viciously 
so. You have only to turn their attention in a kindly encour- 
aging and judicious way to the rise and fall of the mercury, 
and keeping a memorandum of it, in order to insure to them 
agreeable employment for many an hour in the year, and to 
consequent reflection, which we all know is the first step to- 
wards manliness and distinction. Make a child reflective, and 
he is safe for life. Get your children interested in observing 
natural truths, and you will have but little trouble in keeping 
them out of street associations, so that the purchase and proper 



Keep Your Mouth Shut. 21 

use of a fifty cent thermometer may be to any child the differ- 
ence between a life of disease and viciousness, or one of health 
and virtue, the difference between a life lost and a man saved 
to his country and his race. 



KEEP YOUR MOUTH SHUT, 

All you that will keep late hours these cold winter nights 
in crowded heated rooms, until animal vigor and mental spright- 
liness are exhausted, and yet must breast the bleak winds of 
January to get home. I see nothing amiss in the festivities 
of friends and neighbors and kindred these long winter eve- 
nings : better that, than moping at home ; nothing amiss in the 
glad re-unions of the young and cheery-hearted, even though 
they may be extended once in a while to the wee short 
hours ayant the tvval. I love to see gladness in all, at 
any hour of the twenty-four ; but to do these things safely and 
long, make it a practice to observe two or three simple and 
easy precautions. 

Before you leave, bundle up well — gloves, cloak, comfort- 
er — shut your mouth before you open the street door, and 
keep it resolutely closed until you have walked briskly for 
some ten minutes ; then, if you keep on walking, or have 
reached your home, you may talk as much as you please. Not 
so doing, many a heart once happy and young now lies in the 
church-yard, that might have been young and happy still. But 
how ? If you keep your mouth closedvand walk rapidly, the 
air can only reach the lungs by the circuit of the nose and 
head, and becomes warmed before reaching the lungs, thus 
causing no derangement ; but if you converse, large drafts of 
cold air dash directly in upon the lungs, chilling the whole 
frame almost instantly. The brisk walking throws the blood 
to the surface of the body, thus keeping up a vigorous circula- 
tion, making a cold impossible if you don't get into a cold bed 
too quick after you get home. Neglect of these brings sick- 
ness and premature death to multitudes every year. See 
" Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases." 



22 HalVs Journal of Health. 

COKNS 

Are nature's barricades, the skin hardens itself in order to afibrd 
protection to the inner and more delicate parts against an ill- 
fitting shoe, for whether too tight or too loose, the result is 
similar. 

Corns are the deserved punishments of all pretenders and 
make believes. You endeavored when younger, to persuade 
people to think that your understandings were less extensive 
than they really were, ittck hinc lacrymce ; hence those outbursts 
of passion which invaded corns daily give rise to ; how instinct- 
ively is fended off, the tread of youth and beauty even, by the 
gallant beau of forty five. What unpleasant reminiscences of our 
infirmities, are these self same corns in dull weather, the very 
time when we need some extra exhilaration. A man whom I 
did not know from Adam came into my office yesterday, Nov. 
14th, sat down vis-a-vis, took me by the hand, " I'll read you 
through, from infancy up" said he. 

"Kead away," said I. 

I fixed my eyes on the ceiling, he his on the carpet for a 
"spell," as Jonathan would say. 

" What a kindly nature," was his abrupt exclamation, "kind 
towards everybody and everything, generous to a fault, decid- 
edly frank, too much so for your own good, free, you were born 
in Kentucky, 'in one of the inland counties, where there were 
many girded trees standing, in a log house, not two stories high, 
and more than one, the upper windows were smaller than those 
below, I see a door with a window on one side, and perhaps on 
the other, with casings around them, a temporary shed at one 
end of the house, the right, while to the left and back, the 
ground trended rapidly away," &c. — But what in the world has 
this to do with corns on people's toes ? It was pertinent enough, 
if we had stopped at the right place, but our pen editorial, is 
like two things, first, like the man with a cork leg, it worked 
so well, that when he got once started, he couldn't stop, so he 
has been going ever since ; shouldn't wonder if he had got the 
other side of the moon by this time; second, like that mem- 
ber of scripture classics, belonging to one of our household. 

11 What a kindly nature \" we should have stopped there, and 
given an illustration, in the fact of our being so benevolent, as 



Corns. — Agricultural College. 23 

to publish to our subscriber world, a cure for corns, infallible, 
for nothing ! 

Never let anything harder than your finger nail ever touch a 
corn ; paring it, as certainly makes it take deeper root, as cut- 
ting- a weed off at the surface. The worst kind of corns are 
controllable, as follows : 

Soak the feet in quite warm water for half an hour before 
going to bed, then rub on the corn with your finger for several 
minutes, some common sweet oil. Do this every night ; and every 
morning, repeat this rubbing in of oil with the finger, bind on 
the toe during the day, two or three thicknesses of buckskin, 
with a hole in the centre to receive the corn ; in less than a 
week, in ordinary cases, if the corn does not fall out, you can 
pinch it out with the finger nail ; and weeks, and sometimes 
months will pass away, before you will be reminded that you 
had a corn, when you can repeat the process. Corns, like con- 
sumption, are never cured, but may be indefinitely postponed. 
The oil and soaking softens and loosens the corn, while the 
buckskin protects it from pressure, which makes it perhaps to be 
pushed out, by the under growth of the parts. 

As to the log cabin, which had the honor of first sheltering 
us on the beautiful moonshiny night, Tuesday, October Twenty 
third, Eighteen Hundred and — so forth — among the hours of 
the morning, we must write for information to our revered sire, 
who still has much of the energy of us, his son, and if we can 
manage to bring it in smooth like, we may report in some sub- 
sequent number. 



Agricultural College. — The Ohio Agricultural College, 
formerly at Oberlin, has been removed to Cleveland, Ohio. 
We see no reason why young men should not be educated for 
the plough, as well as for any other occupation. Compara- 
tively speaking, few farmers become rich, not, however, be- 
cause it is not a highly remunerative calling, but because ignor- 
ant men without capital so generally embark in it. If a man 
is rich and has a practical as well as a theoretical agricultural 
education, with a love for his business, there is no occupation 
in the country which will yield a larger or more certain divi- 
dend, not only in money but in health, and years, and honor. 



24 HaWs Journal of Health. 

A BAD MEMORY 

Is a man's own fault; it is simply a want of attention; it 
is the result of a " Don't care" disposition. 

1. Think of a thing distinctly within five minutes after 
you have first made an impress of it on the mind, and you 
will seldom fail of its recollection. 

2. The memory, like a true friend, is made the firmer by being 
trusted ; noting down trifling things, is the very way to destroy 
what remnant of memory you have. 

3. Method improves and assists the memory greatly. 

We will illustrate, by a practice of our own, a long time 
ago. For the purpose of preventing the discontinuance of 
our papers by failure to remit the subscription price, as well 
as avoiding the " advance" on tardy subscribers, we made all 
our subscriptions due on New Year's Day, and remitted the 
same during the Christmas holidays, for the coming year. This 
is simply a practical suggestion about one of the little things 
of life ; attention to it would save hundreds cf thousands of 
dollars every year to Editors as well as to subscribers ; would 
save a loss of time, and feeling, and patience, in dunning and 
being dunned, not readily estimated. 



TO OUR EXCHANGES. 

We feel much indebted for the favorable notices which they 
have uniformly taken of our Journal, as well as for the compli- 
ment implied in so frequently extracting from its pages; 
excepting the leaders, and repeatedly, even them, nearly every 
article of each number is thought worthy of being copied by 
some one paper or other. Single papers have several times 
taken more than a yard of our matter for one issue. Our aim for 
the present year is to write more worthy of quotation, to write 
usefully, practically, courteously. We venture to ask of our 
Exchanges an increase of our obligations to them, by their 
giving credit to such articles as they may hereafter think 
worthy of being copied, as from Hall's 1ST. Y. Journal of 
Health, for the reason, that we receive letters from time to 
time, stating that long ago, the writers would have subscribed, 



Notice to Subscribers. 25 

had the j been able to ascertain where the Journal was pub- 
lished, their attention having been drawn to it, by the frequent 
extracts from our pages ; so, while obliging us, our Exchanges 
will at the same time impart desired information to their own 
subscribers. 

We will hereafter send our Journal to any name desired by 
an exchanging Editor, for Fifty Cents a year, always beginning 
with the January number of the current year ; provided such 
name is a paying subscriber to the paper of said Editor — in 
other words, the club system. 

We send this January number to no one subscriber of last 
year, unless to such as have sent their dollar. On our list we 
have the names of eminent men of the time, lawyers, clergy- 
men, physicians; rich men, who count their fortunes by hun- 
dreds of thousands and by millions, but the prompt dollar of a 
mechanic is worth to us more than the tardy dollar of the 
millionaire. We offer no premium to the indifferent and the 
unmethodical. A man who is not prompt enough to pay a 
dollar at the beginning of a year, is not likely to pay it at the 
end of a year without a reminder. To one of our sensibilities, 
it is worth a dollar to ask for it : — we have no idea of earning 
a dollar in the first place, and earning it a second time in send- 
ing or writing for it. We do not publish for a dollar, but for 
a prompt dollar/ 



NOTICE TO SUBSCEIBEKS. 

The reception of two successive numbers of this Journal is 
evidence that it is paid for, for the current year. 

All Subscriptions begin with January of the current year ; 
being stereotyped, back numbers can be furnished to any de- 
sired extent. 

Postage is Three Cents a year in the State of New York ; 
Six Cents a year out of it, payable in advance, where it is 
received. 

Our City Subscribers will have it furnished at their doors 
for $1 15cts. a year. Those paying $1, will receive it through 
the General Post-Office. 

Volumes One and Two of HalVs Journal of Health, for 1854 



26 HaWs Journal of Health. 

and 1855, with copious Alphabetical Index, bound uniformly 
in cloth, are sold at the Editor's office, for $1 25cts. each ; and 
will be sent post-paid for ten cents each, additional. As we 
Confine our teachings about health to the habits and practices 
of life, recommending no medicine, detailing no symptoms, 
employing no professional terms, it is the frequently expressed 
opinion of the newspaper press, that this Journal merits a place 
in every family, and that it will be useful for reference in 
after life, as well as to-day. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS, PERIODICALS, &C. 

Scenes in the Practice of a New York Surgeon, 407 pp. 12mo, finely got up, with 
interesting illustrations byDewitt & Davenport, by Edward H. Dixon, M. D., a keen 
writer, a medical scholar and a talented man. The book is like him, and imparts a 
large amount of information, interesting, truthful and practical. It is sure of a 
large sale. 

Musical World. A Literary and Fine Art Paper, by Richard Storrs Willis, 
257 Broadway, New York, 16 pp. 4to, 3 columns each, published weekly at Two 
Dollars a year, only if paid in advance. It is now in its 13th vol. and has been 
edited with industry, ability, and great good taste. Four pages of selected Music 
are given each week, paged separately, and well bound at the end of the year, will 
form a volume of music, which would cost Twelve Dollars, if purchased in ordinary 
sheet form. A Musical Novelette will be commenced with January, besides a 
variety of instructive musical reading, articles on vocal and instrumental culture, 
with a new department of general Literature. We believe that every boy and girl 
should be taught to sing. The knowledge of music, aside from its practice, is ele- 
vating and refining, not only to the performer, but to the hearer, and the neglect of 
its cultivation is a serious defect ; it is a national oversight and is inexcusable. 
There can be no crime within the hearing of pure music ; it exorcises devilism now, 
as it did in King David's time. The natural vent of happiness is song, and well 
may we imagine it to be the frequent employment of angels, and the spirits of just 
men made perfect in Heaven. 

Banner of the 'Cross, Philadelphia. An Episcopal Weekly, at $2 50 a year, in 
advance. Edited by John Coleman, D. D., is welcome to our exchange list. It is 
filled with short articles of news, and practical items ; not made heavy as lead, by 
whole columns of Foreign Correspondence of Tom, Dick and Harry, and whoever 
wants to see his scribblings in print, and will scribble for nothing. These same 
scribblings, paid for or not, practically, take the place, as religious reading, of the 
Bible on Sundays. We believe that the reading of so-called " Religious Papers," 
is, in most instances, a desecration of the Sabbath Day. No wonder all the religi- 
ous denominations are lamenting the coldness of the churches ; they will continue 
to lament that coldness, until the Bible, for Sunday reading and meditation, sup- 
plants the " Religious Newspapers." as now generally conducted, as to spirit, 
manner and matter. 

The Christian Review, Quarterly, James J. Woolsey, 115 Nassau street, New 
York, is well worthy of the patronage of an enlightened public. Three Dollars a 
year. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 

OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS '. FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] FEBRUARY, 1856. [NO. II. 



ABETTORS OF QUACKERY. 

Be assured, ye leaders and directors in the christian world, 
that the most sweeping eloquence is the eloquence of example ; 
that the most beautiful portraiture of your religion is presented 
in you its chiefs, standing out alto relievo from the common herd, 
towering a head and shoulders, like Absalom, above all who 
are about you, not in one thing, but in every, not in the annise 
and the cummin, but in the grand example of a whole life, reaching 
to remotest things in all directions. Next to the minister as a 
shining light, comes the editor of a religious newspaper. The 
minister is the representative of a congregation, the religious 
editor is the official representative of his sect, embracing many 
congregations. Death to the sleeping sentinel, remediless death, 
was the stern old Roman law, and what shall we say of the 
watchmen who stand about Jerusalem, not of the common sort 
who guard merely her walls, but of those more responsible, 
who are placed at the gates, who are found asleep, or more 
wicked still, are wide awake, yet publish for pay or without 
pay, advisedly or inadvertently, the most palpable and unblush- 
ing falsehoods. Such doings are parts of the trade of too many 
of the secular press, too low down in their morality for us to 
reach, but for you ! ? 

It would not be just to brand the whole religious press with 
publishing a falsehood, when it has only been done by a portion, 
and we trust, a small part. Let it be distinctly understood, we 
do not charge these papers with inserting these pieces know- 
ingly ; because if knowingly, they merit our contempt and have 
it ; if unknowingly, they will feel obliged to us for bringing the 
repeated inadvertence to their notice. 



30 HalVs Journal of Health. 

In one of the religious papers of this city, of Nov. 17th, 1855, 
is the following announcement, as taken from the New Orleans 
Delta. 

Liberality of Physicians. — " It has always been said that Phy- 
sicians would disparage any remedy, however valuable, which 
they did not originate themselves. This has been disproven 
by their liberal course towards Dr. J. C. Ayres' preparations. 
They have adopted them into general use in their practice — 
this does the learned profession great credit — and we are glad 
to find it sustained by the liberal welcome they accord to Ayres' 
Pectoral and Pills. In the next column but one are two long 
advertisements, among the new ones, of these same remedies. ,, 

Any editor of ordinary intelligence must know, that the me- 
dical profession never did any such thing as welcome these or 
any other concealed remedy ; and further, that no physician 
of any school, who had the smallest modicum of independence 
or self-respect, would countenance the use of any secret medi- 
cinal preparation whatever. 

We have observed these kind of notices, slipped in among 
other items in the columns of religious newspapers for some 
months past. Here is another, as taken from the ' Middletown 
Daily Courier 1 and published Nov. 8, 1855, in a religious paper 
at Cincinnati, Ohio. 

Marvellous cures. — " We have always been slow to believe the 
wonderful cures which one medicine after another pretends to 
have made, but as slow as we are, we will own up, when fairly 
convinced. We confess our belief that Ayres' Cathartic Pills 
have virtues for purifying the blood, which excel any thing 
within the range of our acquaintance, &c. &c." 

We could fill pages of this Journal with similar extracts from 
religious newspapers, which pass for the sayings of the editors 
of such papers among the mass of their readers. While we 
may hope that such articles get into the religious journals in- 
advertently, we do censure in decided terms the culpable negli- 
gence of the itemizers, resulting as it does, in misleading mul- 
titudes to tamper with health and life by the use of remedies 
on their own responsibility, instead of employing a regular phy- 
sician, which last these same editors would be prompt to do, 
were they attacked with serious disease. The editors of this 
country are too well informed not to know, that the taking of 



Abettors of Quackery. 31 

patent medicines is the bane of the age, that it is undermining 
the health of multitudes. We do not here oppose newspapers 
advertising patent medicines for pay in the regular way of 
business, openly and above board, but to write editorials in com- 
mendation, to allow letters to be addressed to them, with no in- 
dication of their being, as they are, advertisements paid for at 
regular rates, and to admit among the reading matter for pay, 
commendatory extracts from other papers, when by virtue of 
their own intrinsic merits they would not have found a place in 
their columns, except by accident, is a public deception, of 
which an upright man would be ashamed, although he may be 
a mere man of the world ; but for the editors of religious news- 
papers, who are generally clergymen, to allow such things in 
their columns, and then, when they get sick, to receive medical 
attention from the regular physician without pay, is a course 
of conduct, for which each reader of this journal must for him- 
self select an appropriate epithet. But let such remember, that 
one of the greatest hindrances to the spread of religion is the 
want of a clearer line of demarcation between those who are in 
the church and those who are without it, and that we have no 
right to hope for a rapid diffusion of Christianity, except in pro- 
portion as its true friends stand out from the world in beautiful 
distinctness in their practices, in proportion as they tower above 
it by the purity of their principles, and the sternness of their 
integrity. The brightness of their example should extend to 
their whole life, not in theory merely, but in practice ; not in 
one thing, but in all. 

Will it be believed that since writing the above, we have seen 
in a prominent religious newspaper of New York, under the 
general heading of " News of the Week," a paragraph follow- 
ing the words " Benefactors of Mankind/' going on to say : 
" One of our government officials, lately returned from his mis- 
sion to Brazil, tells us an anecdote, that among the first in- 
quiries made of him, was whether he knew the American 
Chemist, Dr. J. C. Ayer, who invented the Cherry Pectoral and 
Cathartic Pitts, with other things of the same sort." This paper 
relieves itself of responsibility, by crediting the above to the 
Christian Advocate. The article further states : " It is not he 
who invented Brussels carpeting, or gold Brocade, whom the 
masses have reason to hold in regard, but he who furnishes 



82 HalVs Journal of Health. 

something useful to every body," leaving the reader to infer that 
this is one of the items of news of the weelc, that the Cherry 
Pectoral and Cathartic Pills are " useful to every body ;" if it 
had continued to say " who was willing to purchase and take 
them, in hurrying them out of the world," it would have been 
honest and true ; but then, the proprietor of the paper would 
not have received a fee for inserting this item of "news of the 
week," nor would he have received pay for the long advertise- 
ment of these same articles in another part of the paper. An- 
other peculiarity of this article credited to the " Christian Ad- 
vocate" is, that it continues to be "news;" for four successive 
weeks. u Benefactors of Mankind l" Who are they — why, 
the man who invents a secret remedy " useful to every 
body" — he is Benefactor No. one — Benefactor No. two is the 
Itemizer or Proprietor of a religious newspaper who can be 
induced for a few dollars to aid and abet patent pill makers in 
circulating the knowledge of their remedies by the means just 
described. 



PRESERVED SUNSHINE. 



Light and life are inseparable, that is, such was the generally 
received opinion many years ago, and in accordance with it, 
houses were built, liberally supplied with windows, and as 
liberally now — but go along any of the fashionable streets of 
New York, and you will find not less than three, and often six, 
distinct contrivances to keep out the sunshine and gladness. 
First, the Venetian shutter on the outside ; Second, the close 
shutter on the inside ; Third, the blind which is moved by 
rollers ; then, Fourthly, there are the lace curtains ; Fifth, the 
damask or other material do. 

In the same train comes the exclusion of external air by 
means of double sash, and a variety of patent contrivances to 
keep any little stray whiff of air from entering at the bottom, 
sides and tops of doors and windows. At this rate, we will in 
due time dwindle into Lilliputs, if indeed we do not die off 
sooner, with all science and art, and leave the world to begin 
anew, from the few sons of the forest, who persisted in eschew- 
ing civilization. We lay it down as a health axiom — The more 
out-door air and cheery sunshine a man can use, the longer he will liity 



Preserved Sunshine. 33 

But the Preserved Sunshine ! What about it ? That very 
same sunshine which so lavishly beamed upon our continent 
with all its tropical fervor in the earlier ages of creation, what 
has become of it? A casual reader of the Jouknal will ex- 
claim, " What a fool of a question that is !" Let us leisurely 
inquire into it ; but in doing so we must take it for granted, that 
the reader knows something. 

In Central America, where the sun shines with all its bril- 
liancy and fierceness, vegetation is of fabulous growth, of a lux- 
uriance almost incredible. 

But how does a tree grow? Without light no wood is 
made in any vegetable growth ; the woody fibre is formed from 
carbonic acid gas being absorbed by the leaves and through the 
bark of any growth. But light separates the two constituents 
which compose this carbonic acid gas, carbon and oxygen, and 
two different uses are made of it ; the oxygen is liberated, 
thrown out and breathed by animals and men, while the carbon 
or "coal" goes to form the woody fibre of the plant, which 
presents a kind of ring, plainly seen in sawing through any 
tree, the number of rings indicating the age of the tree in years ; 
some of these rings are broader, some narrower, indicating most 
probably the more or less sunshine of that year, for a plant will 
not grow as much in a cold summer as in a warm one. In a 
section of a California tree, a part of which we have in our 
office, more than two thousand such rings were counted, show- 
ing that these trees must have lived in the times of David and 
perhaps of Abraham. 

In the earlier ages of the world, some great flood or floods 
swept over the immense growths of the warmer climes, which 
then, no doubt, included what is now called Ohio and Penn- 
sylvania. In process of time, this growth was covered with 
earth and stones, and eventually became " coal," the anthracite 
and bituminous, with which we are so familiar ; and the very 
identical carbon which the sun light of ages ago separated for 
the purpose of vegetation, is now by its combination with its 
old associate oxygen, returning to its original condition of 
carbonic acid gas, and in making that change by what we call 
'• ; burning," warms our houses, lights up our streets, and is 
preparing to grease our rail cars, by the oil which it is capable 
of yielding. 
• 



34 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Such, reader, are some of His ways, who ruleth the world in 
loving kindness ; in the thousands and thousands of years ago, 
he commenced processes for laying up in store a material, which 
in these latter ages is such an essential agent for the advance- 
ment of civilization, the " coal-beds" of the world, for without 
them, our manufactories would stop, our mills and engines rust, 
and cold and privation, with their attendant diseases, would 
sweep from the world the race of civilized men. 



SUNDAY DINNERS. 



We are not quite sure but that the Presbyterians are, after 
all, nearer right, all things considered, than any other denomi- 
nation of Christians. There is a vein of sturdy propriety, of 
sterling philosophy, running through their commonest customs, 
well worthy of a note — we speak more particularly of the bona 
fide, the real, identical, original, old-fashioned sort of Pris-by- 
chums, as it is pronounced, away off yonder in the woods of 
the West, where we sprouted and came up, and have been 
upping ever since, until Medicated Inhalation came along, took 
the wind out of our sails, cured up all the consumptives, and 
left us nothing to do but stand with gaping mouth and open 
eyes, wondering where we will fetch up, cogitating whereunto these 
tilings will groiv — alternating with the more agreeable pastime, of 
rolling over the floor with our little Alice, who grows sweeter 
every day, as with the weight of a baker's dozen of months on 
her head, she is taking her first lesson in pedestrianation — read 
carefully, it is not predestination we are talking about, although 
speaking of Presbyterians, we are next door to it. Can a heart 
be ever more full of pure delight, than when looking at one's 
own child's desperate first efforts at walking ; how it hesitates, 
half moves a foot, then hesitates again ; then catching a glance 
from its mother's eyes and beckoning finger, it summons up all 
its resolution, and with open mouth and upraised hands, makes 
the desperate plunge, and with half a step, throws itself foward 
in its mother's arms, never doubting that she would let it fall ; 
by degrees, a step or two more are taken, until at length the 
wonderful feat is performed, of toddling clear across the room, 
and you read the triumph in its eyes, as legibly as if a con 
queror had won a world. 



Sunday Dinners. 35 

As we were saying, Sunday Dinners /—that is, a " Presbyte- 
rian Dinner," as it is denominated on the other side of the Alls- 
ghenies, is most philosophical ; it is a cold dinner, and its philo- 
sophy consists — 

1st. In its piety. 

2d. In its humanity. ..■ I 

3d. In its prophylactiveness. 

Its piety is evident, from its allowing more time for that reli* 
gious reflection, which becomes the Sabbath day ; and which, 
being cumbered with much serving, as effectually prevents, as it 
did in Martha's time. 

That it is humane to have as little cooking done on Sunday, 
and thus giving as muchres£ to our servants as practicable, no 
one will deny. 

As to the healthfulness of a cold dinner on Sundays,, a mo- 
ment's reflection will be conclusive. 

As we take very much less exercise on the Sabbath day than 
when engaged in our ordinary avocations, we need that much 
less food. No one can eat as much of a cold dinner as he 
would if it were smoking hot. There is no danger of our not 
eating enough dinner on Sundays, let it be ever so cold and 
uninviting; for if any business man would take nothing at all 
for his Sunday dinner, and for the following supper were to 
drink a single cup of any kind of tea, weak and hot, and eat 
with it a bit of toast or a piece of cold bread and butter, he 
would be all the better for it in mind and body next day ; and 
would go to his business on a Monday morning, with a vigor 
and an elasticity which that man never knows who makes his 
Sunday dinner the dinner of the week. 

Taking so much less exercise on Sundays than on a week- 
day, and stimulated to eat more on that day by its superior 
excellency, aided by idleness, there is of necessity a repletion, 
an over-supply of food, which will be as certainly disastrous, as 
the feeding of a locomotive with more fuel while she is stand- 
ing still, than when she is going ahead, with her long retinue 
of passengers and freight. 

But in a sober, religious point of view, those inviting Sunday 
dinners are not judicious; the nervous energy is drawn to the 
stomach in extreme quantities, in order to dispose of the over- 
load, leaving the brain scantily supplied, causing dulness, drow- 



36 HalVs Journal of Health. 

siness, and almost stupidity, wholly unfitting the mind for pro- 
per attention to the religious exercises of the afternoon, the 
palpable cause of wasted sermons, of wasted opportunities. 
This subject is worth a serious thought on the part of pious 
people, especially those who have a growing family. Cold 
bread and meat, with pie or baked apples, and a single cup of 
good hot tea or coffee, make a good enough Sunday dinner for 
anybody. 

MEDICAL FANTASIES. 

One of the earliest Hydropathic prescriptions we read of, 
was recorded long before the days of Preisnitz; it was given by 
an Ass to a brother Ass, was followed instanter, to the death, and 
has been kept up in the same style ever since. The legend goes 
in this wise : 

Two Donkeys were travelling one hot summer's day, heavily 
laden, one with a sack of wool, the other with a sack of salt. 
Almost exhausted with heat and fatigue, they came at length to 
a river ; and wisely enough, it was concluded that one should 
try the ford first. The one with the salt plunged in, and on reach- 
ing the opposite shore safely, found himself so much refreshed 
by the cooling of the waters, and so invigorated was he, that 
he felt all at once as if he had no load at all — as if he could carry 
two or three sacks more, and being naturally benevolent, he 
urged his companion to lose no time and plunge into the stream, 
triumphantly pleading his own delightful experience ; so Assy 
No. two jumped in, according to directions, and — was crushed 
to the earth. 

We scarcely need remind the reader, that in the first instance 
the salt was dissolved and passed clown the stream, while the 
wool, absorbing more water, became more weighty, and hence 
the very signal failure of the prescription. 

The wisest among men may learn a useful lesson from this 
homely fable. It is this reasoning a-la-Donkey, that fills the 
world with errors not only in medicine, but in morals ; not 
merely errors in theory, but in practice ; pervading every pro- 
fession and every calling of human life. The mischief arises 
from confounding cause and effect with antecedence and 
subsequence. If I faint and fall to the earth and cold water 



Medical Fantasies. 37 

is thrown into my face, I u come to ;" if spirits of hartshorn be 
applied to the nose, the same result is observed ; hence these 
methods are resorted to, the world over, and the cold water and 
the hartshorn have the credit of restoration, but erroneously ; 
they were applied, and the restoration followed ; but this was 
merely antecedence and subsequence, the water was not the 
cause of the restoration, nor was the restoration the effect of 
the application of the water, for if a fainting man be laid upon 
hi^ back, he will come to by simply being let alone, and in a 
much more gentle, gradual and agreeable way , without being 
shocked almost out of his senses or having his best clothes all 
drabbled over with water. The real cause of restoration is, 
natural reaction — it is a something v/hich is kindly and wisely 
made a part of our being, by Him whose ways to men are good- 
ness and love personified ; the name of this benign agency is beau- 
tifully denominated the Vis Medicatrix Naturce, the power which 
nature has of curing herself. This is the doctor patronized by 
all regular physicians ; but as no amount of argument would 
persuade the common people to do the same, we pass the point 
for the purpose of having a little fun at the expense of great men. 
Taking a mere subsequence for an effect, the great Martin 
Luther declared, " If you run a stick through three frogs, dry 
them in the sun, and apply them to any pestilent tumor, they 
draw out all poison, and the malady will disappear." Suppose 
the frogs had been guillotined or hung, and then dried in the 
sun, it is not likely they would have been less efficacious. It 
requires some considerable time, especially in winter, to dry a 
frog, meanwhile the " pestilent tumor" would pass its crisis, and 
get well of itself. Modern wisdom has improved on Luther's 
prescription, for it has discovered that a chicken split open and 
applied while warm, is of sovereign efficacy in similar cases. 
The thing that cures is not the stuck frog, nor the divided pul- 
let, but keeping the parts soothingly moist and warm for some 
time, without disturbance. A poultice made of flaxseed or bread 
and milk, would have all the virtues of the frog or the chicken, 
with the no small advantage of being more instantly available. 
It would require some considerable hunting to secure three 
frogs in New York, or any where in mid winter, and as for our 
chickens, they are all dead a long time ago, long enough to 
grow very tender. 



38 HdlVs Journal of Health. 

The great Bishop Berkeley, one of the most accomplished and 
best educated men of the age in which he lived, wrote a book 
" concerning the virtues of Tab Wateb," advocating its efficacy 
in coughs, colds and consumption, dropsies, fevers and small 
pox. Some people made fun of the Bishop, but he confidently 
appealed to time and observation. But time is a slow coach for 
the Bishop, as a hundred and ten years have failed to certify his 
theory. One day the Bishop was taken suddenly ill, but he 
hadn't a bit of Tar in his house, and before any could be had, 

he died. It was a great oversight that, not to have had two 

or three barrels of Tar stowed away in his house to meet emer- 
gencies. Bacon believed that the application of ointment to a 
weapon which inflicted a wound, was more efficacious than if it 
were applied to the wound itself ; and the great Boyle believed 
that the thigh bone of a criminal who had suffered death, was 
a cure for some bowel affections, which indeed is a fact, with 
this limitation, any other bone of any other man, brute or beast, 
if burned and pulverized, would have been equally efficacious ; 
quite as efficacious as a remedy once uttered in our hearing : 
"A chicken's gizzard well boiled, then burnt to a cinder, then 
finely pulverized, and swallowed; a cure for the diarrhoea." 
And so it is in some forms ; but burnt cork is equally effica- 
cious ; and it is quite likely, in fact certain, that a tablespoon ful 
of tad-poles or shrimps, or a good big craw-fish, burned to a 
cinder, then pulverized, would avail as much. But instead of 
regarding these outre articles as having medicinal merits, or 
being the cause of cure, we should endeavor to ascertain whether 
there was not some one quail ty common to all, and whether 
there was not reason to believe that all the virtue resided in that 
one quality. At the first glance we perceive that innocuous, 
impalpable fineness, is the great requisite ; hence, in certain forms 
and stages of loose bowels we find that the nitrate of bismuth, 
or a tablespoon of fine flour, stirred in a little cold water, and 
drank quickly, are both very reliable remedies; but let no 
reader illustrate his genealogy by running to the flour barrel 
the next time he has a loose visitation, for if it be a bilious diar- 
rhoea, it will do no good ; if it be the premonitory of cholera, the 
delay might be death ; or if it be the looseness of a surfeit, the 
flour would have no effect ; in either of these eases, show your- 



Concerning Editors. 39 

Belf a sensible man, by lying down and sending for your family 
physician. 

The great lesson we desire to inculcate in this article is — If 
you would avoid serious errors, do not confound mere stjbsequents 
with causes in your philosophy ; such a mistake is the rock on 
which millions have wrecked all human hopes, and millions 
more will do the same, but among them, we trust, none of our 
readers will be found. 



CONCERNING EDITORS. 



The Evangelical Magazine has an article suggesting 'the pro- 
priety of " Prayer on behalf of the Editors of Christian Jour- 
nals." Mere human reason is an enemy of religion; but true 
philanthropy goes hand in hand with the Christianity of the 
Bible. As philosophers, let us look at this subject with the 
seriousness which becomes it. If there is a single doctrine in the 
Bible reiterated in multifold forms, it is this, That the blessings 
of the Almighty must be looked for authoritatively in the performance 
of duty ; that is to say, in the rational employment of those 
means which are calculated to accomplish the end. We need 
not pray to be fed, unless we use means to procure food. The 
Church must first get a suitable man to be an editor ; to be 
such, he must be pious, educated, healthy; neither of these 
three requisites has just precedence of the others. A man 
may be an educated infidel ; he may be a pious fool ; he may 
have piety and education, and yet dyspepsia may make him a 
ranting fanatic, a raving madman or a dogmatic driveller. 
Many an editor needs a pill more than a prayer. A worn out 
preacher is not fit for an editor ; no sick man is. There are 
editors of religious newspapers, whose piety we dare not ques- 
tion — on the contrary, we feel this moment, as if we would 
gladly exchange it for our own — and whose mental culture far 
exceeds ours, but whose intolerance of opinion, whose forward- 
ness to publish the fallings and the failings of those of a differ- 
ent sect, whose impatient uncourteousness in editorial contro- 
versies, whose free dealings in un gentlemanly personalities, 
we would not possess for all creation. In fact, a most observ- 
able difference between the secular and the religious press, is 
this — that too many of the latter seem to riot in the freedom 



40 HalVs Journal of Health. 

they feel, of security against being called out, to answer for the 
application of epithets, which men of the world would meet 
with a bullet. 

It is a notorious fact, that the principal editor of one of the 
largest and most extensively circulated religious weeklies, is per- 
sonally, in private life, one of the most amiable of men ; but as 
an editor, hurls against his antagonist, whether a public man or 
of private station, epithets so hard, so severe, so unfeeling, so 
unforbearing, so vindictive, that we all see he needs only the 
power, to make him an inquisitor. Taking this man's piety for 
granted, in connection with his known previous amiability of 
temper, the only solution of the incongruity is, that severe appli- 
cation has made him dyspeptic; and this it is, that has vine- 
garized the whole man, which has made him a lost pleiad among 
the delightful characters of his time. Many men, who are so 
fortunate as to have no taste for liquor, have no difficulty in 
declaring, that any man who takes daily a glass of wine or 
brandy can have no religion ; and yet these same men will 
over-eat themselves three times a day, until the stomach, con- 
stitution, temper, health, all are ruined, and the remainder of 
their days are spent in scribbling sickly sentimentalities for other 
people. To make, then, the religious press of this country 
what it ought to be — the handmaid of the Pastor and the Mis- 
sionary — supply each paper with an editor who has the most 
vigorous health ; who has the learning of an Anthon, the piety 
of a Payson, and the bonhommie of a Sydney Smith — with a sal- 
ary, prompt and unconditional, of five thousand a year. Such 
a man is well worth it, and one of the best economies of the 
Church would be, to supply such an one to every religious 
newspaper in the country. 

On "second thoughts," WE have good health, and have Syd- 
ney's benevolent good nature, besides being nearer orthodox 
than he. As to learning, we used to have some skill in Hebrew, 
Greek, Latin, Spanish, Italian, and German, besides mother 
English ; and our readers have seen with what facility we can 
take a phrase out of a dictionary of quotations, and write up to 
it. But we confess to some rustiness in all these tongues — to 
have arrived at an age when we feel most at home in the lan- 
guage of dollars. Any good salaried editorial vacancy ? 

Only two conditions— Salary sure !— No gag. 



Physiognomy. — A Wife-$avi:ij Experiment. 41 

PHYSIOGNOMY. 

Is there anything in it ? No. 604 of Littel's Living Age, 
of which John Quincy Adams wrote ten years ago, " Of all the 
Periodical Journals devoted to literature and science which 
abound in Europe, and in this country, this appears to me the 
most useful" — contains an unpublished letter of Bishop Bonner, 
whose rubicund, fat, comely, jolly looking presence — whose 
smooth, round, florid, pleasant looking countenance occasioned 
so many jokes among his cotemporaries. This letter, the au- 
thenticity of which is undoubted, gives additional ground for 
believing that the world's judgment of Bonner's character was 
just, as being one of the most cold-hearted, malignant, mur- 
derous wretches that ever disgraced humanity. Here is a face 
all sunshine and a heart all black as night. Then again, there 
is a like contradiction in the faces of those who, too precise and 
dignified to ever laugh outright, wear an everlasting simmer ; 
the stereotype smile, beautiful as an icicle— and as cold, cover- 
ing a temper, which for all that is treacherous, unfeeling and 
vindictive, has no precedence except among archangels fallen. 
The hearty, free-souled, loud guffaw, we are never afraid of; 
but we do instinctively shrink as from an adder's fang, from 
that soft, that ready, that snakey smile. 



A WIFE SAVING- EXPERIMENT. 

Il hoots me little what men think of me — what I AM is the 
Poiar star on which I fix n^ gaze as I toss on life's billowy 
ocean — it is the foundation stone on which I stand, and feel 
myself more impregnable than Gibraltar's rock ; a fountain of 
satisfaction to me welling up unceasingly, as pure as the dew- 
drops and sweeter than honey from the rose-bud. That is, 
speaking of wives and the way to manage them ! ! We know 
what kind of a one we have, and can afford the surmisings of 
others, just as Longworth, the millionaire of the West, whose 
tax bill alone, exceeds thirty thousand dollars a year, can 
afford, as he does, to dress almost as well as a common dray- 
man. Well, we are wool gathering to-day, but what we began 
this article to say is, if you find year wife out of sorts, cross, 



42 Halts Journal of Health 

hard to please, about half-way between sick and well, do not 
attempt to buy her over with a new dress, that is like inhalation 
for consumption, a mere diversion while the money is being 
abstracted from your purse, or like a pill of opium, alleviating 
only, eradicating nothing ; or like cutting off a cancer, to bra }■: 
out in a worse form at some other place, but take her to the 
country, some ten or twenty miles distant, keep her going all 
the time, and in eight or ten days return home ; you will find 
her in all desirable respects a different woman, — it is an almost 
inevitable result arising from change of air, change of food, 
change of association, and not least from that expansion of view 
which attends larger associations. This is an important item in 
travel, one of its greatest benefits. The most celebrated travel- 
lers are the men who are most liberal in their feelings, the least 
dogmatical, the least impatient of opinions contrary to their 
own. By indulging your wives in frequent excursions, three 
or four times in a year, you will enlarge their views of things, 
increase their sociabilities, improve their health and their tem- 
pers, and more, you will find they have an increasing love for 
home. 



HARD STUDY 



Hurts nobody, but hard eating does. It is a very common 
thing to attribute the premature disability or death of students 
and eminent men to too close application to their studies. It 
has now become to be a generally admitted truth, that " hard 
study," as it is called, endangers life. It is a mischievous error 
that severe mental application undermines health. Unthinking 
people will dismiss this with the exclamation of "that's all 
stuff," or something equally conclusive. To those who search 
after truth in the love of it we wish to offer some suggestions. 

Many German scholars have studied for a life- time for six- 
teen hours out of the twenty-four, and a very large numbe* 
from twelve to fifteen hours, lived in comparative health, and 
died beyond the sixties. 

One of the most sterling of living minds, Prof. Silltman, the 
elder, is now in mid- winter, travelling through the country, at the. 
age of nearly eighty years, and in good health, delivering geologi 
cal lectures, living mentally on the hard food of rocks, iron, iri- 



Hard Sludy. 43 

dium, and the like. Another strong example of the truth that 
health and hard study are not incompatible, is found in the great 
Missourian, Thomas H. Benton, now past the three-score and 
ten, and in the enjoyment of vigorous health ; a more severe stu- 
dent than he has been, and is now, the American public does 
not know. Dr. Charles Caldwell, our honored preceptor, lived 
beyond the eighties, with high bodily health, remarkable phy- 
sical vigor, and mental force scarcely abated, yet, for a great 
part of his life he studied fifteen hours out of the twenty-four, 
and at one time gave but five hours to sleep. John Quincy 
Adams, the old man eloquent, is another equally strong exam- 
ple of our position. All these men, with the venerable Dr. 
Nott, now more than eighty years old, made the preservation of 
health a scientific study, and by systematic temperance, neither 
blind nor spasmodic, secured the prize for which they labored, 
and with it years, usefulness and, honor. The inculcation of 
these important truths was precisely the object we had in view, 
in the projection of this Journal, with the more immediate prac- 
tical application to the clergy of this country, whom we see 
daily disabled or dying, scores of years before their time, not as 
is uniformly and benevolently stated, from their " arduous 
labors," but by a persistent and inexcusable ignorance of the 
laws of life and health, and a wicked neglect of them. We use 
this strong language purposely, for ignorance of duty to their 
own bodies is no more excusable than ignorance of duty to 
their own souls, for upon both classes of duty the lights brightly 
shine, full bright enough for all practical purposes — the lights 
of nature, of science, of experience and of grace. How much 
of the hard, intolerant theology of the times was concocted 
and is perpetuated by dyspeptic stomachs, reflecting men can 
readily conjecture. We do not with malice aforethought indite 
hard things against a class of men so good, able, so useful, as 
the American clergy are, nor is it any gratification ; but we 
feel that they need to be sharply spoken to ; their habit is dic- 
tation, and there is none to dictate to them. We take it upon 
ourselves to guard and guide the shepherds. We would like 
to say much more on this subject, but long articles are neither 
read nor copied, and by many, a long cigar or a long quid of 
tobacco would be preferred. For the present, therefore we 
content ourselves with the enunciation of the gist of this arti- 



44 Hall's Journal of Health, 

cle. Students and professional men are not somucb injured by 
hard study as by bard eating; nor is severe study for a life- 
time of itself incompatible with mental and bodily vigor to the 
full age of threescore years and ten. 



EDITOKIAL HINT ON GRAFTING. 

We suggest to Editors who have a wish to elevate the "Pro- 
fession" rather than tumble it down to the bottom of the ladder 
with sawyers, boot blacks, patent medicine makers, and the like, 
to make it a practice to read carefully, every article they think 
of putting in their paper ; they will often save their reputation 
by it, and at the same time they will avoid the perpetration of 
many precepts about health whose absurdity a moment's reflec- 
tion would detect. A statement has been going through the 
papers for a month past as u An interesting discovery from 
France" that the best mode of engrafting fruit trees is to stick 
one end of a " slip" in a potatoe the other end projecting two 
or three inches. We certainly saw this method practiced in the 
West when we were a baby, for soon after that we did it our- 
selves, understanding the reason to be that the potatoe gave 
moisture long enough to make the roots strike out. 



A PRESENTIMENT, 



Is an impression on the mind, that something is going to take 
place, and usually such is the case ; perhaps we may say without 
exaggeration, that something always does occur, after a pre- 
sentiment is formed ; if such were not the fact, we cannot con- 
jecture what would become of every body. Just imagine for 
a moment, that something did not take place in such a large 
world as this ! 

Presentiments love weak places, hence they flourish among 
weak-minded people, not necessarily weak-minded by nature, 
but made so by a diseased body. We are told of a young lady 
at Kinderhook, who was visited by an apparition two years 
ago, at dead hour of night, which announced to her in solemn 
accents, that in two years she would be the inhabitant of another 
and a better world ; this circumstance had such a depressing 
influence on her mind, that she pined away by degrees and did 



A Presentiment 45 

die, at the close of the term named, and was buried a few days 

a S°- 

An eminent clergyman, on parting from another in St. Louis, 

said: "I have a strong presentiment that we shall never meet 
again," and within a few hours he perished at the Gasconade 
on the Pacific Eailway. 

An almost infallible cure for presentiment, however violent, 
is a good emetic, a grubbing hoe, with a few days bread and 
water diet. For ourselves, we would omit the emetic, as we 
do not patronize physic, except by proxy. The reason we giva 
medicine at all is that people are always in a hurry, not exactly 
to get well, but to get able to eat ; if they can only eat, nine 
out of ten think they are getting along famously. Every body 
wants to get well in a minute, and for the bare chances of doing 
so, with a slight degree of assurance to that effect from any 
knave who is willing to pr omise, it having the wit to see at a 
glance that the assurance must be father to the fee — we repeat, 
with a very slim assurance of being made well in a short time, 
the large majority of invalids would swallow a quart of Shake- 
speare's soup thrice a day, said soup being made, as the reader 
may remember, by several old witches, of such things as newt's 
eyes, frog's toes, lizzard wings, stings of rattle-snakes and other 
ingredients not necessary to be named, but all brought to the 
climatic point by — onions. 

An emetic will dissipate a presentiment in five minutes, while 
the vigorous use of the grubbing hoe in the open air, would 
work off the extra and thick blood, abuse accumulation in the 
brain generates these diseased imaginings, while the diet of 
bread and water would supply a pure article of blood in the 
place of the impure material. 

Whoever heard of a healthy, out door, day laborer, having 
a M Presentiment" in the pursuit of his occupation? The fact is, 
they have not time to be moping about such tom-fooleries ; the 
only presentiment that ever troubles them is a veritable fact, 
a tangible reality. "Boot Pig, or Die" is their ever living 
ghost. 

Presentiments do not exist except in connection with one of 
the three following things — 1. A weak mind. 2d. A diseased 
body. 3d. An idle condition of life. 

Loafing and gluttony are the great originators of this unfor- 



46 HaWs Journal of Health. 

tunate condition of mind and its almost certain removal follow 
in temperate eating, combined with physical activity. If unat- 
tended to, and friendly death does not step in to save from a 
greater calamity, insanity winds up the history. 

To the reflecting, we suggest a fact which dissipates the 
mystery which hangs around " Presentiments." In ordinary 
cases, a thing is not baptized as a "Presentiment," until the 
coincidence "of the fact. Superstitious minds, in which presenti- 
ments mostly dwell, take no note of the countless impressions 
that certain things might take place, which did not afterwards 
take place ; one such coincidence makes an impression against a 
million non-concurrents. 



SLEEPLESSNESS 



Is the result of over bodily or mental effort. When a man 
works beyond his strength, or thinks or studies moje than rest 
can restore, then, sooner or later, comes that inability to sleep 
soundly, that wakefulness, which is more wearing even than 
bodily labor, and which feeds the debility which first gave rise 
to it. The result is, a man is always tired, never feels rested, 
even when he leaves his bed in the morning ; hence he wastes 
away, and finds repose only in the grave ; if indeed, insanity 
do not supervene. It is too often a malady, remediless by 
medical means. Avoid then, as you would a viper or a mur- 
derer, all over effort of mind and body ; it is suicidal. What- 
ever you do, get enough sleep ; whatever you do, take enough 
rest to restore the used energies of each preceding twenty-four 
hours ; if you do not, you may escape for a few months, and if 
possessing a good constitution, years may pass away before any 
decided ill result forces itself on your attention ; but rest as- 
sured, the time will come, when the too often baffled system, 
like a baffled horse, will refuse to work; it will not take prompt 
and sound sleep ; it will not be rested by repose, and that irri- 
tating wakefulness will come upon you, which philosophy can- 
not conquer, which medicine cannot cure, and wasting by slow 
degrees to skin and bone, rest is found only in the grave. 



Unhealthy Bread*— Various Receipts. 47 

UNHEALTHY BREAD. 

English bakers use large quantities, of alum in their bread 
to make it white, moist and soft. If used too freely or too long, 
alum, like other astringents, deranges the whole machinery of 
the body. Leibig, the great German chemist, has found, that 
if bread is made of water, saturated with lime, white- wash may 
do,- it has all the effects of making bread white, soft and moist, 
without the injurious results of alum. Our own opinion is, that 
bread made out of wheaten flour is good enough for ordinary 
people and purposes, without adding powdered rocks to it. We 
know of no authority for feeding people on rocks, or for sup- 
posing that the essence of rock has any nutriment in it. Strong 
and numerous facts seem to warrant the opinion, that people 
who drink limestone water, are. more liable to cholera, and we 
have no reason to imagine that mixing flour with the limestone 
water, makes any organic change in the lime; we may rather 
safely infer, that eating lime, is not any more healthful than 
drinking lime. Alum is quite heavy enough, without putting 
the bakers up to the trick of putting rocks in their bread. Sell- 
ing stones at six cents a pound would be a profitable business. 
We recommend our readers to use the old-fashioned bread made 
of flour, with milk and common u rising," and let the Dutch 
reTel in rock bread and sour krout to their hearts' content. . 



YAEIOUS RECEIPTS. 



The following we have seen recommended from time to tiinf*. 
and are perhaps worth a trial, as a proper preservation and pre- 
paration of food has an important bearing on health, while 
domestic conveniences preserve the temper of our wives and 
servants. 

Much Honey fkom a little. — Those who wish to increase 
the quantity of their honey and also to increase its flavor, can 
do so by following Langstroth's directions, as follows : 

" Dissolve two pounds of the purest white sugar in as much 
hot water as will be just necessary to reduce It to a syrup ; take 
one pound of the nicest white-clover honey — any other light- 
colored honey, of good flavor, will answer — and after warming 



48 HalVs Journal of Health. 

it, add it to the sugar syrup, and stir the contents. When cool, 
this compound will be pronounced, by the best judges of honey, 
to be one of the most luscious articles which they ever tasted ; 
and it will be by almost every one preferred to the unmixed 
honey. Eefined loaf-sugar is a perfectly pure and inodorous 
sweet, and one pound of honey will communicate the honey 
flavor to twice that quantity of sugar; while the new article 
will be destitute of that smarting taste which honey alone so 
often has, and will be found perfectly to agree with those who 
cannot eat the clear honey with impunity. If those engaged in 
the artificial manufacture of honey never brought any worse 
than this to market, the purchaser would have no reason to 
complain. As, however, the compound can be furnished much 
cheaper than the pure honey, many may prefer to purchase the 
materials and to mix them themselves. If desired, any kind 
of flavor may be given to the manufactured article. Thus it 
may be made to resemble, in fragrance, the classic honey of 
Mount Hymettus, by adding to it the aroma of the lemon balm, 
or wild thyme ; or it may have the flavor of the orange groves, 
or the delicate fragrance of beds of roses, washed with dew. 

Wintering Sweet Potatoes. — The 14th day of October, 
1854, I dug about one-half bushel of sweet potatoes — packed 
them in two boxes — used dry plaster paris for packing, and 
placed them in a warm dry room, varying from 50° to 60°. 
On the 13th day of April, 1855, I planted them. Every one 
was sound and as good as in the fall. I have kept pumpkins 
and winter squashes one year in a warm dry rottm, and showed 
them at our annual fair, as sound as when severed from the 
vines. Dry sand may do as well. 



Drying Pumpkins and Making Pies. — Cut them up and 
stew them till they are soft and dry ; pound and strain them 
through a colander ; then grease pie-pans, and spread it on a 
quarter of an inch thick, and dry it; roll it up, and put it away 
in a tight box or bag, from the insects. Every one of these 
rolls will make a pie. It is very easy now to make a pie. Put 
it in sweet milk, and let it soak about two hours ; put in an 
egg, a tablespoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of ginger, and one 
of allspice ; and if you are lovers of pumpkin pie, as we are, 
you will pronounce it good. 



Various Receipts. 49 

Preserving Eggs fresh. — Make a barrel of lime-water as 
you would make white- wash, at least two weeks before you want 
to use it. Put }^our eggs in another barrel, stir up the lime- 
water well' and pour it on the eggs, the lime settles around the 
eggs, and the water stands on the top of the lime, (the eggs all 
under lime.) Look at the barrel once in a while, to see if four 
inches of water, little more or less, covers the whole. If the 
water is all dried up, the lime gets hard, and they are difficult 
t© take out when wanted, and you have to carry them some- 
where else to wash off the lime ; so always keep water on 
the top. Keep the vessels covered to keep out all dirt, or 
the eggs will look a poor, dingy color. Be careful about this 
in the lime and water, and you will have fine white eggs. 

I cannot tell how long they will keep, as I never saw 
any spoil. I have some that are five years and a half old, 
as good as they ever were. 

You may drop a few eggs in at a time as you get them 
fresh, but keep four inches of water on top. You can cer- 
tainly test the goodness of each egg before putting in, by 
going into a dark room and having the egg between your 
eye and a candle, if sound the light will shine through with 
a reddish glow, if unsound the egg will look dark; reject 
every egg which, has the least want of clearness. 

Cheap Carpeting. — Sew together strips of the cheapest cot- 
ton cloth, of the size of the room, and tack the edges to the floor. 
Then paper the cloth with any sort of room paper. After 
being well dried give it two coats of varnish, and your carpet 
is complete. It can be washed. like carpets without injury, re- 
tains its gloss, and on chambers or sleeping rooms, where it will 
not meet with rough usage, it will last two years as good as 
new. 



To cook Potatoes. — Pare and put to soak in cold water 
from four to six hours; then drop into water which is already 
boiling — an essential point ; a little salt added to the water im- 
proves them. Take them from the fire the moment they are 
done, pour off all the water and let them stand uncovered in 
the kettle over the fire till the water evaporates from the sur- 
face, and they are ready for the table. 



50 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Cheap and Healthy Diet. — Oat meal is excellent in por- 
ridge, and all sorts of cooking of that sort, and oat meal 
cakes are sweet, nutritious and an antidote for dyspepsia. Just 
now, we believe oats are the cheapest of any grain in market, 
and it is a settled fact that oats give the greatest amount of 
power of any grain consumed by man Or beast. [This must 
be understood as referring particularly to Northern oats, as 
the majority of oats grown in Ohio, will not make good, sweet 
meal, such as we have tasted in Canada and Northern New 
York. — Eds. Cult. 

Cracked wheat and loaf bread cost the same price or perhaps 
a less price for the wheat by the pound. A pound of the wheat, 
properly cooked, is worth more than four loaves of bread. 

Hominy, samp, hulled corn, we have so often recommended 
and urged upon the attention of all, both rich and poor, as 
cheap, wholesome, nutritious food that we have induced many 
to try it, who would not give it up now under any considera- 
tion. We reiterate all that we have ever said in its favor. 
Thirty years' experience in its use only serves to confirm us in 
the opinion that it is such excellent and economical food that 
too much cannot be said in its favor. The only thing necessary 
in its cooking is to cook it enough — it cannot be cooked too 
much. 

Every family should eat beans and peas, because of all arti- 
cles they afford the most nutriment for the least money. 

One bushel of white beans will feed more laboring men than 
eight bushels of potatoes. The beans will cost two dollars, the 
potatoes six. , 

A single quart of beans costs nine cents ; a half-pound of salt 
pork, six cents ; a pound of hominy, five cents ; and that will 
give a meal to a larger family than a dollars' worth of roast 
beef, white bread, potatoes and other vegetables. 

To Cook a Chicken. — Cut the chicken up, put it in a pan 
and -cover it over with water ; let it stew as usual, and when 
done make a thickening of cream and flour, adding a piece of 
butter, and pepper and salt ; have made and baked a pair of 
short cakes, as for pie-crust, but rolled thin and cut in small 
squares. This is much better than chicken pie and more simple 
to make. The crust should be laid on a dish and the chicken 
gravy put over it while both are hot. 



Variom Beceipts. 51 

To Measure Grain and Corn in Bins. — To measure grain, 
multiply the width and length together, and that product by 
the height in cubic inches, and divide by 2.150, and you have 
the number of bushels. 

To measure corn in the ear, find the cubic inches as above, 
and divide by 2.815, the cubic inches in a heaped bushel, and 
take two-thirds of the quotient for the number of bushels of 
shelled corn. This is upon the rule of giving three heaping 
half bushels of ears to make a bushel of corn. Some fall short, 
and some overrun the measure. 



Curing Bacon without Smoke. — To smoke the best bacon, 
fat your hogs early, and fat them well. By fattening early 
you make a great saving in food, and well fattened pork. Then 
kill as early as the weather will allow, and salt as soon as 
the animal heat is gone, with a plenty of the purest salt, and 
about half an ounce of saltpetre to one hundred pounds ot 
pork. 

As soon as the meet is salted to your taste, which will 
generally be in about five weeks, take it out, and if any of 
it has been covered with brine, let it drain a little. Then 
take black pepper, finely ground, and dust on the hock as 
much as will stick, then hang it up in a good, clean, dry, airy 
place. 



To Wash Clothes.— The night before washing-day, put the 
clothes to soak in water, and also place on the hot stove, in a 
suitable vessel, two pounds soap, cut small, one ounce borax, 
and two quarts water. These may be left to simmer till the 
fire goes out ; in the morning the mixture will be solid. On 
washing-day, operations are commenced by setting on a stove 
or furnace the wash kettle nearly filled with cold water. Into 
this put about one-fourth of a pound of the compound, and 
then wring out the clothes that have been soaking and put them 
into the kettle. By the time that the water is scalding hot, the 
clothes will be ready to take out. Drain them well, and put 
them into clean cold water, and then thoroughly rinse them 
twice, and they are ready to be hung out. When more water 
is added to the wash-kettle, more soap should also be added, but 
the quantity needed will be very small. 



52 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Keeping Turnips, Parsnips, &c. — As late in the fall as is 
prudent to wait, take any old barrel, and put a good layer of 
dry leaves on the bottom, then put a layer of turnips or pars- 
nips, then another course of leaves, and so alternating, being 
careful to put in a good supply of leaves between the roots and 
the barrel, and also between each course of vegetables. 

Turnips properly put up in this way will not be corkey, will 
keep good all winter, and can be got at any time. Parsnips 
put up in this manner will be better in the winter and in the 
spring than if left in the ground, as is the common practice ; 
besides you are not obliged to wait till the frost is out of the 
ground before you can have a mess. Your barrel of turnips 
should be kept in as cool a place as possible and still avoid 
freezing, as they grow unless kept dry and cool. 



Buckwheat Porridge. — Take a quart of rich milk, and 
after boiling it hard, stir in as much buckwheat meal as will 
make it of the consistency of thick mush, adding one teaspoon- 
ful of salt and one of fresh butter. In five minutes after it is 
thick enough to take it from the fire. If the milk is boiling 
hard, and continues to boil while the meal is being stirred in, 
very little more cooking will be required. It should be placed 
on the table hot, and eaten with butter and sugar, or with mo- 
lasses and butter. This is sometimes called a five minute pud- 
ding. It is excellent for children as a plain dessert, or for sup- 
per. Some add a seasoning of ginger or grated nutmeg before 
sending it to the table. 



To Keep Grapes in Winter. — Let them hang on the vines 
as late as they can without freezing — pick in a dry day, place 
it in shallow boxes, not more than two clusters deep ; keep it in 
as cool a place as you can and not let it freeze, and where there 
is sufficient circulation of air to carry off the moisture. I have 
kept them in this way until April, and though toward the last 
they were indented like raisins, they still retained their deli- 
cious flavor. 

Mildew of Plants. — Sulphur and unslacked lime put into 
a tub of water, in which they are quickly and intimately mixed, 
then syringe with the clear liquid after these substances have 
settled at the bottom. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] MARCH, 1856. [NO. III. 



INSANITY. 

A gentleman passing along the streets of London not long 
ago, was suddenly accosted by an entire stranger — " Did you 
ever thank Grod that you had never lost your mind?''' 
" Really," replied the gentleman, as soon as he recovered from 
the surprise which the circumstance excited, " I cannot say 
that I ever did." " You ought to ; for I have lost mine," said 
the strange interrogator, as he passed rapidly on, and was 
soon lost in the living tide which ceaselessly flows along the 
R Strand." 

To be a drivelling idiot ! to be hopelessly insane ! to be feel^ 
ing after something for a life-time, and never find it; to be for 
long years in that troubled dream, which in health, before now, 
although it was but for a moment or two, has caused us to 
awake, drenched in an agony of perspiration, or found us 
trembling like an aspen ! and yet, reader, that may be your 
ending ! under such circumstances, the lamp of life may go out 
to you ; you may go down to the grave, the universe a blank ! 
We propose telling you how you may avoid it. We will give 
you no impossible rule, no impracticable recipe, difficult of 
remembrance, for less than half a dozen words will tell it all — 

Don't dwell on one idea ! 

Without the rationale of this, you perhaps would not remem- 
ber it twenty-four hours ; therefore, in order to impress it on 
the memory, and save you from so terrible a fate, as a mind in 
ruins, we will give here the pathology, as a doctor would say. 
Nutritive degradation ; or if you want the whole idea in a single 
word, it is " atrophy. 1 '' 

Some time ago, we " went to meeting," which, modernized, 



64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

is, " attended church," to hear one of the most scholastic divines 
of great Gotham. Among other magnificent truths, the speaker 
declared : " Anthropomorphism is theopneustic" ! There he left 
us. As we knew Greek, it was not difficult of remembrance. 
It took us, however, a good while to dig out the diamond. 
But we took it in good part, as just then we remembered one 
of our own definitions of " consumption," in those earlier years 
when we essayed to be tremendously learned. " Consumption 
is the oxydation of the exudation corpuscle" That is a fact, 
to be sure, but it would take a " Philadelphia lawyer" to elab- 
orate it ; and we cannot say that a wondering world is any the 
wiser for either of the grand announcements. 

For fear, then, that nutritive degradation might meet the fate 
of all the Capulets, we will abate the top-loftiness of the diction, 
and come down to the commons. 

The brains of all persons dying insane, are withered, as it 
were, in some portion or other, in the sense that a limb or 
muscle withers when unused, — withered in a far greater degree 
than are the brains of those who do not die of insanity. Accord- 
ing to the present state of medical knowledge, the whole mass 
of the brain of a person dying insane, weighs less than it would 
have done, had the person perished instantaneously, in health. 
Inactivity is destruction throughout the universe of things. The 
human body as a whole, or as to any one part, is no exception 
to that boundless law. The unused arm dwindles to skin and 
bone. The unused lungs soon weaken, then rot away. The 
brain comes within the universal law of our physical being, 
and if unused, perishes before its prime, either in whole or part. 
But now we come to the great phrenological fact, which only 
prejudice denies, that the brain is not a unit, but is made up of 
compartments, each of which is the fountain from which springs 
the sense, or feeling or sentiment peculiar to it. All men prac- 
tically believe this essentially, whatever may be their expressed 
opinions. 

The compartments of the brain in the skull, may be appro- 
priately compared to an extensive and well conducted manu- 
factory, with its numberless rooms, in each of" which, some one 
portion of a great machine is made. In one part of our brain, 
we may say, our mirth is manufactured ; in another, our vanity ; 
in another, our pride; and so on; and that brain is in its 



Insanity 55 

healthiest state, is the { ' best balanced" in which every room has 
its proper work, well, fully, and industriously done. 

But if one part is worked too much, mischief is the result ; 
or if one part works too little, disorder is inevitable. 

If too much mirth is made, the expression leaps from our 
lips, " He is as funny as a fool ;" and we bestow a less compli- 
mentary epithet on one who fails to exercise his observant facul- 
ties, likening him to the animal which was exactly like a mule, 
— only more so. 

It is the full, steady, equable exercise of every mental faculty ', which 
is the only infallible guarantee against fatuity. 

Let every man and woman mature this idea well, and steadily 
guard against one thought, one pursuit, one exclusive employ- 
ment, one hate, one love, one grief. Blessed is that Providence 
which seldom sends a single trouble ! It is fatherly beneficence 
which often orders another, to tear the heart away from dwell- 
ing on the one great calamity. It is single troubles which 
craze men. It is not the general student whose mind becomes 
unbalanced. It is not the man who has a great many irons in 
the fire at a time ; it is not the worker who has more business 
than he can attend to ; it is the man who has leisure to do- 
nothing, it is the man who nurses the one thought wholly, who 
makes shipwreck of the immortal part. It is the one idea man 
who is without ballast, and we patronizingly excuse him by 
saying, " on every other subject he is a sensible person." 

Asylum statistics force upon us the unexpected truth, that of 
all classes of inmates, farmers make the largest, in spite of the 
fabulous health-giving influences of a farming life. Such a re- 
sult can in no way be accounted for, except in the sameness of 
thought and pursuit. Another fact, quite unanticipated, is, that 
in an equal number of New England men, and slaves on south- 
ern plantations, the proportion of lunatics is five times greater 
among the whites ; there are five lunatics to one among the 
negroes ; it is because steady concentration in a limited sphere 
is essential to securing plenty from the stony soil of New Eng- 
land, so barren indeed that multitudes are driven from agricul- 
tural pursuits, and in patents and inventions eat out their 
minds. 

Our farmer readers will very naturally inquire, what we 
would advise as the most perfect safeguard against so lamenta- 



56 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ble a close of life. Unhesitatingly we respond — Scientific 
Agriculture ; for there is not a quality of the mind which in its 
far-reachings it will not wake up and energize : for to be pro- 
perly and most profitably pursued, it makes almost every other 
science subservient to it. Thus followed, it is the most enno- 
bling of all human pursuits, because it perfects the body, and 
refines and elevates the mind. 

What we have said, therefore, at the commencement of this 
article, we desire to repeat at its conclusion, with most impres- 
sive emphasis — 

Don't dwell on one idea. 



CIVILIZATION AND HEALTH. 

The past history of nations is conclusive as to one point, that 
prosperity begets refinement, luxury, disease and ruin. Is this 
a necessary result ? Will this great and prosperous country, 
with its daily developing improvements, tending to the reduc- 
tion and perfection of labor, as well as to the conveniences and 
comforts of life, eventually fall into effeminacy and extinction ? 
We utter a decisive negative. There are two kinds of civiliza- 
tion, the ignorant and the educated. Of two families in all re- 
spects equal, having at their command every modern conven- 
ience, one will live in high health, and in the steady enjoyment 
of the blessings of life until an honorable old age, while the 
other will as certainly fade away, the children perishing first, 
and last of all the parents ; and even they, long before the at- 
tainment of three score years and ten ; their very names blot- 
ted from social memory I This wide difference is the direct re- 
sult of the manner of life of the respective families, one having 
lived rationally, having lived up to the laws of our being, the 
other having wholly neglected them ; the latter dying off prema- 
turely, have cut off the race of effeminate imbeciles while the 
former have handed down to society the bequest of healthful 
constitutions. Thus we perceive, that educated civilization will 
perpetuate a nationality, while an uneducated one destroys it. 

But in the fierce race which the masses run for pleasure, 
wealth, fame, is there any probability of inducing any great 
number to stop awhile in their course, and learn something of a 



Health and Civilization. 57 

true life ? There are a few such in all communities ; and as 
these leave seed, while the others leave none, the inequality 
will rapidly diminish ; thus it is, that within a hundred years, 
the average of human life has increased all over the world, but 
more largely in its most civilized portions. The investigations 
and teachings of the true laws of our being have been confined 
to the medical profession, and they have been pursued with a 
diligence, and a self-denial, practised by no class of men on the 
habitable globe ; because, for the most part, these investigations 
have been made under circumstances of animal and human suf- 
fering, of squalor, disgust and horror often, which, to any other 
than a trained medical mind, would have been impossible of 
endurance. 

We may say with great truth that the materiel glory, per- 
manence and power of any community consists in the physical 
vigor of the individual men and women who v compose it; for 
physical perfection gives mental energy, and mental health. 
An exemplification of this important truth is found in the sta- 
bility of every thing English, and the evanescent state of every 
thing French. We believe that physical perfection begets men- 
tal vigor, and that in turn, by appropriate tuitions, begets moral 
power, and that this combination makes the perfect man. 

Many persons are frightened away by the mere mention of 
11 Living up to the laws of our being" and at once begin to think, 
of something painfully abstruse, or laboriously indefinite ; an 
image of feeling after something in a fog at once arises before 
their mind, and anon come spectres of self-denial, starvation, 
physic and pills ad infinitum. 

In all investigations, it is best to clear away the rubbish first 
and look for some foundation stones ; to ferret out some first 
principles, some elementary ideas, which must in the very nature 
of things be few and well defined, and consequently, as facile 
of remembrance, as they are practicable in their application. 

The Holy Scriptures, with beautiful exactness, declared four 
thousand years ago, what the scientific investigations of sub- 
sequent ages have steadily confirmed, that the blood is the life of 
all animal being, it is the blood which originates, governs and 
completes every vital power in the whole machinery of man; 
consequently, perfect health is only to be secured by maintain 
ing the blood in its natural state. The researches of the lights 



58 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of our profession have established the facts, that this natural 
state of the blood comprehends a four-fold development. 

1st. The Organic element, or Ghylid. 

2d. The Coloring element, or Hwmatid. 

3d. The Animal element, or Lymphid. 

4th. The Fluid element, or Liquor Sanguinis. 

In a few hours after food is eaten, it is converted into a 
whitish, sweetish, thickish fluid, whatever may be the nature of 
the food ; but in it are found innumerable little globules which 
are called " Chylids;" these globules consist of a little bladder or 
cell, in which is an atom, called an egg, the cell being a boat 
floating about in the chyle, the atom is its freight, which as it 
passes along, becomes a living thing, as an egg becomes a 
chick; but being quickened into life it changes into a reddish 
color, and takes another name in its new and living nature, and 
is called a " HarniatidP This wonderful change from dead food 
to living existence, owes its origin to that equal Power which 
made all worlds. These animalcule Hazmatids are so diminu- 
tive that a small box, an inch deep, an inch broad and an inch 
long, will hold more than a hundred thousand millions of them. 
These Hazmatids are the foundation of all health and life ; if 
they are transported in their little boats in unimpaired vigor to 
the different parts of the body, those parts grow with the same 
life and health which these Hasmatids have, but if injured in 
their transmission in any way, the part of the body to which 
they go is inevitably injured — becomes diseased. Our next step 
then is to inquire, taking it for granted that digestion is good, 
what circumstances in practical life have the effect to injure 
these new-born voyagers ? 

The blood of a vigorous man, on the instant of being drawn, 
is just as full of life as our own great Broadway on any sunny 
afternoon ; itis this life which gives the blood its solidity, or more 
properly, its thickness. When a person dies from using chloro- 
form, the blood is as liquid almost as water ; it does not coagu- 
late, become thick and clotted as the blood does from natural 
or other forms of death ; on examining into the cause, it is dis- 
covered that of all the millions of Hazmatids, not one single one 
is alive, for the little cell boat has been dissolved, and its occu- 
pant has perished ; the poison from the bite of venomous snakes 
has the same effect. 



Health and Civilization. 59 

It is found also, that when a person dies by breathing the 
fumes of charcoal, or breathing carbonic acid gas in any other 
form, every single Hasmetid is found dead, asphyxiated, just as 
the subject was. If then, breathing carbonic acid gas kills the 
Hcematids, they carrying none of their life to the different parts 
of the body, the man himself just as certainly dies, because his 
supply of life is cut off, and if for any single minute this living 
freight of Haemetids is arrested, that minute we die. 

A little reflection here will suggest one of the most important 
principles connected with human health — that is to say, out- 
door air has no carbonic acid gas, hence they who breathe it 
always revel in glorious health. 

If again, pure carbonic acid gas as certainly kills a man in a 
short time as the breathing of chloroform or the poison of an 
adder, by killing the Haemetids, so any* air breathed, in propor- 
tion as it is impregnated with carbonic acid gas, will do violence 
to the life of the Haematids. But a man in sleeping, not only 
breathes out carbonic acid gas, but converts the air in a close 
room into carbonic acid gas, and the smaller the room the soon- 
er will that conversion be made, and the closer the room the 
more perfect will be that conversion. 

It will be thus seen that it is an utter impossibility for any 
one to sleep for a single night in a room with windows and 
doors closed without inflicting death at its birth to that which 
otherwise would have given to the body vigor, health and life. 
And although the mischief is not made apparent by the death 
of the individual next morning, that mischief is not the less 
real, although it is less extensive, and its ill results are sooner 
or later inevitable. Within a year a ship was undergoing an 
examination in a dry dock, and at a certain point its bottom for 
a few inches square, was found to be not thicker than a 
piece of paper. On examination, it was ascertained that a 
small pebble was lodged in the space between the plank 
which faced the water and that which made the inner floor of 
the vessel ; it had been there for two years, and with every mo- 
tion of that vessel on its billowy home that little pebble also 
moved, and in its motion wore away some of the timber; too 
small it may be for detection by any ordinary microscope, but 
in the course of a year it was enough to wear away an inch of 
solid timber, and in the second year, nearly two inches more, 



60 HaWs Journal of Health. 

for, with the increase of room which it made for itself, there 
was an increase of momentum, and consequent wear. Because 
the captain of that vessel was ignorant of that imprisoned peb- 
ble, and because he saw no indication of its destructive in- 
fluences, those influences were not the less real, and not the less 
certain of terrible disaster, but for the fortunate discovery. 
Thus it is with human life and health, the breathing of a vitiated 
atmosphere, whether in close and small rooms or large and close 
bedrooms, or in family rooms over cellars without ceilings, 
whose noisome odors rise incessantly day and night to the up- 
per portions of the buildings — the fames from decayed vege- 
tables, barrels and boxes sodden with dampness, which have 
not seen the light of the sun for years, saying nothing of old 
bones, rags, brooms and various other things for which the cel- 
lar is used as a common receptacle ; or whether these miasms 
and malarias are generated in dirty back yards, or piles of 
sweepings heaped up under stairs or in closets or dark corners, 
or from livery stables, or cow houses, or pig-pens, or butcher 
stalls, or vegetable markets — we repeat, the breathing of such 
or other vitiated atmospheres does, by an immutable law of nature, 
bring injury to the system with the same certainty that gravity 
will affect a projected feather, or cannon ball or mountain. 

These are truths which every person should know for him- 
self and should teach to his children from their earliest years, 
for it is only by the diffusion and practice of knowledge like 
this, that we can ever hope to see a healthy offspring and to en- 
joy, not only with impunity, but with advantage, all that is 
meant by the term "modern conveniences." 

We fear that this article is already too long to be read by the 
many, or to be copied in our weekly newspapers, which so regular- 
ly visit almost every family in this broad land, but we trust it will 
be copied, for it is by the incessant and wide and repeated in- 
stillation of sentiments like these, that we expect to build 
up a public sentiment which will appreciate the high and endur- 
ing advantages resulting from a habitual breathing of a pure 
atmosphere. Those who wish to understand the subject more 
fully are earnestly advised to send to J. S. Kedfleld, 34 Beek- 
man street, New York, one dollar for " Uses and Abuses of 
Air," by John H. Griscom, M. D. We consider it one of the 
most vitally useful publications o f the profession ever yet issued 
from the American press. 



Politics and Physic. 61 

POLITICS AND PHYSIO. 

It is a very difficult matter to prevent a politician from be- 
coming a drunkard, and very few there are, who can run the 
dangerous gauntlet, without becoming lovers of liquor, at least 
to the extent of an occasional glass. The large number of dis- 
tinguished political names which have passed down into a 
drunkard's grave within the last twenty-five years, will appal 
any one who will take the trouble to make the enumeration ; 
and still more appalling would be the array of splendid minds, 
splendid in promise, whose glory has gone prematurely out, 
drowned in the wine-cup ! 

But the idea to which we wish to draw parental attention, in 
this article, is not to professed politicians, but to that numerous 
class of young men, who depend on political party for a living ; 
in a large number of cases, their destination is one of three. 

1. Premature death. 

2. Brandy drinking. 

3. A blank life. 

It is well known, that most governmental employee's hold 
their position by reason of their political opinions, consequently, 
every change of policy throws them out of employment. Those 
who are not dismissed by an incoming administration, are such 
as have rendered their services necessary to the government, 
by their self-sacrificing assiduity in the faithful discharge of 
their duties ; if this were all, it might be borne, but, as might 
be expected, a mere partisan office-holder neglects his duties, 
and the performance of them falls on those who are more faith- 
ful to their trusts, and in this double work, numbers perish 
prematurely, by diseases engendered through over-labor and 
over-solicitude. 

But nine out of ten, of those who hold political places, change 
with the Administration, and being thrown out of office, have 
no other means of livelihood. With perhaps a wife and a child 
or two to be provided for, it is not difficult to perceive the 
weighty inducements such have to labor for another turn of the 
political wheel, and in performing that labor, they fall into such 
practices and associations, as make an escape from drunkenness 
an exception, rather than the rule. 

But in the few cases where the love of liquor is not a result, 



62 HalVs Journal of Health. 

where there is too much moral rectitude to go down to that de- 
gradation, the want of employment soon brings want of sub- 
sistence; then come despondency, idle habits, want of energy, 
and in its train want of ambition, and finally loss of self-respect 
and a " Blank Life." 

In view of these things, we consider it a great calamity 
for a young man to obtain any salaried political office ; better 
a great deal, because safer and immeasurably more indepen- 
dent, to serve a regular apprenticeship to some useful handi- 
craft ; for then, however bright may be the fortunes of after 
life, there will be in reserve, in case of reverses, a capital to 
draw upon, which misfortune can not sink, which govern- 
mental changes cannot destroy. 

We feel safe in going still further, and recommend to every 
parent who reads this Journal, to sedulously avoid placing 
a child in any fixed salaried position, for such a position will 
engender habits of idleness, of inattention, of want of tho- 
roughness, which will be an effectual barrier against success 
in life. A young man, with a fixed salary, soon begins to 
reason thus: "I will get so much any how, even if I am 
not quite so particular," and that is the first step towards- 
doing things slightingly, and when such a disposition takes 
possession of any youth, he is virtually lost to society ; for 
such a person will never obtain an enviable pre-eminence. 
Nor is this all, a fixed salary presents a direct bribe to lazi- 
ness, it discourages activity and enterprise; for as to the odds 
and ends of time, which necessarily fall to persons employed 
to do business, the young man reasons thus : " If I do more 
than is required of me, if I work ever so hard, I get no 
more for it ;" hence the time which now and then falls on 
his hands, is frittered away in some un remunerative manner, 
if indeed it is not spent in ways which ultimately end in a 
snare. 

The point which we wish most to impress on parents is this: 
if you place your child in any salaried position, if you wish to 
encourage him, to stimulate his ambition, if you wish to incul- 
cate a feeling of self-appreciation and self-reliance, which are ab- 
solutely essential to high success in any department of human 
life, place your children in positions which will moderately 
remunerate them, in proportion to their industry; we say "mo- 



Quo Modot 68 

derately remunerate," for we believe, that greatly dispropor- 
tioned remuneration has dangerous and ruinous tendencies in 
more ways than one, for it engenders a taste for " short cuts'' 
to wealth and that begets necessarily hazards, wasting anxieties, 
and desperate " throws ;" then comes unscrupulousness, loss of 
principle, and with it loss of all that is dear to a business man. 
On the other hand if young persons are schooled to expect but 
moderate remuneration for their labor, that begets moderate de- 
sires, moderate ambitions, moderate expectations, and such only 
are the safe citizens in any community. 

In conclusion, we desire to say, if a parent could only see one 
sight in a hundred of what any eminent city Physician wit- 
nesses of the foul and festering disease, of the bloated brutality 
which riots in the young, whom idleness or want of employ- 
ment has ruined, they would feel relief in laying their children 
in an early grave, rather than see them placed in offices, how- 
ever honorable and remunerative, the loss of which is so often 
attended with results already described. 

We cannot but consider the general tendency, becoming still 
more common, to bring up children without mechanical em- 
ployments, and without regular and thorough agricultural 
training, as one of the serious mistakes of the times, for not only 
must we become effeminate without labor, but that effeminacy 
is perpetuated in the offspring, while all of us must acknow- 
ledge that the hardy artificer and the sturdy farmer are the 
main elements of national thrift and national perpetuity. 



QUO MODO? 

In what manner f That is the translation. We must use 
Latin, Greek, French, German, Spanish, Italian, Hebrew — 
all of them, or that astute entity, the people, will conclude we 
are know nothings. To be sure, it is not a particular indica- 
tion of learning, or of good taste either; in fact, it is a waste of 
space, ink, type and paper, for the words of these languages 
must be interpreted into our own, else we might as well have 
written in modern Chinese or ancient Chaldaic. But then we 
can tickle the people at the expense only of looking into our 
Dictionary 'polyglott) of Quotations, take the first phrase that 



64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

looks learned, master its definition, and then write up to it. 
Besides, we have a good memory for definitions, if not in name, 
yet in idea ; as good as the boy who never could pronounce 
the first letter of the alphabet. " I know him very well by 
sight, sir, but rot me if I can call his name," was the steady 
excuse of little stupid for not calling " A." 

We once learned the definition of sine qua non, and never 
have forgotten it. There is a large class of Anti-Know-JSToth- 
ings : one of these, who never plead guilty of ignorance of any 
thing, was listening to a brother or first cousin of his, who 
never lost an opportunity of putting himself forward, reading 
an important item of news to a crowd around a country post- 
office door. The reader bolted through the phrase with tolerable 
courage and success, but had scarcely cleared the bridge, when 
one of the crowd exclaimed, " What's that ? I never heard 
tell of such a sign as that." "O, go on," said know-all, " it's 
an island in Passamaquoddy Bay ; I've seen it many a time !" 

Well, as we were saying "In what manner?" of course we 
must make the connection between what we say, and health, or it 
will be flying the track, and the race for fame and fortune, es- 
pecially the latter, will be lost for aye. 

In what manner, then, is a few barrels of molasses and water 
turned into a two hundred thousand dollar dwelling in Fifth 
Avenue, besides having a spare thousand or two, every once 
in a while, to help build a church and to aid in the temperance 
cause — religion and liquor temperance being the most popular 
of all causes, temperance in food and the passions, having no 
friends, is simply laughed at. Surely we will come to a focus 
by-and-bye, as soon as we describe " in what manner" a Broad- 
way hotel has been built and furnished, at a cost of a quarter 
of a million of dollars, out of a cargo of aloes. Well, the aloes, 
bitter as gall though they are, were eaten morning, noon, and 
night — eaten by "the people" year after year, until of divers 
cargoes not a single ounce is left; not only eaten willingly, 
gladly, but at a premium, a cash premium, of above twenty-five 
cents a spoonful. 

"In what manner, I would like to know," inquires the reader 
— In what manner? Quo modo? were " the people" induced 
to do such an unaccountable thing? 

Why, a country editor was persuaded to say, for a considera- 



Quo Modof 65 

tion, for of course you could not expect an editor to talk, or 
write, or print for nothing, and thereupon a hundred city 
editors were hired to repeat, as coming from this country editor, 
for a proportional consideration, say as one to one thousand, the 
following (names suppressed) 

[Advertisement.] ^ 

From the Herald. 

Cleanse the System.— At this season of the year a general 
purification of the human system is vitally important. During 
the Winter season, a vast amount of impurity gathers in the 
system, producing humors and lassitude, and eventuating in 
disease if not removed ; and as nature provides for the external 
purification of her dominions at this season by electricity, 
shower and storm, so man should watch over his own system 

and purify it. For this purpose we are persuaded that 

Pills stand pre-eminent. For twenty years past they have 
been in general use throughout this country, and at the present 
time there is not another so popular medicine for purifying the 
system in use ; besides which, they are cheap, and pleasant to 
take. 

Now it so happens that this advertisement expresses the 
truth in every line, with one exception, especially as to the 
" pre-eminency of the pills," for they literally stand six stories 
high above ground, and two below, and to progress indefinitely 
deeper hereafter, pills, patentee, and all. 

Although this advertisement may be strictly and literally 
true, yet a false use is made of it, — a use which is ruinous to 
the health and life of multitudes, thus : 

The certain tendency of the use of aloes, is to leave the 
bowels more and more costive, requiring a freer and freer em- 
ployment of it, ending in piles, or fistula, attended with conse- 
quences painful, horrible, disgusting. 

That " a vast amount of impurities gather in the system during 
the icinter" is a concentrated untruth ; the advertiser would 
have saved his reputation, had he expressed no opinion as to 
the time during which the impurities had gathered,, and simply 
stated the general fact, that they were more or less present in 
all, in spring. The system ought to be purified, and the pills 
are pre-eminently popular, and they do aid in purifying the 



66 HalVs Journal of Health. 

system, but the ultimate, certain, inevitable results, — look at 
them ! Arsenic eaten secundem artem, brings plumpness to the 
cheeks and roses to the skin and sparkling to the eye, and in 
the end brings death ! 

In our article in the June number, "A Life-Saving Thought,'' 
we explained that the blood does become impure in the Spring, 
because of our eating with the appetite of winter, when we do 
not need half as much food, in consequence of our exercising 
less vigorously, and also because we need less warmth in sum- 
mer than in winter. 

If we would eat but half as much in early spring, the blood, 
which bracing winter bequeaths in perfect purity to spring, 
would remain pure ; or, if in default of this precaution, when we 
find ourselves ill we would diminish our food within proper 
bounds forthwith, and take large amounts of daily pleasurable 
exercise in the open air, not involving fatigue, the blood would 
purify itself in nature's own safe, harmless and beneficent way, 
just as certain as a clear running spring will purify itself after 
disturbance, if it is only let alone. 

But what a bootless work it is to write thus ! Not one in a 
score of all who read this article, will make a practical and ra- 
tional use of it, but when spring comes, will continue to eat on, 
with a winter's appetite, until the system is so charged with a 
£hick, loaded, imperfect blood, that nothing can save the body 
$rom impending disease, but eating less food or by swallowing 
more pills, the latter being preferred by most persons, and they 
<febe V'ery ones who do not call in a physician for fear he would 
give them medicine, and yet they turn right round and take 
ten times as much ignorantly, and on their own responsibility, 
as an educated physician would have given them. Those who 
take medicine on their own responsibility, are precisely those 
who are " all the time taking something; 11 the reason of this is 
two-fold. 

1st. Patent medicines are temporary in their effects. 

2d. They alleviate or smother, instead of eradicating disease. 

A patent pill, or balsam, or bitters, is taken for a specified 
symptom :; relief follows; this gives confidence in its efficacy, 
which is forthwith extended to some other symptom ; as it 
" helped " a cough, it may help a colic ; so, very soon it is an- 
nounced by the sanguine recipient, it is good for almost any- 



Quo Mbdof 67 

thing, and consequently it soon becomes a cure-all, and for 
every trifling little ailment the favorite remedy is resorted to, 
while all this time the person forgets two or three very observ- 
able facts. 

1st. That somehow or other he is more frequently H ailing" 
than he used to be. 

2d. That larger doses of his favorite remedy have to be taken. 

3d. That new ailments are appearing. 

To illustrate. A gentleman recently informed me that 

Pills were taken by his grandmother with apparent advantage 
some years ago, and that the habit had grown on her to suck 
an extent that now she was compelled to take them every few 
weeks ; and that whereas at first, one or two were sufficient to 
give relief, now "a level table-spoonful" were needed at a single 
dose, in order to secure a decided result. 

It is known to many, that • Morison's Pills " had a great 
popularity at one time in England, until it was charged in court 
that they had killed a patient. The inventor himself was pro- 
bably sincere in his belief of their sovereign and universal efik 
cacy, for on one occasion he became sick, and having taken 
his pills several days without encouraging results, his friends 
insisted on his using some other medicine. This he resolutely 
declined to do, saying, that if his pills did not cure him nothing 
else could, so in a single day he took upwards of one hundred 
and eighty, and died ! 

Khubarb and aloes are large constituents of almost every 
patent pill of wide popularity, for moving the bowels. The 
ultimate effect of either, is to leave the system in a more con* 
stipated condition; they cannot be taken without such a result, and 
constipation is the fruitful cause of piles, falling of the lower 
bowel, and fistula, a disease, which for months, and sometimes: 
for years before death, leaves the patient in that most pitiable 
and disgusting condition, wherein the excrements pass without 
the will, the urine dribbles away incessantly, and life is a foul 
and ceaseless torture ! So habitual patent pill-takers have in 
prospect " a time of it " above ground, not less impressive than. 
the knavish makers of the same have below. 



To take Ink out of Linen. — Saturate the spots with 
melted tallow, then wash in suds. 



6$ Hall's Journal of Health. 

CLEKICAL MORTUARY. 

Of Clergymen of all denominations, dying during 1855, in 
the United States, there were one hundred and twenty. The 
smallest number, five, died in February ; the largest number, 
seventeen, died in October. The three most healthful consecu- 
tive months, were December, January and February, giving 
twenty-two deaths, or about one-fifth of the whole ; the three 
most fatal consecutive months, were September, October and 
November, giving thirty-nine deaths, or one-thirth of the whole ; 
showing the error of the prevalent opinion, that " bad weather." 
as it is called, is unhealthy, necessarily ; for, during the most 
inclement months of the year, the smallest number died ; while, 
during the three fall months, when the weather is neither too 
cool nor too hot, the mortality is nearly double. Railroad con- 
ductors, who are in and out of suffocating cars incessantly dur- 
ing the coldest months of the year, are observably healthy men. 
The men of the Arctic Expeditions do not die of bad colds, 
pleurisies, and the like. Persons often make the inquiry, when 
in a decline, will it hurt me to go out of doors ? Our almost uni- 
versal reply is, " No ! it will do you good. Go out, rain or 
shine ; if it is raining, have an umbrella, and let it rain on." 
How is it ? Part of the lungs are gone, or at least they are work- 
ing imperfectly, consequently such person is living on a less 
amount of air than the system requires ; hence, the air he does 
consume should be the purest possible ; and as no air within 
any four walls can be pure, the air of out doors, during day- 
light, must be the most proper for all, especially for consump- 
tives, the world over. It is the irrational dread of talcing cold, 
by going out of doors, which kills nine consumptives out of 
ten, far sooner than the disease itself would have done. If any 
man, sick or well, wants an infallible receipt for getting into that 
unfortunate condition in which " the slightest thing in the world 
gives him a cold," let him hover around the fire all day, let him 
bundle up, head and ears, every time he puts his head out at a 
door or window, and besides, keep his room regulated to a de- 
gree, for months at a time. Such a person never can get well 
of any thing ; such a person, with such habits persevered in, 
will die, long before his time, it matters not what may be his 
ailment. Under " the sunny skies of Italy, 11 where, according to 



Clerical Mortuary. 69 

poetic account, it is a happiness to breathe, so balmy is its at- 
mosphere, the average of human life is shorter than in any other 
civilized country. Do not fear then the bleak December or the 
fiercer January, unless quite an invalid, or very old ; the first 
consideration with the infant of one year or seventy-five, is 
warmth, warmth, WARMTH. 

There is, however, one condition of the weather which all, 
except those in good health, should endeavor to avoid. An 
East wind is as fraught with danger and calamity now, as it was 
in the days of Scripture history. Such winds prevail after rains 
in this country, and there is a rawness and a dampness about 
them, which urgently calls for shelter for man and beast, even 
in mid summer. None, not even the healthy, can be exposed to 
east or northeast winds in the United States, at least, east of the 
Eocky Mountains, with impunity, except under one condition, 
and that is, under circumstances of bodily activity, sufficient to 
keep off all feeling of chilliness, and when such activity ceases, 
immediate retirement to a closed room, if indeed not to a good 
fire, even if in summer time, for it is in summer time the most 
consumptive colds originate. 

Of the 120 clergymen dying during 1855, two-thirds, eighty, 
have their ages recorded, the youngest 27, the oldest 94 ; of 
these eighty, one-half had passed "three score and ten," thus 
confirming the generally received opinion of staticians that 
Theologians are the longest lived of all the members of the human 
family, the reasons for which, we believe, are mainly these : 

1st. Being poorly supported, they have to u rough it ;" the 
luxuries of life are impossible to them. 

2d. The largest portion of their time, as a class, is spent on 
horseback, or other modes of travel, thus securing a large con- 
sumption of out-door air, with the very great advantage of fre- 
quent changes of air, food, and mode of preparation. 

3. Pleasurable associations. The contemplations of a minis- 
ter, are of a soothing character ; his is a mission of love, of 
pure benevolence, the exercise of which, must always be happy- 
fying. 

Not only so, the clergymen of this country, and we feel thank- 
ful that it is so, are everywhere received with a respectful, 
cordial and affectionate welcome. What house is there in this 
whole land, outside of cities, where every thing is upside down, 



70 HaWs Journal of Health. 

wrong end foremost, antipodean, except in materiel benevo- 
lences, where, we say, can a family be found, which has not at 
least one Martha to be careful of the minister's comfort, that he 
have the best of every thing ; and in return for these attentions, 
aside from duty and natural solicitude for their spiritual wel- 
fare, there runs out from the minister's heart towards those with 
whom he is brought in contact, a living stream of tender con- 
cern, which in its reflex influences, gives warmth and health to 
soul and body ; thus verifying the promise that those who love 
and serve God best, not only have the life that now is, but that 
which is to come. Having secured religion, all other necessary 
things are thrown in. 



THE NOKTH POLE. 



Graham's Magazine for February, 1856, has a most interest- 
ing original article, being a sketch of Dr. Kane, who at the age 
of thirty-four years finds himself world-renowned, not as a 
human butcher, alias military chieftain, but celebrated for the 
humanity of his nature, for all that is noble, brave, daring, and 
all for the love of others, for the bare chance of saving from a 
miserable death, men whom he had never seen, but whom he 
considered his brethren in science and the sea. Having greatly 
impaired his constitution by exposures in southern latitudes, 
he seems to have greatly improved it by a succession of ex- 
posures to an atmosphere eighty degrees below zero. This is 
a fact worth noting by the multitudinous many who seek health 
by a going to the south." 

We have been informed that Br. Kane in personal appear- 
ance, action and tone of voice, is the twin of ourself. In one 
respect we know there is a striking difference, Dr. Kane, like 
all great men, is universally known as a man of great mo- 
desty : we do not really believe that we know what that is, we 
are principled against modesty, which is considered to be 
thinking less of one's self than is warranted. We cannot see the 
practical use of that. We are at all places and at all times 
of the Utilitarian School. We never could see the advantage 
of underestimating one's self. Certain are we, that as great 
violence is done to truth in undervaluing as in overvaluing. 
We have always taken the wise mean and considered the safest 



The North Pole. 71 

side of error to be, in the over-estimate. Every observant 
man must know tbat brass is durable, is sustaining ; brazen- 
faced people go with a glory, where the mealy-mouthed would 
perish ; and if the accumulation of money be the criterion of 
life-success, we can mention scores of individuals whose only 
element of success consisted in having consciences cast in brass. 
But we must here make a metaphysical distinction which is of 
great value. Self-reliance is the true metal, combined as it 
always is with indomitable energy. The opposite class of per- 
sons are what may be called the self-opinionated, who have the 
brass in sound, the brassy ring, without any of its enduring 
qualities. 

Dr. Kane has the enviable distinction of having stood with 
his small and delicate frame, of five feet and a half, with less 
than a hundred and thirty pounds, a degree of cold, and at a 
higher elevation of latitude, than an}' other civilized man — he 
reached the point of eighty- two and a half degrees north latitude, 
within seven and a half degrees of the north pole, where he be- 
held a sea of unpenetrated ice eighty miles across, beyond 
which were evidences of land, and vegetation and animal life, 
with a temperature as promising as an Italian sky. What 
fountain of health there may be beyond that icy sea, and with- 
in that circle which no mortal has yet been known to enter, the 
future only can develope, but the following circular, written 
nearly forty years ago by one who was considered by some, as 
our friend his son now is, and perhaps as incorrectly, will be 
read with interest at this time. It was addressed : 

(i To the town of Louisville, as a Body Corporate, {per mail}) 
Kentucky. 

LIGHT GIVES LIGHT, TO LIGHT DISCOVER— ' AD INFINITUM.' 

St. Louis, (Missouri Territory,) 
North America, April 10, A. D., 1818. 
To all the World! 

I declare that the earth is hollow, and habitable within; 
containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within 
the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees ; 
I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to 
explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in 
the undertaking. Jno Cleves Symmes, 

Of Ohio, late Captain of Infantry, 



72 HalVs Journal of Health. 

N. B. — I have already for the press a Treatise on the prin- 
ciples of matter, wherein I show proofs of the above posi- 
tions, accounts for various phenomena, and disclose Doctor 
Darwin's Golden Secret. 

My terms are the patronage of this and the new world. 

I dedicate to my wife and her ten children. 

I select Doctor 8. L. Mitchell, Sir H. Davy, and Baron Alex, 
dc Humboldt, as my protectors. 

I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start 
from Siberia in the fall season, with Reindeer and slays, on the 
ice of the frozen sea; I engage we find warm and rich land, 
stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals if not men, on 
reaching one degree northward of latitude 82 ; we will return 
in the succeeding spring. J. C. S. 



:BOOK NOTICES, REVIEWS, &c. 

Some years ago, we had under our medical care a lady 
of great sweetness of character, the mother of a large family 
of children, to one of whom we sent a beautiful little book, 
beautiful in its mechanical execution, and as beautiful in sen- 
timent, as it was true. Some days afterwards we inquired of 
the mother how her child liked the little book. " Really 
Doctor, I have not yet placed it in her hands, as I have not 
had an opportunity of reading it ; for it is my habit, not to 
allow my younger children to read any book unless I have 
first examined it myself." This accomplished woman, with 
almost regal wealth at her command, had dismissed the world, 
with all the fascinations which a southern city can throw 
around social intercourse, and consecrated herself to the moral 
and religious tuition of her children. She soon passed away, 
but Ave feel quite sure, that she and the little ones she left 
behind her, will form a blest re-union above, a whole family 
saved in heaven, to be separated no more. 

This lesson of example has its own loud and impressive 
•teaching, and we pass on to speak as a physician of the ruinous 
physical, mental and moral tendencies which very many books 
have on boys and girls, on young women and young men. 
Many publications, even of what are called "respectable" pub- 



Book Notices, Reviews, &c. 73 

lishing houses, are not more fit for young persons to read 
than Don Juan or the works of George Sands. 

When children have become able to read with ease, their 
literary maws expand to most wonderful dimensions ; they de- 
vour every book within their reach, which is adapted to their 
comprehension, and so eager are they to drink in knowledge 
sometimes, that play is forgotten, they have to be reminded at 
meal time that the table is waiting, and before you are aware 
of it, they have slipped away, and you find them in some 
retired corner, as deeply absorbed in reading, as was Newton 
in following out some of his great calculations. Physically, 
this habit is ruinous ; the brain is exercised too much, stimulated 
too highly ; it consumes the nervous energy which ought to 
have gone to the stomach, to be expended in the more perfect 
digestion and elimination of the essence of the food for the sup- 
port of the body; presently the brain becomes overworked, 
loses its vital force, its capability of resisting disease ; being 
overwrought, its vitality is below par, and the very first ail- 
ment the child has, cold, fever, any thing, "goes to the brain 1 
in common phrase, and death is very generally inevitable. 
Thus perished within six months, the beautiful boy who took 
the premium at Barnum's Baby show: at that time, he was re- 
ported never to have been sick a day, and he was as bright as 
he was beautiful. 

If the mother would make it a point to read carefully every 
book, previous to its being placed in the hands of her child, 
the result would most generally be, that very few books indeed, 
in the course of a year would the children have to read, because, 
household duties properly attended to, take up all a mother's 
time ; the child then, not having many books, would give more 
time to play, and be that much more likely to live. 

Parents are less careful than they would otherwise be, in 
placing books in the hands of their children, in consequence of 
the confidence they have in the newspapers which they take ; 
they reason thus, " the editor speaks very highly of it ; he re- 
ceived an early copy for examination, and says it is well worth 
a place in every family." This parent does not know, that nine 
times out of ten, the editor never saw the book, or if he did, 
never read a dozen, not three consecutive pages ; that as far as 
large towns and cities are concerned, the editor pays a man for 



74: HalVs Journal of Health. 

reviewing books, and the owners of these books pay this same, 
or some other man to write these favorable notices ; this same 
notice manufacturer being more frequently than otherwise some 
learned foreigner or some native literary adventurer, who, hav- 
ing some capabilities, and flattered into the belief that he has 
more, takes the very natural next step of cutting loose from the 
strict trainings of parental piety, and launches himself out into 
the world as a man of ■* liberal views /" is lauded by a certain 
class as being " entirely free from cant and old-fashioned puri- 
tanical notions;" in due process of time, this same young man 
is voted a good fellow, grows witty over a glass of " half-and- 
half," and anon we read — — ■ — — morning paper, f Died yes- 
terday, suddenly, of disease of the heart 11 or " apoplexy," which 
being interpreted correctly, means " Brandy." 

It is well known that such is the no uncommon history of 
itemizers and sub-editors, and upon their opinion is it, that we 
introduce books into our families, to supply the moral pabulum 
of our children. 

We do not mean to say that a majority of the men who write 
the book notices for the secular press, are persons of this charac- 
ter, but some of them are, and this being the case, we contend 
that it is not safe for a parent to put a book into the hands of a 
child, on the recommendation of the secular press of cities and 
large towns, unless a previous examination authorizes the parent 
to endorse the sentiments of the reviewer. That the book 
notices of the secular press of cities and large towns are an un- 
safe guide in our estimate of new publications, we have only to 
recur to the unstinted praise from hundreds of presses, bestow- 
ed with such lavish profusion on the lustful, lecherous and 
adulterous issues of a Hot Corn/ 1 "Mary Lyndon,' 1 and the like. 

There is another class of books, against which we warn all 
who are so happy as to have children, whom they daily hope 
and pray, will be their solace, when old age comes upon them ; 
the titles of some of these corrupting publications read in this 
wise: " Anthropology," "Every Mother's Own Book," "Physi- 
ology," " Woman's Manual 11 $^W*for every females own private 
use! 1 with colored plates. "Young Man's Adviser," &c. &c.— 
all such publications, with Family Companion, Domestic Medi- 
cine, and the like, had far better be thrown into the fire. 

By reading such publications, young men have applied to us 
for ailments which these readings have caused them to magnify 



Booh Notices, Reviews, &c. — Death and Railroads. 75 

to the size of alarming maladies, and having spent hundreds of 
dollars on the authors of these books without being made a whit 
better, thej have applied to us in a state of mind bordering on 
despair, which true views have permanently dissipated. 

We are inclined to think, that all medical publications should 
be rigidly excluded from the libraries of the young, with a few 
exceptions, such as " Anatomy, Physiology and Hygiene, de- 
signed for academies, schools and families, by Calvin Cutter, 
M. D." Uses and Abuses of Air, by Dr. Griscom, of this city, 
and our own Journal. If the three works we have named were 
in every household in the United States, and were read and 
practised upon, even to a limited extent, we believe that a revo- 
lution would take place in public opinion, in reference to human 
health, which would add years to the life of the next generation. 

In view of the very prevalent prostitution of the secular 
press to the interests of the large publishing houses of our coun- 
try, we suggest that all " booh notices and reviews" of the week- 
ly press be considered a nuisance, which ought to be abated, 
and the sooner the better ; and as a substitute, let & succinct index 
of the subjects treated of be published without any opinion what- 
ever. And as to the monthly and quarterly publications, we 
have long been of the opinion, that a simple statement of their 
contents, terms and place of publication, would be " valuable 
information" to readers, and would in very many instances, sell 
a copy or gain a new subscriber, where the most " splendid 
notice" would have failed to secure a second thought. We have 
in many instances purchased a book or paper or monthly on 
account of a single item of its contents. This suggestion merits 
more than a passing thought on the part of publishers and the 
press, and we believe the community would be a large gainer 
in a moral, as well as a literary point of view. 



Death and Eailroads. — Of all modes of travel, that on 
railroads is safest for life and limb, if the official statement be 
true, that of twelve million of passengers transported over the 
main railroads of New York during 1855, only twelve were 
killed, and of these, eleven were standing on the platform. The 
safest place on a rail car is the inside, about the centre of the 
car, if there be no stove there, and on the end of the seat, next 
to the aisle. 



76 



HalVs Journal of Health. 



SEYEEAL SELECTIONS. 



QUACKOPATHY. 

Take of Brandreth's pills, 

A twenty-five cent box ; 
And of Townsend's Sarsaparilla, 

Enough to kill an ox. 

Before yon go to bed, 

Eat a quart of Salmagundi, 

And on top of this, 

Take a dose of " alicomfundi. ,) 

Every night and morning, 
Drink a pint of Brandy, — 

Sweeten if you please, 

With a stick of Cough Cure Candy 

Then add to the above, 
A pail of Quacknip tea, — 

Then if you are not dead, 
You surely ought to be. 



SENSEOPATHY. 

Take the open air — 

The more you take the bette: 
Follow nature's laws 

To the very letter. 

Let the doctors go 

To the Bay of Biscay — 

Let alone the Gin, 

The Brandy and the Whisky, 

Freely exercise : 

Keep your spirits cheerful, 
Let no dread of sickness 

Make you over fearful. 

Eat the simplest food, 

Drink the pure cold water, 

Then you will be well, 
Or at least you ought ter. 



Winter Butter. — In many parts of our country the art of 
making good butter in winter is very imperfectly understood, 
and by some dairy-women thought to be entirely impossible. 
But it can be done in December as well as in May. The plan 
of doing it is this : The cows should be stabled and fed on sweet 
hay and other provender. Instead of keeping the milk in a 
warm place, it should be put in a cold one, and no matter how 
soon it freezes, because freezing it will separate the cream much 
more perfectly than it will rise without this atmospheric tem- 
perature, and it can then be taken off with less trouble. And 
when the cream is churned the churn should not be placed near 
a fire; the ordinary heat of a kitchen would be sufficient. Too 
much warmth destroys both the complexion and the flavor of 
butter. In the winter butter requires more time in churning 
than in summer ; but when patience assists the laborer, the task 
is made no task at all. 

Butter cured with half ounce of salt, quarter ounce of salt- 
petre, quarter ounce of moist sugar, pounded, used in the pro- 
portion of an ounce to each pound of butter, will be found to 
keep good a longer time, and have a more delicious flavor than 
when salted in the ordinary way. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 



VOL. III.] APRIL, 1856. [NO. IV 



POPULAR FALLACIES. 

It is not true that sugar and candies are of themselves inju- 
rious to the teeth or the health of those who use them ; so far 
from it, the j are less injurious than any of the ordinary forms 
of food when employed in moderation. 

Any scientific dentist will tell you, that the parts of teeth 
most liable to decay, are those which afford lodgment to par- 
ticles of food ; such particles being decomposed by moisture and 
heat, give out an acid, which will corrode steel as well as teeth ; 
but pure sugar, and pure candies are wholly dissolved, there is 
no remnant to be decomposed to yield this destructive acid ; 
we remember now no item of food which is so perfectly dis- 
solved in the mouth as sugar and candy. When visiting the 
sugar plantations of Cuba, the attention was constantly arrested 
by the apparently white and solid teeth of the negroes who su- 
perintended the process of cane grinding; they drank the cane- 
juice like water, there was no restraint as to its use, and the 
little urchins playing about, would chew the sugar-yielding 
cane by the hour. It is much the same in Louisiana, where the 
shining faces and broad grins of the blacks are equally indica- 
tive of exuberant health and " splendid teeth." 

How does it happen then that there should be " the prevalent 
belief" that sugar and sugar- candy destroy the teeth and under- 
mine the health? Perhaps the most correct reply is Tradition, 
the father of a progeny of errors in. theory and practice ; of 
errors in doctrine and example, " too tedious to mention." 

One of the common faults of the times is an indisposition to 
investigate on the part of the masses. We take too much for 
granted. A very common answer to a demand for a reason 



78 HalVs Journal of Health. 

for a time honored custom, is " Why, I have heard it all my life. 
Don't everybody say so f 

It would be a strange contradiction in the nature of things, 
if sugar and candy in moderation, should be hurtful to the 
human body in any way, for sugar is a constituent of every article 
of food we can name ; there is not a vegetable out of which 
it cannot be made, not a ripe fruit in our orchards which 
does not yield it in large proportions, and it is the main consti- 
tuent of that " milk" which is provided for the young of animals 
and men all over the world. Perhaps the child has never lived 
which did not love sweet things beyond all others ; it is an 
instinct, a passion, not less universal, than the love of water. 
A very little child can be hired to do for a bit of sugar what 
nothing else would. The reason of this is, that without sugar, 
no child could possibly live, it would freeze to death ; it is the 
sugar in its food which keeps it warm, and warmth is the 
first necessity for a child. 

But to use this information intelligently and profitably, it 
must be remembered that sugar is an artificial product, is a con- 
centration, and that, if used in much larger proportions than 
would be found in our ordinary food, as provided by the bene- 
ficent Father of us all, we will suffer injury. We should 
never forget, that the immoderate use of any thing is destructive 
to human health and life, if persevered in. The best genera 1 
rules to be observed are two : 

First, Use concentrated sweets at meal times only. 

Second, Use them occasionally, and in moderation. 



ARCHITECTS AND BATH EOOMS. 

We do not believe there is one Architect in the United 
States known to favorable fame who is capable of doing either 
one of two things, viz. : 

Of erecting a public building that will not leak, or, 

Of constructing a dwelling heated by a furnace which cannot 
take fire. 

Perhaps they are not to blame—the odium may be due to par- 
simonious landlords. But wherever the fault is chargeable, 
intelligent and observing men know very well that there is 



Architects and Bath Rooms. 79 

scarcely a public building in New-York of late erection which 
has not leaked, or which does not now leak. And who knows 
a perfectly safe flue in all New York ? Is there an Architect 
who understands the philosophy of a Bath-Room ? The room 
of all others, except a permanent sitting room, which most 
needs a flue or register, or other heating apparatus attached to 
it, is the " Bath Room," and yet we have never seen a bath room 
with such an attachment. 

Let us for a moment lay aside all book and newspaper know- 
ledge, all preconceived notions, and consult our feelings in the 
operation of that kind of bathing whose object is to make the 
body clean of the grease, scales, dust, &c, which are constantly 
accumulating on its surface. 

We all know that cold water will not make the hands clean, 
nor will hard water, even if it is warm. Hence when we wish 
to wash ourselves very clean, we use warm water with soap, 
and if we can get it, rain or cistern, or snow water. 

With the present habits of civilized life, comparatively few 
persons among the middle and upper classes of society have 
vitality enough to make a cold bath advisable : they have not 
that " reaction" which gives to a cold bath its highest advantage, 
hence even the most rabid cold-waterist does not advise cold 
baths under such circumstances. Then when we take into ac- 
count how many children there are who are too young for a 
cold bath, that old have not the stamina for it, whilst to that 
large number, neither infants, nor aged nor young people, but 
"children" who roll about in the dust, and mud, and snow, 
who sprawl upon the floor and dabble in water and dirt, the 
bathing which is most needed, is a cleansing operation ; nothing 
short of soap, warm water, and a bristle brush will meet their 
demands, so that after all, especially in winter time, by nine per- 
sons out often in the whole community of those who practise 
bathing, the tepid or warm bath is what is needed. In fact, only 
the very small class of persons who are robust " can stand" a 
cold bath in winter, and in our opinion such persons do not 
need it. If you are well, let yourself alone as to remedial means, 
for you can't be better than well. Personally, this is our theory, 
and practice too,' we never had a cold bath but once, since boy- 
hood, and that made us sick, and we shudder at the thought of 
a cold bath ever since. We believe cold shower baths are the 



80 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ordinary punishments inflicted on refractory convicts in our peni- 
tentiaries, we have understood that they regard them with 
the greatest dread, and yet there are wiseacres among us who 
daily submit themselves to that self-infliction. Such persons 
have expatiated in eloquent terms as to the delightful feelings 
experienced after the operation is over of a morning. As for 
that matter, we feel delightful of a morning without all that 
trouble and penance. The perusal of the morning papers before 
a bright coal fire in the grate makes us feel delightful, and 
more delightful still, hearing now and then the meanwhile, the 
rapid patting of the little feet of our children on the floor above 
us, as they get out of bed, and run to the fire, being the first 
telegraphic message to us in the morning that they have waked 
up well, merry and happy. This is a feeling more purely de- 
lightful than any cold shower bath can originate, without the 
preceding "shock" which we always think of with a shudder. 
So our advice is, if you want to feel " delightful" of a winter's 
morning, have a young dozen of little children about the house 
your own, mind — take one or two morning papers, and pay for 
them in advance, (for there's a singular virtue in that,) get 
up, dress for the day, and be seated before a brisk, burning fire 
by the time it is fairly light enough to read, be sure tho' to 
have no " bills payable" that day, for that will spoil all the fun. 
There's nothing " delightful" under such circumstances, when 
there are no assets to draw upon. 

But we have unconsciously wandered from the bath-room to 
Wall-street. Surely we are getting worldly-minded. The fact 
is, we have not felt as great an interest in our Journal of late as 
we used to. Wonder if our readers have been led to surmise 
the same thing ! Ah me, we find ourselves, and most unwil- 
lingly, arriving at the experience of Lord Byron, when he de- 
clared that he had come to the point of his life in which he 
began to feel the highest possible respect for the smallest amount 
of current coin, and we find within us a growing, loving attrac- 
tion towards the avocations which — as Jonathan would say, 
"pay best! v Our experience and observation convince us that 
nine men out of ten will pay in experiments for regaining 
health a thousand dollars, more cheerfully than they would pay 
one for information, which, if acted upon, would certainly pre- 
serve it, and fortunate it is for us Doctors that the masses are 



Clean your Cellars 81 

such numskulls, else we would find our occupation gone, and 
would have to go to cracking rocks for the turnpike, or picking 
oakum. 

When we sat down we intended to tell on one side of a half- 
sheet, how a bath-room ought to be constructed, but our mind 
is forever calculating how much money this six inches of snow 
on the morning of the nineteenth day of March, Anno Domini, 
eighteen hundred and fifty-six, with zero just ten days ago, will 
bring us — hope it will be u considerable", any how. Now for the 
bath-room, desperately. 

As nine-tenths, if not its whole use in winter, at least in the 
majority of families, is for cleansing purposes, the water should 
be warm, but if the body emerges from the water into an atmos- 
phere much colder, we all know the uncomfortableness of the 
feeling which follows ; this causes us to perform the operation 
hurriedly and consequently slightingly, while to a great many 
the more serious result is a severe cold, causing days and weeks, 
if not months of subsequent discomfort or illness. The water 
then in the bath-room should feel comfortably warm, while the 
air of the room should be of such a temperature, as to prevent 
any sensation of coldness amounting to the disagreeable. It is 
safer to be guided by one's feelings as to the temperature of the 
water and the air of the room than a thermometer ; for not only 
do different persons, by reason of their different degrees of 
health require a different temperature, but for the same reason, 
the same person may require a temperature to-day, which 
would not be suitable a week or a month hence. 



CLEAN YOUE CELLAES. 



By a beneficial arrangement of Providence, the gases and 
odors most prejudicial to human life, are lighter than the air 
which surrounds us, and, as soon as disengaged, rise immedi- 
ately to the upper atmosphere, to be purified, and then returned 
to be used again. 

The warmer the weather, the more rapidly are these gases 
generated, and the more rapidly do they rise, hence it is, that 
in the most miasmatic regions of the Tropics, the traveler ca\ 
with safety pursue his journey at mid-day, but to do so in/une 



82 HaWs Journal of Health. 

cool of the evening, or morning, or midnight, would be certain 
death. Hence also the popular but too sweeping dread of 
" night air." To apply this scientific truth to practical life in 
reference to the cellars under our dwellings, is the object of 
this article. 

In the first place, no dwelling house ought to have a cellar. 
But in large cities, the value of land makes them a seeming ne- 
cessity, but it is only seeming, for during many years' residence 
in New Orleans, we do not remember to have seen half-a-dozen 
cellars. But if we must have them, let science construct them 
in such a manner, and common sense use them in such a way 
as to obviate the injuries which would otherwise result from 
them. 

The ceilings of cellars should be well plastered, in order most 
effectually to prevent the ascent of dampness and noisome odors 
through the joints of the flooring. 

The bottom of the cellar should be well paved with stone, 
cobble stones are perhaps best ; over this should be poured, to 
the extent of several inches in thickness, water lime cement, or 
such other material as is known to acquire in time almost the 
hardness of stone; this keeps the dampness of the earth, below. 
If additional dryness is desired for special purposes, in parts 
of the cellar, let common scantling be laid down, at convenient 
distances, and loose boards be laid across them for convenience 
of removal and sweeping under, when cleaning time of the year 
comes. 

The walls should be plastered, in order to prevent the dust 
from settling on the innumerable projections of a common stone 
wall. 

Shelves should be arranged in the centre of the cellar, not in 
the corners, or against the walls ; these shelves should hang 
from the ceiling, by wooden arms, attached firmly before plas- 
tering, thus you make all safe from rats. 

To those who are so fortunate as to own the houses in which 
they live, we recommend the month of June, but to renters, the 
great moving month of May, in New York at least, as the 
most appropriate time for the following recommendations. 

Let every thing not absolutely nailed fast, be removed into 
the yard, and exposed to the sun, and if you please, remain for 
a tj week or two, so as to afford opportunity for a thorough 
drying. 



Clean our Cellars. 83 

Let the walls and floors be swept thoroughly, on four or five 
different days, and let a coat of good whitewashing be laid on. 

These things should be done once a year, and one day in the 
week at least, except in mid winter, every opening in the cellar, 
for several hours, about noon, should be thrown wide ; so as to 
allow as complete a ventilation as possible. Scientific men 
have forced on the common mind, by slow degrees, the impor- 
tance of a daily ventilation of our sleeping apartments, so that 
now, none but the careless or most obtuse neglect it, but few 
think of ventilating their cellars, although it is apparent that 
the noisome dampness is constantly rising upwards and perva- 
ding the whole dwelling. 

Emanations from cellars do not kill in a night, if they did, 
universal attention would be forced to their proper manage- 
ment, but it is certain, from the very nature of things, that un- 
clean, damp, and mouldy cellars, with their sepulchral fumes 
do undermine the health of multitudes of families, and send 
many of their members to an untimely grave ; especially must 
it be so in New York, where the houses are generally construc- 
ted in such a manner, that the ordinary access to the cellar, for 
coal, wood, vegetables, etc. is within the building, and every 
time the cellar door is opened, the draught from the grating in 
the street, drives the accumulation of the preceding hours di- 
rectly upwards into the halls and rooms of the dwelling, there 
to be breathed over and over again, by every member of the 
household, thus poisoning the very springs of life, and pollu- 
ting the whole blood. 

With these views we earnestly advise our city readers, as a 
life-saving thought, in the selection of a dwelling for the ensu- 
ing year, to give ten per cent, more for a home which has a 
model cellar ; you will more than save it in doctor's bills, in all 
probability, to say nothing of taking pills, and drops, and bit- 
ters, and gin, from one month's end to another. Let a good 
cellar determine your choice, rather than the more coveted 
" Brown Stone Front," or the locality of Fourteenth Street, 
Union Square, or Fifth Avenue. 



Bed Curtains are unhealthy, because they confine the air 
around us while we sleep ; a canary bird will die in a night, 
suspeded in that situation. 



84 HalVs Journal of Health. 

HOW TO LEND MONEY 



IF YOU LEND AT ALL: 



To your friends I As a pure business transaction, you may 
not be too careful. But when a friend of other years conies 
along, who has not been as successful as yourself, whom disap- 
pointment or misplaced confidence, or unavoidable calamity has 
pressed to the earth, a friend who was once your equal ia all 
things, inferior in none, except perhaps in that hardness of 
character, which is a general element of success in life, don't 
begin to hem and haw, and stroke your chin ; don't talk about 
" huts''' and " whys, 1 ' and the " tightness of the money market" he 
knows that already — spare him the intelligence that you "once 
loaned Mr. so and so a sum of money, which was never re- 
turned ;" he don't want your biography, he wants your cash. 
Don't remind him that if he were to die, you would lose it ; 
that arrow may sink deeper into his heart than any amount of 
money could ever fathom, and then, close with a recital of this, 
that and the other thing, which, if really true, could not mate- 
rially interfere with your furnishing him the required amount. 
If you have ordinary sagacity, you can make up your mind in 
a moment, whether to grant the accommodation or to refuse it. 
If you are a man and you design a refusal, tell him at once in 
some kindly way, that you do not feel prepared to accede to his 
wishes. If on the other hand, you have a heart to help him, 
don't do it as if you felt it were a mountain grinding you to 
powder, or as if each dollar you parted from, was inflicting a pain 
equal to the drawing of a tooth ; don't torture him with cross 
questioning, nor worm out of him some of the most sacred se- 
crets of his life ; away with your inquisitorial, brassy imperti- 
nence ; don't lay him on the rack for an hour at a time, as if 
you gloated at the sacrifice of his manhood, as if you wished to 
make him go down on his very knees to win his way into your 
purse, away with it all we say, and stand up like a man ; give 
him a cordial greeting, let a holy sunshine light up your coun- 
tenance, and speak out before he has done asking, tell him how 
much you are gratified at having it in your power to help him, 
and let that help go out in a full, free soul, and with a good 
slap on the shoulder, bid him look upward and ahead for there's 
sunshine there for him. Why the very feeling- in that man's 



Cause of Death. % 85 

heart as he goes away from you, is worth more to humanity, 
than all the money you let him have, ten times told. He 
goes out of your presence with a heart as light as a feather, in 
love with all the world, and full of admiring gratitude towards 
yoil. He feels his manhood, he feels that confidence is reposed 
in him, that he is still a man, and this conviction nerves him 
up to a resolution, to an ambition, to an energy which are of 
themselves a guarantee of after success. He goes to work with 
a will, which hews down the obstacles and melts away the ice- 
bergs which hedge up the ways of men, and behold in a moment, 
rough places are made smooth, and straight places made plain 
to him. 

Eeader ! suppose you never get your money back, and you 
have a heart so big, that you can, notwithstanding his non-pay- 
ment, give him at every meeting a cordial smile of friendly 
recognition, can speak to him without ever reminding him of his 
indebtedness ; it may be that you are his only friend, but then 
you are the world to him, and however hardly that world may 
have dealt with him, your single exception is placed to the 
credit side of humanity, a thousand times its individual value ; 
that man can never die a misanthrope, for he will insist upon it 
to his latest breath, " there's kindness in the world after all," — 
What a grand thing it is to have a man close his eyes in death, 
and one of the last thoughts of mortality be a prayer for bless- 
ings on your head. 

We repeat, then, if you lend money at all, do so freely, 
promptly, do it with a whole soul. Do it with a grace that 
becomes a man, with a cordiality which will do quite as much 
as your money in raising your friend from the depressing influ- 
ences which surround him. We do not advise the loan of 
money in any given case, but write to show in what manner it 
should be done, when decided upon, to bring the most pleasant 
reminiscences to yourself hereafter, and to carry with it the 
largest advantages to him whom you wish to befriend. 



CAUSE OF DEATH. 

Medical science is much indebted to the able researches of 

Wundt, in one of these, the important induction is drawn that 

H The proximate cause of death is Asphyxia," that is to say, 

" a man dies for want of breath" and science has found it out ! 



86 HalVs Journal of Health. 

But every body knew that before, still it was knowledge with 
only one leg ; to know a fact is one thing, to know the reason 
of it is a very different matter ; indeed it is all the difference 
between a wise man and a fool. Now to get a practical idea 
out of all this, we must make the circuit of " Kobin Hood's 
barn" of infantile memory. 

If when a man dies, it is for want of breath, how is it possible 
for him to die when his head is cut off? for his head does not 
breathe, but his lungs ! It is true, that the lungs are supplied 
with breath through the nose and mouth, but if that were all, 
we could put the nozzle of a bellows in the wind pipe and let 
the body dance away ! 

There is a nerve which comes from the brain, grows out of 
it, as it were, and in coming from the head, it divides into 
two branches, one of which goes to the stomach, the other 
to the throat and lungs. If you cut off the stomach branch, 
there is no digestion ; if you divide the lung branch there is no 
breathing. If you injure one branch, that injury, if kept in 
continuance, affects the other branch, hence it is, that dyspeptic 
people have throat ail, sooner or later ; hence it is, that such 
persons dwindle away, and if not cured, fall into a decline. The 
consumptive may eat a great deal ; and he has a good appe- 
tite to the last day of his life, but his food does not seem to 
afford nourishment, because the stomach branch of the nerve 
has lost its power, hence he eats, but it gives him no strength, 
he has not the strength to breathe without an effort, and that 
effort he has not power to make except at intervals, hence con- 
sumptives breathe short and quick; and shorter and quicker 
to the last struggle. Consumptive people do not die for want 
of lungs, as is generally supposed. A man can live an age with 
half of all his lungs in full operation, and live in considerable 
health, too. General Jackson had lost a third of his lungs, as 
his autopsy indicated twenty years before his death. Most con- 
sumptives die long, very long, before half their lungs are 
gone ; and why ? simply for want of breath! for want of bodily 
power to fill the lungs they have, to their full, of pure air. To 
have bodily strength, we must have a good digestion, and good 
digestion will give bodily strength under all circumstances, 
hence to cure a consumptive, that is, to arrest the further pro- 
gress of lung decay, and enable him to live on what lungs he 



Mental Health. 87 

has left, the man must be made to digest substantial meat and 
bread, the most healthfully nourishing of all human edibles — as 
a means of enabling him to draw in pure air. Therefore, we 
are impelled to the conclusion, and it is one of world-wide sig- 
nificance, that there are no means of arresting the progress of 
consumptive disease in any case, except by increasing the capa- 
bilities of the stomach of food digestion, to the end that the lungs 
be empowered thereby to draw in and use a larger amount of 
pure air, that very air which the Almighty, in his wisdom, has 
made to be food for the lungs. 

By a section, a cutting off, of this nerve of which we have been 
speaking, the Pneumogastric, Wundt found that it required more 
time and more strength to draw a sufficient breath, the breath- 
ing then became slower, the quantity of air inspired gradually 
diminished, the body grew colder, the lungs became clogged, 
and the victim died. Therefore, reader, if you wish to be a 
11 well man" perfect your digestion, perfect your good breathing. 



MENTAL HEALTH. 

In an article in our March number, on " Insanity," we advo- 
cated the idea that so great a calamity is best avoided by not 
allowing ourselves to think too much about one thing. The 
tendency of an interested mind is concentration, ending often 
in abstraction, sometimes called Absence of mind ; as for exam- 
ple, an old Bachelor who had spent an hour with a bewitching 
young widow, and we know of nothing mundane more bewitch- 
ing, unless it is " sweet seventeen," or a — Baby — of your own ! 
Well, about the Benedict — on retiring to his chamber, he laid his 
candle in the bed, and blew himself out. That is a case of ab- 
sence of mind, not far distant from monomania, a thinking about 
one thing so much that the mind is unbalanced. 

Thus it is that many have been crazed by thinking too much 
on abstruse, intangible subjects, such as Prophecy, Perpetual 
Motion, Spiritualism, and the like. Hence in the April num- 
ber of last year on Mental Epidemics, we gave it as an opinion 
that it was not safe for any but educated and well balanced 
minds which had been chastened by severe study, to engage 
in such investigations. There are some facts in spiritualism, 
which for want of an explanation strike even intelligent men 



88 HalVs Journal of Health. 

with a subdued awe, and until a satisfactory explanation is dis- 
covered, will continue to exercise an influence over the com- 
mon mind, baneful in the highest degree. 

It is worse than useless, for men of learning and repute to 
reiterate their impatient denials of palpable facts which all of us 
can see for ourselves. There is such a thing as glorying in 
one's shame. Intelligent persons have taken a pride in exhi- 
biting their utter incredulity as to the facts connected with so 
called spiritualism, and have exhibited more incredulity in 
maintaining incredible hypotheses than does the most unculti- 
vated mind in giving as a reason that the world does not turn 
round, the soup would otherwise fall into the fire. 

However refined, and educated and talented a man may be, 
the moment he is supposed to advocate " Spiritualism 11 he is 
voted a fool, going crazy, lost his senses, with other epithets 
equally complimentary. 

There are thousands of facts which have been hooted at until 
explanations have demonstrated'their naturalness, and anon we 
feel assured that they could not have been otherwise. It cre- 
ates no surprise in us to see a dozen needles jump up from the 
table at the approach of the Armature, yet if you were to take a 
magnet in your hand and explain to an ignorant mind that it 
would pick up a needle from the table without touching it, he 
would be utterly incredulous until he saw the fact for himself, and 
in an instant incredulity is exchanged for a firm conviction, and 
an overwhelming awe. Were I to say to my readers that I had 
a substance, which if thrown into the water would dance until 
it was dead, would take fire and burn up, some of them would, 
even if they saw it with their own eyes, declare it was a trick, 
and would refuse to believe otherwise, until the nature of the 
substance was explained to them. Precisely thus is it with the 
facts in connection with the misnomer Spiritualism. The Rubi- 
con of utter incredulity and confirmed conviction is — explana- 
tion, show the philosophy of the thing, teach how it is done — 
the cloud disperses, the fog scatters, the curtain is drawn up, 
and what but a single moment before was hated as a humbug, 
is fondled as a fact, is received with that loving welcome so fa- 
.rniliar to those who seek the truth in the love of it. 

Ht is the confounding fact with fancy, which has filled the 
-world with the " Spiritual" folly. The theory of a truth is a 



Mental Health. 89 

very different thing from the truth itself: but to deny a fact 
because the theory of it is absurd, is absurdity itself; and yet 
the mass of men of mind in this country, and in Europe too, 
have committed that very absurdity, and not a few men of 
note, more pious than profound, have pronounced " Spiritual- 
ism," an invention of the Devil. An uncultivated young girl 
from the country exhibits certain phenomena which we see and 
hear ; she says "it's the spirits" and we turn around and ex- 
claim with most undignified impatience, " it's all nonsense." Is it 
not wonderful that an educated mind should have so little as- 
tuteness as to confound theory and fact together and brand 
them both as a falsehood in spite of the evidence of his eyes 
and ears, instead of separating them, and pronouncing upon 
each, according to its individual merit. Verily, this is a new 
era in ^Esthetics, the race of analytical philosophers in mental 
science is becoming extinct and common sense obsolete. 

The view which we take of Spiritualism is this. The facts 
are facts, but the "spirits," where are they? Echo answers 
non est inventus, out and gone, like Granger's eye. 

The tables can rap and tap, and hobble about the room with- 
out collusion, will run over, by, against and through people if 
they don't get out of the way; a person may get on the table, 
and with no other agency than its being touched with the 
ringer of a frail girl, that table will move about the room with 
the person on it ; tables will rise up to meet the fingers ; there, 
our actual knowledge ends ; the next step, and we are in the land 
of the impalpable, and do but flounder in the fog. 

Up to this time, many have risen with the exclamation, " h! 
here is the light? and often have we gone expectantly, only to be 
left in "darkness tangible," so that the prevailing feeling in 
our own mind, on hearing of a paper, or pamphlet, or book, 
or lecture, professing to explain Spiritualism, is to put our hand 
upon our pocket, as if there were an over busy finger about. 

Our readers are indebted for the foregoing to our having re- 
ceived from a Poet clergyman, a communication of some twenty 
manuscript pages, which by the way we never expect to read. 
We have glanced over some of them, and gather the idea that 
he believes himself capable of demonstrating. 

"1st. That table rappings, tappings, &c, are actual facts 
which can occur without collusion. 



90 HalVs Journal of Health. 

2d. " That the spirits of the departed have nothing to do with 
these phenomena." 

As to the other points, without admiring the smoothness of 
his diction, or the perspicacity of his ideas, we give his own 
words : 

Seven propositions to be mathematically demonstrated before a 
Scientific committee in New York city : 

1st. That the muscular power is an elimination from the phy- 
sical constitution. 

2d. That the identical person is the agent and actor. 

3d. That the physical and muscular power in voluntary men- 
tal attraction can be conveyed to and received by the one in 
rapport 

4th. That two inferior mediums can annul the physical effect 
and volition of the superior. 

5th. That every organization has more or less of this physi- 
cal, abstract, and volitic combination. 

6. That contact is essential as a means of connexion, and yet 
may not be in advanced, peculiar and extraordinary develop- 
ments. 

7th. Human presence, perceptible by the slightest impercep- 
tible attenuations. 

11 The above principles cover the whole ground of the tabular 
movement, and mathematical laws growing out of them, ex- 
plain the identity of the Scientific or natural, and the alleged 
" spirit power:' 

Often it is our involuntary exclamation " whereunto will 
these things grow." Certain is it, the end is not yet. In the lan- 
guage of a Doctor, in u sporadic cases" the end has been infi- 
delity, rationalism, dementia, madness, materialism, and what in 
our mind is worse than all, a sweeping rejection of the Holy 
Bible, as a divine revelation. So that in view of the whole 
subject, we say now to the masses, as we said just a year ago, 
go not in the way of temptation. Touch not, taste not, handle not 
this dangerous thing, for the touch of it has been to many 
spiritual death, a total uprooting of the faith of their fathers, 
leaving them 

In endless mazes, lost ! 



" Barnum 1 s Broke. 11 91 

"BAENUM'S BROKE," 



Is the expressive alliteration on the street, and passes from 
mouth to mouth with wonderful volubility, with glee, with sor- 
row, with spiteful delight, according to the heart of the utterer. 
"Republics are ungrateful," is not more a truth than that the 
one-eyed "Public," is an unjust judge. The religious newspa- 
pers incline to the idea, that Barnum's failure is a Providential 
dispensation, meaning thereby, that the Almighty has compassed 
this failure as a merited punishment for the alleged misdeeds of 
this world-renowned man. We do not take that view of the 
subject. Our Creator has framed certain laws, physical, men- 
tal, moral, for the government of us, his creatures ; laws whose 
observance brings happiness, whose infraction brings suffering, 
sorrow, degradation, and death itself. To these laws all are 
amenable, whether pauper or potentate, whether civilized or 
savage, whether philosopher or fool. Some err on the side of 
goodness and humanity, others on the side of a wicked nature. 
A man who has so much of the milk of human kindness in him, 
as never to be able to refuse a friend a dollar or an endorse- 
ment, inevitably comes out at the little end of the horn, is beg- 
gared. The miser often clutches so closely, as to lose all. It 
seems to us, that Barnum's failure is the direct result of kindly 
influences, and the curse justly falls, and will fall, sooner or 
later, in terrible dishonor, which is worse than death, on the 
heart that abused that kindness, that imposed on that confi- 
dence. 

We have no personal acquaintance with Mr. Barnum, we 
know him on the street, that is all, and what we say is for a public 
lesson of some considerable practical importance. In our esti- 
mation, and in the estimation of business men of reflection, 
Phineas T. Barnum was never more of a man than he is 
at this moment. As to what he has been, we interpret his past 
life differently from some people. What he is now, what he 
has been of recent years is the question which ought to deter- 
mine his status among us. No man knows that he is not a 
knave, until he is " broke," until he has failed in business. It 
is comparatively easy to be honest when surrounded with abun- 
dance, when there are no real, strong temptations to be other- 
wise. But when the day of failure is foreshadowed unmistaka- 



92 HalVs Journal of Health. 

bly, and a man finds himself surrounded with bags of gold, 
which will buy anything, and knows that to-morrow every one 
of them will be swept away from his grasp, and not a copper 
be left to buy him a cake to dine upon, under such circumstan- 
ces, to stand up and be a man, and say to creditors, u here it is ) 
take it all /" — this is the ordeal which tries the stuff a man is 
is made of. That ordeal Barnum has passed safe, unscathed, 
gloriously for himself, for he has shown himself to be in 
every inch, a MAN. On his trial, as reported in the New- 
York Daily Times, there was exhibited a promptness, a frank- 
ness, a fulness of reply to every question put, with a design to 
ferret out any concealed property, that from its very uncom- 
monness was amazing, and was as honorable as it was uncom- 
mon. Not satisfied with this, but exceeding the requirements 
of the judge, he offered to give up the watch in his pocket, and 
the diamond on his finger. 

How many a man, do we all know, lives in the splendid man- 
sion of this magnificent city, surrounded with every comfort 
which money can procure, out of whom innumerable creditors 
cannot force a farthing, and yet, who are treated with con- 
sideration, and spoken of in terms of respect, although con- 
tinuing as they do, to live in idle ease. Has Barnum done this ? 
Why no, he is too honestly independent, he has gone to keep- 
ing a Boarding House, dependent for the very meat and pota- 
toes which are placed upon his table, not on the money covertly 
laid aside for a rainy day, but upon the confidence of the few 
friends and kindred who know, better than the Public, what the 
" great showman" really is. 

How is it, why many a poor milk and water fellow would 
have gone instanter and blown his brains out, or fed himself to 
the fishes of the Hudson, and by this time would have been 
partitioned out to the stomach of the beauty and the beast of 
great Gotham, this being " Lent." But Barnum was wiser 
than that, having made a living by feeding the curiosity of 
New-Yorkers, he had no idea of going to the death, and filling 
up their paunches with himself. In short, Mr. Barnum has 
been honorable enough to make himself poor, has been brave 
enough to go to work for a living, poor enough to labor, but 
too independent to beg or lean on others for a support, and a 



Healthful Contemplations. 93 

grand thing it would be for the morale of this community, if 
thousands among us would " go and do likewise! 

To make this article applicable to a Journal like ours, 
we have only to add, it is doleful business to be sick and poor 
too, and the best possible way of getting rid of two such unde- 
sirable attendants, is to go to work like Barnum, and partici- 
pate in his hearty, rugged, robust health. But as to the money, 
if you don't be spry, he will get his share first ; for it is just as 
impossible for a man of such ceaseless activity and unconquer- 
able energy to remain poor, as for an Editor to write a " first- 
rate" notice without being paid for it, or for a Doctor to pres- 
cribe efficiently, without a fee. 



HEALTHFUL CONTEMPLATIONS. 

Moral Philosophers live longer than any other class of men, 
showing the influence which the prevailing state of the mind has 
on the human health. There is something delightfully luscious 
and soul-feeding in the contemplation of a new idea, which, 
with resistless power presses home upon the heart the convic- 
tion of the goodness of God, leaving, as it often does, a feeling 
of subdued happiness, in which we delightfully revel for a long 
time after. We hold that contemplations like these have a 
sanitory influence on mind and body, which has not been duly 
estimated. Hence we hope to throw out such thoughts to the 
people from time to time, as will be likely to open up a fountain 
of health, which most benefits those who oftenest repair to it. 
We do not promise that these ideas shall be new to all of our 
readers, but they will be new to some. 

If you take up a piece of slate or a common stone, you will 
often see a yellow shining crystal like brass. The first impression 
on the unscientific is, that it is gold, hence perhaps the common 
saying " all is not gold that glitters" These yellow shining crys- 
tals are formed of Iron and Sulphur, and are called Iron Pyrites; 
and contain Arsenic, yielding, if thrown into the fire, Arseneous 
acid, the fumes of which are a certain and deadly poison. But 
although this corroding poison is frequently found combined 
with Iron Pyrites^ in one situation it never is thus combined, to 
any hurtful extent ; that is, in Iron Pyrites as found among the 
Coal formations of the world, no compounds of Arsenic have 



94 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ever been discovered. Suppose for a moment the Iron Py- 
rites found in the coal formations, were like the Iron Pyrites of 
other localities, the simple result would be, according to our 
present knowledge, that the coal mines of the world would be 
useless, because the fumes which the coal would give out when 
placed in the grate, would be destructive of human life, and no 
one would dare to employ it for domestic purposes ; thus, at 
once, a mine of wealth, richer by far than the gold of all the 
globe, would be closed up, as worse than worthless. How 
kindly wise then, is that Great Being who made all worlds, in 
adapting his creations to the safety and happiness of us his chil- 
dren. In the case before us, by withholding a single consti- 
tuent in a formation under one set of circumstances, which is 
present in other circumstances, he converts what otherwise 
would have been a curse, if used, into one of the greatest com- 
forts and blessings of civilized life. Further, if Arsenic was 
found only sometimes in the Iron Pyrites of the coal fields, it$ 
destructive effects would alarm all away from its employment 
under any circumstances ; but the broad fact stands out in uni- 
form distinctness, that although Iron Pyrites is found in almost 
every rock, stratified and unstratified, and when thus found, 
liable to contain Arsenic, yet, when found in the coal with 
which we warm our apartments, and cook our food, and light 
our streets, and propel our steamships, and drive our machine- 
ries, and work our locomotives, in that coal, it is never found 
in those formations, it never exists ! 

Let us then, as a means of health, feed more on the bene- 
ficences of our Creator ; it is a food which strengthens the mind, 
elevates the soul, enlarges the heart, and leads the whole 
man upward and onward by a pathway full of light and flow- 
ers, and sunshine, a pathway smooth, and safe, and sure, where 
no snare is ever set, where lurking dangers never come, whose 
beginning is in a world of trial, whose ending is in the bosom 
of God! 

EFFECTS OF CIVILIZATION". 

An exchange inquires, " If it is the effect of civilization's 
vices, that the Sandivich Islands, which seventy years ago, con- 
tained a population of a third of a million, now number only 
seventy-two thousand souls ?" These effects are not the result 



Effects of Civilization, 95 

of civilization, they are the result of the want of true civiliza- 
tion, of the unbridled depravity of the human heart ; a de- 
pravity, as inseparable from savage, as from civilized nature. 
Sin brings crime, and sin and crime bring ruin and death to 
nations as well as to individuals. National destruction as 
the result of unrestrained indulgence in the appetites and pas- 
sions of our nature, is not peculiar to any country or clime, 
or kindred. Some men have gone still further, and inquired 
if such an amazing decimation is not attributable to christian- 
izing teachings; and some, with more than human malignity, 
and among them a woman, have directly charged, that these 
evils are the natural results of missionary operations. Among 
these writings, which have already passed to their deserved 
infamy, are some of Melville's senseless and malignant ravings. 
How wonderful is it, and yet what a sweeping proof of the 
full truth of the Bible declaration, that the heart is deceitful 
hhove all things, and desperately wicked, to §ee educated men 
using the power which culture, talent and position give them 
in endeavoring to sap the foundation of our holy religion, 
whose whole tendency is to elevate, refine, and happify, not 
only for time, but for eternity, a religion whose teachings 
are purity itself, and to which these very writers owe it, that 
they themselves are not as savage in nature, and as beastly 
in practice, as the worst of the cannibals with whom they 
have associated.' 

The true reason of the effects inquired into is, that against 
the strongest appeals and protests to the contrary, the French 
government over-rode all municipal law, and under the guns 
of their men of war, compelled the feeble and peaceful au- 
thorities of the Sandwich Islands, to admit their brandies in- 
to their towns, to brutify the more ignorant, compelled them 
to permit bands of reckless sailors to come on shore, and for- 
cibly take aboard their ships, the daughters and the mothers of 
the helpless Islanders, and in the unrestricted gratification of 
their lowest natures, not only sunk them to deeper depths, 
morally, but physically imparted diseases, which in that cli- 
mate, the remedies available in European countries cannot 
remove. Hence the ruin, not because, but in spite of, Chris- 
tianity's teachings. 



96 HalVs Journal of Health. 

THE SUNDAY DISEASE. 

A happy looking, honest-faced friend of ours, says benevo- 
lently, about sleeping in church: "When drowsiness is felt 
stealing over the senses, and weaving" a web before the mind, 
so that the word of truth can make no impress upon the memo- 
ry, the patient must lift his foot several inches above the floor, 
and hold it there in suspense, without support to the limb. Eepeat 
the remedy as often as the attack comes on, by frequent use 
none of its virtue is lost, and no injury can come from it. 

" The philosophy of this remedy it is needless to explain. I 
have tried it and found it effectual." 

But what becomes of the sermon when one is trying to hold 
his foot up ? We have a better remedy. Let your minister be 
a good man, let him be promptly, regularly, and handsomely 
paid, so that his whole soul, heart and mind, may be concen- 
trated in the work, of the ministry, and with forty minute dis- 
courses, and the whole services short of two hours, there will 
be no danger of drowsiness, under that man's ministrations. 
We try this remedy every Sunday in our Fifth Avenue church 
and find it never failing. 



FELT HATS. 

The tyranny of fashion presses heavily on the heads of men 
and women now-a-days. There is the bonnet placed so far back 
on the head that it occasions an abiding feeling as if it were 
going to fall off, and ladies are seen every few minutes throwing 
their chins up and their heads back as if a bug were crawling 
along the back and they wished to scratch it. No doubt the 
fashion was devised by some hump-shouldered beauty or heiress 
to hide her deformity, and anon, beauty and gold made it " the 
rage. 1 ' But we are free to say that the fashion never troubles 
us, for it's the beauty, not the bonnet which entrances our eyes. 

As to the head gear of the gentlemen, the persistence they 
exhibit in wearing the cumbersome, hard, paste-board hats, 
covered with silk, instead of the soft, light, pliable, cool " Felt 
Hat" which a few only, as yet, have been bold enough to wear, 
we say, the persistence in submitting to the silk hat tyranny 
would be incredible, were it not a matter of daily observation. 



Editorial 97 

The silk hat when first worn, not only feels much as if an 
iron hoop were circling the head, but it leaves an ugly, red 
streak around the forehead, reminding us, by its color, of a 
boiled lobster, to say nothing of the headache which it origi- 
nates, almost as often as it is long worn, for the several weeks 
or months which are required to adapt itself to the soft head 
which wears it. 

We venture to say that no man would from simple choice 
ever wear a silk hat after having worn the pliable Felt for a day 
or two. The broadness of their brims affords a necessary and 
most complete protection to the eyes and face against the glare 
and tanning influence of the sun, light. Will the Messrs. Leary 
& Co., Astor House, Broadway, who make so superior an arti- 
cle send one up this way for so favorable a notice of their manu- 
facture ? 

To clergymen, the circulation about whose heads should be 
always free and full, as to blood and air, the Felt hat is a desidera- 
tum, while it imparts a patriarchal look which much becomes 
their calling. 



EDITOEIAL. 

How ceaselessly play the long, invisible Antennce of an Edi- 
tor, day and night, summer and winter, in the street and on the 
highway, at opera, church or ball room, on the rail, in the 
steamship, carriage, car or omnibus, appropriating towards his 
capacious maw all that comes within the scope of their far out- 
reachings. Omnivorous are they, taking their supplies from air, 
earth and ocean, filling up their wide Alembic, hour after hour, 
and turning out therefrom somewhat for the Pet which is the 
God of their idolatry, whether it be an eight by ten daily or a 
mammoth weekly — whether it boasts of a circulation of one or 
one hundred thousand, each one's paper is his world, occupying 
all his thoughts, and filling up even his dreams. Not a false- 
hood, or fact, nor custom nor accident, not a sermon nor a soi- 
ree, nor fire, nor murder, nor shipwreck, no cause of gladness 
or of gloom, no war of weapons or of words, no rumor of 
disaster or of death, nothing that is now or ever shall be, not 
an individual thing in the heavens above, in the earth beneath, 
or in the waters under the earth, but he tortures to make 
capital out of, for the uses of his all-shadowing journal. 



98 HaWs Journal of Health. 

* 
But to come to a personal matter of fact, so as to leave 
no doubt of our meaning, and to show too, how keen the look- 
out and how stretching are the instincts of an Editor, what wide 
circuits he sometimes takes to enable him to bend occurrences 
to his uses, we may mention our own experience, one day lately 
in seeing in a familiar operation in Wall Street, one of the most 
rational cures for consumption ever proposed. The full ration- 
ale of the cure it may not be well to attempt describing at this 
time, but until we are moved to do so, our readers may amuse 
themselves by that most valuable of all methods of learning, 
self-thinking, thinking out things for one's self, what connection 
there is between any one familiar operation of Wall Street, and 
its adaptedness to the cure of consumptive disease, certain it is, 
the thought never occurred to us until within a year, certain is 
it, that it involves a principle, without whose application, no 
case of tubercular consumption ever was cured ; and we venture 
to say ever will be ; and strange to tell, not one of the men 
who have been really successful in the treatment of this disease 
in either hemisphere, but owes his success to the application of 
this principle, and in proportion, too, to the extent to which it 
has been made. 



SLEEP. 

Observation and scientific experiment constantly confirm the 
fact, that the brain is nourished, repaired, during sleep. If then 
we have not sleep enough, the brain is not nourished, and like 
everything else, when deprived of sufficient nourishment, withers 
and wastes away, until the power of sleep is lost and the whole 
man dwindles to skin and bone, or dies a maniac ! 

The practical inferences which we wish to impress upon the 
reader are two : 

1st. By all means, sleep enough, give all who are under you 
sleep enough, by requiring them to go to bed at some regular 
hour, and to get up the moment of spontaneous waking in the 
morning. Never waken up any one, especially children, from 
a sound sleep, unless there is urgent necessity ; it is cruel to do 
go ; to prove this, we have only to notice how fretful and un- 
happy a child is, when waked up before the nap is out. 

2. If the brain is nourished during sleep, it must have most 



Hair Dyes. — Various Recipes. 99 

.» 
vigor in the morning, hence the morning is the best time for 
study ; for then, the brain has most strength, most activity, and 
must work more clearly. It is "the midnight lamp" which 
floods the world with sickly sentimentalities, with false morals, 
with rickety theology, and with all those harum scarum dreams 
of human elevation, which abnegate Bible teachings. 



HAIR DYES. 

One of the European journals relates the case of a gentleman 
who became a maniac in consequence, as said, of the free use of 
a hair dye. We know of no efficient hair dye which does not 
owe its prompt virtues to a solution of " nitrate of silver," which 
in its solid state is known by the name of " Lunar Caustic /" it 
stains the skin black, by burning it, and will burn into the 
flesh, if steadily applied. A hot iron will sear the skin, and 
render it hard, callous, unfeeling, and unfit for natural purposes, 
preventing that free evaporation, which is essential to the health 
of the body. If this is done by investing a man with an India 
Rubber garment, he will die in a few hours. 

Hair dyes for whiskers ha ve become very common of late 
years, they have to be repeated once a month, their more imme- 
diate effect is to impart a dead, black color, which at once re- 
veals the hypocrisy, and that it should so disturb the natural 
functions of the skin, by such frequent application, as to lay the 
foundation for callosities, cancers, and other affections, is at least 
to be apprehended. The employment of such cheateries is alto- 
gether incompatible with that feeling of independence and self- 
respect which characterizes an educated gentleman. 



VARIOUS RECIPES. 



Cleaning Windows. — The neatest thing for cleaning win- 
dows or glass ware is a piece of deer skin or leather that is soft 
and somewhat fuzzy. Leather is better than cloth because no 
particles of lint or dirt will come off to adhere to the glass. A 
hand-basin is plenty large enough for washing windows. The 
great splashing some folks make in doing the work is indeed 
useless — it is more than useless, positively injurious. For when 



100 HalVs Journal of Health. 

« 
the waler runs in copious floods over the windows, it affects Ihe 
putty with which the glass is set, and loosens it; besides it has 
a tendency to stain it, or at least to leave it dingy and unclean. 
Two pieces of wash leather and a basin of suds is all that is 
necessary. Use the one to wash the glass with in the suds, and 
the other dry to wipe it with. The dry one should not be ap- 
plied till the glass becomes nearly or quite dry, when a good 
rubbing will clean it effectually. 



Pickles. — Pick over the cucumbers, and reject all that are 
broken or bruised, for they will injure the rest. Make a strong 
brine, and cover them with it three or four days, turning them 
up from the bottom every morning. Then scald vinegar enough 
to cover them, with whole pepper, cinnamon and mustard seed, 
a tablespoonful of each to one and a half gallons of vinegar. 
Take the cucumbers from the brine, drain them or dry them on 
a cloth, pack them in the jar that is to be used/ and pour the 
vinegar boiling hot over them. Let them remain two days ; 
pour off the vinegar, scald it again, adding a piece of alum the 
size of a hickory nut, to make them crisp. The best cider vine- 
gar should be used. After two days break one open, and, if 
not greened through, scald them again. If well covered, they 
will keep for years, and grow better. 

Glass Stoppers.— When the glass will not come out, pass 
a strip of woolen cloth around it, and then " see-saw" backwards 
and forwards, so that the friction may heat the neck of the 
bottle. This will cause it to expand, become larger than the 
stopple, and the latter will drop out or may easily be with- 
drawn. A tight screw may be easily loosened from a metal 
socket, by heating the latter by means of a cloth wet with boil- 
ing water, or in any other way — or the simple principle of ex- 
pansion by heat. 

Bread. — One of the most important household rules is, not 
to eat new bread, for it is expensive and unwholesome, and does 
not afford near so much nourishment as bread two or three days 
old. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLJ* 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] MAY, 1856 [NO. V 



A MODEL MINISTER 

Was John McFarland, the pastor of a village church, in the 
wild woods of the West, a worthy pupil of Dr. Mason the elder, 
the giant theologian of his time. As is the master, so is the 
man. It was a favorite idea with him, as was the case with his 
great Teacher, and perhaps too, it was a main foundation of 
what he subsequently accomplished, that the Holy Bible was 
its own best expositor. He considered mere human reason as a 
false light on a dangerous coast, the quicksands of the soul; 
hence the study of the Bible was his highest gratification, and 
to get the young of his congregation to love its study, seemed 
to engage his constant thought. A weekly Bible class was as 
much a matter of course, as the Sunday morning sermon, while 
as regularly were the children of the congregation trained to the 
recitation of the Catechism. " The Bible and the Catechism," 
he used to impress upon us, " are the hope of Presby tery.'* 
If the children were not in their places, he made it his business 
during the week to ascertain the cause and to remove it. Well 
do we remember the regular family visitation of himself, an 
elder always along, for religious conversation and prayer, and 
inquiry as to doubts and fears, and coldness and backsliding, 
as to difficulties and discouragements. In all things except 
preaching, the elders were considered his alternates, in visiting 
the sick, in attending to the poor, in conducting religious meet- 
ings. As for having a male member of the church who could 
not lead in prayer, that was not to be thought of. He seemed 
to believe that a man who could not pray in public, did not pray 
anywhere else. At the same time, " short and to the point" 
was a favorite phrase. 



102 HaWs Journal of Health. 

" Short duties make devotion sweet, 
And keep the attention up," 

was a piece of poetry which lie taught us in our teens ; we al- 
ways supposed the rhyme was in the reason of the thing. It 
struck us then as being true poetry, for as a boy, we clearly 
loved short prayers, and short sermons too, (can't say that age 
has made any improvement, rather think the proclivities are 
intensified in the same direction.) He was famous for illustra- 
ting his positions. He frequently repeated that a church mem- 
ber remarkable for long prayers in public, was fire-proof against 
all hints and inuendoes respecting his infirmity. At last, 
making a visit to his minister, and purposing to remain all 
night, one of the most bitter of a cold winter, he was shown 
into a kind of closet for purposes of private devotion, and the 
key turned. In the course of a very few minutes, a decided 
knocking at the door was heard, but as decided an inattention 
was given, until the poor fellow concluded it was no use 
" knocking at that door any more," so he quietly resigned him- 
self to fate and freezing. But precisely at the expiration of the 
time usually employed in his public prayers, the good minister 
appeared to release his prisoner, remarking that not wishing 
him to be disturbed by having less opportunity for private de- 
votion than for public ones, which were really less important, 
he had locked the door, and hoped he had not come too soon. 

Mr. McFarland was a man of sleepless energy. He not only 
had a regular weekly lecture, but he held social meetings in the 
houses of his parishioners at various places and distances within 
ten miles of town, and to secure a good attendance he used to 
say, if he took the pains to prepare himself and ride several 
miles to feed them with scripture food, it was as little as they 
could do, to attend to his ministrations. In addition to this, he 
taught that several successive absences from church services, 
unless in case of being from home or sickness, was a cause for 
church censure. And the more effectually to secure a regular 
and full attendance, he taught his people, that going to meeting 
was to be considered as a matter of course, and not only so, it 
was their duty to attend their own church; however great the 
distinction of men who might occasionally preach in other con 
gregations in the village, it was their business not to go, if theii 
own church was open, even if but for a prayer meeting. So 



A Model Minister. 103 

that when it happened there conld be no preaching in his 
own church on the Sabbath day, he required the Elders to con- 
duct the services in the same manner as if he were present, only 
a sermon was read by one of them ; in this way he contended 
that his people would be kept together, and not be straggling 
about as sheep without a shepherd. 

He was remarkable for considering tne proprieties of things, 
irrespective of the tyrant, custom ; so, in having a new house 
of worship built in 1822, he had the seats arranged in such a 
manner, that a person entering the church, should face the 
whole congregation. This made them come early, and relieved 
those who were in, from the necessity of turning round, as if 
the neck of the whole assembly were fixed on one hinge, when- 
ever a person entered the door, to the great discomfort of the 
preacher. '' Then," said he, " if a man leaves the house during 
service, he will have to face me, I can see who he is, and he'll 
not be likely to do it a second time, without a reason. But to 
break up the ugly habit of audible conversation before the com- 
mencement of services, he had it arranged that familiar hymns 
should be sung and an occasional prayer offered by some of the 
members ; this also gave the diffident an opportunity of entering 
the great congregation without attracting special attention. 

Another sentiment Mr. McFarland took great pains to incul- 
cate was, the habit of giving for all charitable purposes, to give 
as a matter of course, to whatever object the eldership thought 
worthy of presentation. He believed that when a people be- 
came accustomed to giving, they would give less reluctantly and 
more liberally. 

Mr. McFarland was a brave man; he was a second John 
Knox in that respect. Many a time was he threatened with 
personal violence, from his uncompromising hostility to the 
vices of the village and his denunciation of all wrong doing. 
It was a common thing for men to make the most solemn as- 
severations they would never go to hear him again, but they 
would soon forget it. The people knew him to be a hard 
student, that they were sure to feel instructed, and that his 
teachings were reliable ; the result was, he had the largest 
congregations in the town ; the piety, the intelligence, the res- 
pectability of the place were always his hearers. This excel- 
lent man was never personal in the pulpit ; never played the 



104: HalVs Journal of Health. 

buffoon there ; no flight of fancy, no flippancy, no irreverence, 
were chargeable to his account : the feeling of his Ambassador- 
ship was always present in the sacred desk. " If I came to you 
from any earthly court, I should feel my responsibility, and 
should claim your respectful attention to all I had to say, but 
I appear before you as an Ambassador from the King of Kings, 
and the weight of souls presses on me." Thus he felt the 
honor of his ministry ; that no human position could raise him 
higher. 

In private and social life, Mr. McFarland was always • cour- 
teous in his bearing, instructive and entertaining in his conver- 
sation, having the rare power, to make you at once feel that 
you were at home with him. 

When he felt himself in the line of duty, he feared nothing 
and nobody. When he believed himself standing on Bible 
ground, the uproar of a congregation, or town, or community, 
or state, caused him not to falter an instant. Horace Holley, 
the learned, the accomplished, the elegant, the admired of the 
Mite of Boston society, became the Reverend President of Tran- 
sylvania University. His polished manner, his winning ways, 
his high erudition, won all hearts in the Athens of the West, 
as Lexington, Kentucky, was then called. He was the ad- 
mired, the bosom friend, and frequent guest of Henry Clay, 
and there was high promise of a successful and splendid ca- 
reer before him. But this profound scholar, this accomplished 
man, although cradled in the land of the Pilgrim Fathers, was 
not a Puritan or a Presbyter ; his published discourses savored 
of Heresy, as to the fundamental point of Orthodox Faith. 
Mr. McFarland saw it, and although President Holley, in his 
triumphal car, was running away with all hearts, the ladies 
adoring, and the gentlemen, it is said, had their crowns shaven, 
as Mr. Holley was a little bald, — under such circumstances, 
our Model Pastor, the minister of a hundred members, in an 
obscure little inland town of a thousand inhabitants, put on 
his armor, and like the shepherd boy of olden time, threw 
down the challenge against the Goliath of his day. Sancho 
Panza, battling with a gate-post, or a flee dog barking at the 
moon, could not have inspired feelings of more sovereign con- 
tempt, than were excited in the mind of Mr. Holley and his 
admirers, towards their almost unknown opponent. But with 



A Model Minister. 105 

his Bible and the right, with his logical criticisms, his sworn 
facts, his incontrovertible histories, his verbatim quotations, 
his irrefutable and clear-drawn conclusions, thrown out before 
the people in newspaper articles, in printed sermons and in 
a serial published by himself called The Literary Pamphleteer ', 
the all-conquering President was driven back towards his Bos- 
ton home, a dying, because, as was said, he was a disappointed 
man ; that home, he never lived to see. 

But there was another brave thing that Mr. McFarland did, 
a bravery which few ministers dare, perhaps not one in a thou- 
sand ; it was in reference to his salary. He felt his power., and 
was not afraid to use it. His mode of presenting the subject 
was in substance as follows : 

You have promised me a certain annual amount for preach- 
ing to you. You are Christian men, and should be men of 
veracity and honor. Your word should be as good as your 
bond. It is a debt which you have agreed to pay. That debt 
should be paid on or before the expiration of the current year. 
It should be all paid. A withholding of the last cent is as cer- 
tainly a violation of a principle of right as the withholding of 
a larger part, or even the whole. None of you would think of 
going into bank and taking up a note the day after it was due, 
nor of getting that note by paying all except a few dollars or 
cents. The church has higher claims upon you, as Christian 
men, than any human corporation, for it is a divine institution. 
It has been said that I have money, and can do without a sal- 
ary. That is true. But if a man, richer than you are, works 
for you, or sells you an article of value, you do not expect to 
have his labor or property for nothing, on the ground that he 
does not need it. Therefore, if I preach for you, I must be paid, 
on or before the expiration of each year, the last farthing of my 
salary. I hold the Church Session bound for it. They have 
gone your security, otherwise I should not have come among 
you. I know what congregational promises to pay are, so it 
is immaterial to me whether you payor not ; if you do not, the 
Session will. But if you do not refund to them, I will leave 
you, and the following are reasons which I hold all-sufficient : 
The Bible declares that the laborer is worthy of his hire. I will 
not countenance the violation of a positive Bible precept. If 
you are remiss in paying me, I will not suffer, because I havo 



106 HalVs Journal of Health. 

means of my own. But if you do not pay me for my labor, 
you will fall into a bad habit, and soon begin to think that a 
preacher ought not to be paid at all ; and when I die, as there 
are few ministers who are not poor, very poor, my successor, 
however poor, will be treated as I would have been had I 
allowed myself to work for you for nothing and find myself 
into the bargain ; so for the sake of those who come after me, 
for my own sake, and for the sake of a Bible principle, I shall 
expect my salary to be paid to the last cent, and within the 
year for which it is due. More than a third of a century ago, 
while we had not yet entered our teens, were these teachings 
delivered, but in spirit and idea we remember them well, and 
to this hour, no minister has ever labored in that congregation 
who has not been paid to the uttermost every farthing of his 
salary. Make a note of this, ye modern men of Galilee, ye 
ministers of the Word, and stand square up on the Bible Plat- 
form, and fear not that the preaching of the truth will fail to 
accomplish that whereunto it is sent, EVEN in the midst of a 
wicked and perverse generation. If the people do not pay you 
promptly and fully, appeal bravely to the law and to the testi- 
mony, and fear no evil, for God will be with you. 

Towards the last of his life, Mr. McFarland alienated the 
affections of some of his warmest and best members, and his 
death did not wholly heal the breach. The majority of the 
whole State Synod voted him hobby-horsical. 

He thought that all baptized children were members of the 
church, and that they were neglected as to their religious train- 
ing. He at once instituted a parochial school, perhaps the first 
in the United States, where the children of the church could 
be prepared for college under Presbyterian teachings wholly. 
Other children may come in — they are welcome — but our child- 
ren must. Prayer and the reading of the Bible were daily 
duties in the school, and once a week, a Bible class. This was 
the first step. In the estimation of some, it savored of secta- 
rianism and exclusiveness, and many were offended thereat and 
walked no more with him. He seemed to stand almost alone, 
and we have seen him weep in the presence of a whole State 
Delegation, at his isolated position ; he saw he was ahead of 
his day and generation, but instead of seceding, he took another 
step forward, that it was the duty of aL baptized children to 



A Model Minister. 107 

come to the communion as soon as they arrived at the years of 
discretion, which he never fixed, leaving that to be decided by 
the lights afforded at the time of action in each particular case. 
If they did not come to the communion, he considered it the 
duty of the eldership, the parents and the minister, to talk with 
them, to instruct them, to encourage them, and to warn and 
admonish them with all long-suffering and patience, until they 
were brought to a sense of duty. He did not hold that in any 
given case, even for outrageous conduct, they should be excom- 
municated, but that ceaseless and persevering effort should be 
made to induce the children of the church to live up to its privi- 
leges and its requirements, as Christian birth and baptism gave 
them a full title to all the church ordinances, and that no 
human power could debar them from the same, without exceed- 
ing their authority. But the mass of the people, with the elder- 
ship and clergy, either could not, or would not, understand him, 
or felt that it was not expedient to press these views at that time. 
The young men of the congregation were encouraged to con- 
duct prayer-meetings and occasionally to give short addresses 
themselves, especially when he was not present ; in this way a 
habit and facility of public speaking were imperceptibly formed, 
a need of previous thought and preparation gradually impressed 
itself on their minds, with the attendant consciousness of increased 
responsibility, and before they were aware of it, they were half 
clergymen, and thus it was that a large number of them event- 
ually entered the ministry. 

We will now state some of the practical results of such a 
pastorate. 

1. More than one-half of all the male members of his Bible 
classes, of our time, became clergymen and missionaries. 

2. Nine-tenths of those members now living are church mem- 
bers. 

3. At one Synodical Session, if we did not hear amiss, more 
money was raised for benevolent purposes in a single year in 
Mr. McFarland's congregation, than in all the other congrega- 
tions of his sect in the State. 

4. That congregation, we believe, remains to this day, accord- 
ing to its means and numbers, the most liberal in the State. 

5. The ministers to that people have been fully paid to this 
hour. 



108 HalVs Journal of Health. 

6. By multitudes of those who heard him oftenest, and saw 
most of him, his memory is cherished with a most profound 
respect, bordering on reverence, and with an affection like that 
which David bore towards Jonathan. 

7. "As Mr. McFarland used to say," is a household phrase to 
this day among the families of his charge which yet remain. 

8. More young men, it is believed, were sent into the minis- 
try from his congregation, during his pastorate, and resulting 
from it, than from any dozen other congregations during the 
same time in the whole State. We appeal to every clerical 
reader, to every warm-hearted Christian, is not such a result 
worth living for? 

Mr. Carper desires us to inform him, if agreeable, and wholly 
convenient, what all this has to do with a Journal of Health ; 
that he became a subscriber with the view of deriving instruc- 
tion as to some of the best means of preserving his health, and 
that the space occupied about a "Model Minister'' is so much 
of his property appropriated to other purposes without his con- 
sent, and is therefore clearly a wrong. 

That may be true, or not, Mr. Carper, but you have forgotten 
an item or two. Please remember that this Journal was under- 
taken in the first place to please ourselves ; in the second place, 
to profit ourselves, and in the third and last place, to benefit 
you and others like you, as far as may be done by what pleases 
and profits us. 

By the way, please try on these leathern spectacles, part 
leather, some part caoutchouc, rather given to stretching. Look- 
ing in another direction, you will perceive that Mr. McFarland 
has been in his grave a third of a century ; he died in his 
prime. In a few years he did more than forty ordinary min- 
isters do in a lifetime ; he was one of the most valuable 
"hands" in the "field ; n he ought to have been alive, and hearty 
and well, an active laborer in his Master's vineyard to this 
hour, but he is not, consequently the church is a loser of his 
services for thirty-three years. Look a little further and you 
will perceive that his death was the result of dyspepsia ; that 
dyspepsia is always founded on injudicious eating, upon which 
point this Journal has not ceased to give line upon line and 
precept upon precept, from the first hour of its issue. There- 
fore, we believe that the obituary we have given of the pastor 



A Model Minister. 109 

of our childhood affords a lesson to the clergy of this country, 
more impressive than a thousand pages of precepts about 
health, helping us to engrave it on the memory of every reader, 
as if carved in lines of brass, that cutting short our usefulness by 
drinking brandy is not more a crime than accomplishing the same 
object by eating contrary to the lights of our time. 

It is hard eating, and not hard study, which lays multi- 
tudes of our clergy on the shelf long before the burden and the 
heat of the day come on. Fast eating, injudicious eating, uncon- 
scious eating, by which we mean bolting down our food when 
the mind is away from the body, on 'change, in the counting- 
room, on the stock list, on the sermon in preparation or just 
delivered, this is a bane of the age among the active and work- 
ing men of the time, and whether a man has died of brandy or 
of beef steak administered to himself ad libitum, the suicide is 
not less a fact. Ministers tell us that if any man dies in the 
persistent practice of a known wrong doing, there is no hope in 
his death; and not less equivocal are they in their denuncia- 
tions of those who have the light, but see it not, taking for 
their guide the Master's utterance, seeing they see not, and hearing 
they hear not. 

For our own part, we can perceive no sufficient reasons why 
divine principles applied to morals should not hold good and 
be as safe as applied to our physical constitution. That is, we 
believe that a man who eats himself to death, against the expe- 
rience and lights of the times in which he lives, whether he 
sees those lights and fails to use them, or whether having those 
lights he will not open his eyes to make use of them, the crime 
is just the same, the punishment under a righteous administra- 
tion just as inevitable, and the minister or man who reads this 
article and gives it the "go by" will sooner or later be held to 
a strict accountability for the same, to the Judge of the whole 
earth. We tell you, reader, of two men on a magazine of war 
material, with the train thereto already fired, he who is asleep, 
unconscious of his danger, and he who is wide awake, but ig- 
norant of that danger — their equal death is certain ; in ignor- 
ance or unconsciousness, there is no salvation. As illustrative 
and instructive, we here give one letter from many of a similar 
character received by us in our professional, not editorial capa- 
city, from 



110 HalVs Journal of Health. 

A SUFFERING CLERGYMAN. 

" For the last twenty-seven years, I have been the pastor of 
this church ; and have been afflicted with dyspepsia and consti- 
pation for many years. For the last three years I have been 
compelled to live daily on bread made of unbolted flour, a 
small portion of lean meat, and a glass of buttermilk. I am 
compelled to take Pepsin or pills almost every day, or suffer, 
waking up at midnight with restlessness, heat in hands and feet, 
lasting for an hour, and with various other ill feelings finally 
fall to sleep again. Night after night I have to go through the 
same process. I have taken a great variety of pills, bitters and 
other medicines, giving temporary relief, the symptonis return- 
ing as soon as I leave off taking medicine. After the burning 
of the hands and feet continue about an hour, there is a sensa- 
tion of trickling down within me, along the bowels like a little 
loose dirt on the side of a hill ; this continues to increase, 
making me exceeding restless, and I turn from side to side, 
without relief, until all the food has passed down, and I fall 
asleep." 

Let the reader reflect a moment on the wretchedness of that 
man's life, physic or purgatory, every day of his existence. It 
is useful to inquire into the antecedents of this unfortunate 
condition of things. " Indigestion and constipation for many 
years." These things are always brought on by unwise modes 
of life, and in no other way. In the case before us, there had 
been a persistent violation of the plainest and most fundamental 
laws of our physical being for nearly a quarter of a century. 
Does human law excuse a man from its infraction, on account 
of ignorance ? It is held an aggravation in every intelligent 
community ; neither will ignorance of the laws of our physical 
constitution make a way of escape from violation. If we are 
sick, it is our own fault ; neglect and ignorance and appetite 
and passion have made us so ; and yet, when ministers die in 
the midst of their usefulness, it is published as a mysterious and 
inscrutable dispensation of' Divine Providence. What profanation ! 
Might just as well poke your finger in the fire, then charge the 
suffering to the Almighty. Away with such logic, from this 
time forth and forever more, and be assured that if ever you 
get sick from this day, the reason of it will be, three times out 
of four, that you have made a beast or fool of yourself. 



The Mind. Ill 

THE MIND. 

That mysterious thing, the God within us, which no eye can 
see, whose dwelling place none can tell, yet of whose presence 
the habitable globe gives note, how inexorably does it govern 
the body, whose instrument it is ; how it makes or mars the 
human form divine ; how it blanches the ruddiest cheek ; how 
it dims the lustrous eye; how it bends in a night the stateliest 
carriage, and in a night frosts over the raven ringlet ; in an 
hour strikes down the strength of manhood, and in a moment 
can make itself a blank for the balance of the lifetime of its 
crazed tenement ; how important to keep that agent well; how 
heaven-like the skill to minister to a mind diseased. Few 
persons have an adequate conception of the importance and 
frequent need of mental medication. "The very trip of your 
feet along the corridor makes me feel half well again, Doctor," 
said a Catholic priest to me one day as I entered his cheerless 
room; as cheerless and cold, too, must be every room where the 
wife and the child can never come to brighten and to happify. 

As any man of good observation is his body's own best 
physician for ordinary slight ailments, so the mind may be 
rendered by proper tuitions its safest and most efficient doc- 
tor. These tuitions should be early begun ; they should com- 
mence with the toddling infant of a year, by letting it learn to 
locomote itself, by giving it an opportunity of trying to get up 
the very first time it falls on the floor. In a thousand little 
ways may any parent of good common sense implant a germ — 
the habit of self-reliance — whose subsequent fruitage may be the 
glory of the nation ; self-reliance, more priceless than any dia- 
dem that ever graced a monarch's brow; a "security" whiph 
the "tightest times" only serve to improve; self-reliance 
which falters in no strait, which pales before no obstacle, 
which no disaster can paralyze, no calamity appal. "Bod dot 
it, I'll try it again" said a ragged little urchin as he slipped 
and fell under a heavy piece of timber which he was carry- 
ing to his mother one bleak winter's day, and no sooner said 
than done, and up he jumped, and raising the timber to his 
shoulder, was soon lost in the crowd as to sight, but not in 
sound, for some operatic notes about "supper" and " old Ban 
Tucker" showed a cheery heart within him, and that he felt 



112 HalVs Journal of Health. 

there was gladness at home for him. Who doubts either of 
two things ; that that boy had a noble mother at home, and 
that if he lives he will be a man of mark in the community 
about him ? 

Within a month our city was startled by the sudden and 
unexpected death of one of the leading members of a mer- 
cantile firm who became bankrupt a few days before, origi- 
nating in the villany of a partner several years ago. He was 
a man of noble bearing and of a proud spirit, but the outra- 
geous abuse of two or three remorseless creditors, in the pre- 
sence of his clerks and others, so weighed upon his spirits, 
that he died within forty-eight hours. For his sensitiveness, 
we owe him our love and sympathy, and a monument to his 
memory will we give for the bravery of an eight years' effort 
to retrieve the losses which another brought upon him, then ran 
away ; but for the last act of his life, the permission of a broken 
heart, figuratively speaking, we hold him accountable to the bar 
of society, as no man has a right to flee on the occurrence of 
any financial disaster, for the simple reason that his personal 
explanations can always lessen the losses of his friends by ena- 
bling them the better to gather up the fragments, so no man 
has a right to run away from himself to take refuge in death 
by cherishing the remorses of an injured spirit, especially when, 
as in this case, those remorses arise from a miseducated integ- 
rity or a miseducated conscience as to financial matters. It is 
immaterial what Mrs. Grundy will say, or what the world may 
think of our conduct, as long as we are conscious of a well-in- 
formed mercantile integrity. With that, a man may utterly fail 
half a dozen times, and stand the higher after each successive 
failure, as did Josiah Lawrence of Cincinnati ; and with a proper 
portion of the self-reliance of the ragged and overburdened boy 
on the street, such a man will die at last, in the most desir- 
able sense of the word, "A Successful Man." 



SENSE AND NONSENSE. 

Many persons have the intelligence to feel that exercise is 
essential to good health, but domestic and financial duties press 
upon them so much, that it is only occasionally that the claims 
of health attract their practical attention, and then they go 



Sense and Nonsense. 113 

about it with a kind of spasmodic desperation, as if they 
intended to do as much in a day as would answer for a month 
past and to come. The early spring time has a peculiar influ- 
ence in waking up the dormant industries of this class of per- 
sons, and on some sunny morning they sally out with rake or 
axe, or spade or hoe, and with the energy of a Quarter Horse, 
they carry everything before them for an hour, or perhaps seve- 
ral hours, when before they are aware of it, their strength is 
exhausted, they feel "weak as water" the whole body is in a 
perspiration, and weary and worn out, and overheated, they 
make for the house, the ordinary warmth of which now seems 
oppressive, and with hat and coat, or shawl lain aside, they 
throw themselves on the sofa in some cool part of the house 
and fall asleep, or if they do not, they take early supper and go 
to bed, waking up in the morning haggard, sickish, and as stiff 
and sore in joint and limb and muscle, as a veteran Eheumatic 
of half a century ; and for days, if not for weeks, they feel 
more dead than alive, and come to the conclusion that exer- 
cise does not agree with them, and it takes them about a v ■ ■- 
to get rid of the conviction. 

For sedentary persons to exercise safely and with advan- 
tage, a few rules should be strictly adhered to. 

1. Let your labor be moderate and of short duration for the 
first day, gradually increasing it from day to day in time and 
intensity. 

2. The moment you cease the exercise, whatever it may be, 
put on the garments you laid aside before you began, go at 
once to the house and sit down by a fire or in some warm 
room or kitchen, if necessary, without washing, or drinking or 
eating, and in the course of fifteen minutes, according to cir- 
cumstances, push back from the fire, take off your hat, next 
lay aside any surplus garment, then wash your face and hands 
in tepid, if not warm water, with soap, take a very light sup- 
per, that is, a piece of cold bread and butter, and half a glass 
of water, and at your usual hour retire to bed. Exercise, with 
such precautions, will seldom fail to yield the richest and most 
enduring results, a sound sleep for the night, a keen appetite 
in the morning, with a feeling of newness and freshness and 
vigor next day, delightful to think of. 

We cannot here enter into a detailed explanation of the rea- 



114 HalVs Jourral of Health. 

sons for all this, but will merely state the governing idea, which 
is, that getting cool slowly makes all the difference between exer- 
cise which is beneficial and exercise which aggravates the evils 
it was intended to cure. 

To impress this on the mind more fully, we have only to 
state this interesting fact, that on the surface of the body there 
are millions of little tubes which are always conveying effete, 
useless matter from the system, either in a solid, fluid, or gase- 
ous form, but during exercise these operations are carried on 
with greatly increased activity; a dash of cold air or cold 
water instantly closes up the outlet of each one of these little 
tubes, which, if placed continuously, would amount to many 
miles in length, and this sudden check is as infallible a cause 
of bodily calamity as the explosion of a steam boiler under a 
full head of steam, if the valve is shut and kept down after 
the engine has ceased motion. Hence no man ever did, or ever 
can fall asleep uncovered, or in a draft of air after exercising, 
without waking up with unpleasant feelings of all degrees from 
a slight pain or soreness to the agonies of dissolution in a few 
hours. 

How illy nature bears the sudden arrest of some of her 
operations, is strikingly exemplified in the fact that if the 
blandest of all liquids, lukewarm milk, is injected into a blood- 
vessel against the current, instant death may result, but if intro- 
duced gently in the direction of the current, it is borne with 
impunity. 

DIED : 

Of a long speech, so some one writes of General Taylor, that 
a long speech of some self appreciating orator effected what the 
fierce artillery of Buena Yista failed to accomplish. Many facts 
are interesting, beautiful, or striking until they are falsified. 
And so with the statement which we have here recorded. 

The long speech was a part, a small part of the causes which 
left General Taylor in a state of bodily exhaustion at the close 
of the ceremonies of laying the corner stone of a public building, 
the Washington Monument, on a hot day in midsummer. If 
the patriot warrior had gone immediately home and had taken 
a cup of strong red pepper tea, or other similar warm drink, 
and had lain down with a slight cover over him for a " nap" of 



Health and Wealth. 115 

nature's own apportioning, fr is scarcely possible tLat lie should 
not have waked up next morning in his usual health. But he 
did not do this, he ate a bowl of fruit or berries with milk, 
which was either cold itself, or was accompanied with iced 
drinks, and in a short time thereafter, against the remonstrances 
of a physician in the company, he ate a hearty dinner resulting 
in cholera and death. 

The cold drinks taken into the stomach as certainly chilled 
the body and closed the pores on the surface as if they had 
been dashed over him ; nature in her alarm turned the drain in 
upon the bowels, but the exhaustion of the day's exercise had 
taken away the power of reaction, and all was lost. More 
probably there would have been a reaction, had not the nervous 
energy remaining been compelled away to aid the laboring 
stomach to dispose of the unfortunate dinner. 

A large amount of suffering, and sickness, and death, result 
every year from eating or drinking heartily under circum- 
stances of great bodily exhaustion, or prostration, or mental 
anxiety or distress. We give it as a piece of advice, worth a 
life, eat nothing under circumstances of high mental excite- 
ment, or great bodily weakness, drink nothing, (not even the 
renowned " glass of brandy and water") except a cup or two or 
more of strong red pepper tea, as warm as practicable, and wait 
until a little rest and sleep, nature's blessed remedies, have 
somewhat restored you. 



HEALTH AND WEALTH. 

Most persons have a kind of spite or grudge against rich 
people, the foundation of which we presume is in Envy, one 
of the very meanest feelings of our nature. " He has more than 
his share, more than he can use, and I have less, my family are 
starving, " said a poor fellow one day when he was asked if he 
had anything to say in mitigation of his sentence for a paltry 
theft from his wealthy neighbor's premises, " and people ought 
to be made to divide." " But suppose there was an equal divi- 
sion," replied the judge, who for a moment felt willing to 
humor the prisoner's absurdity, "your idle habits and the in- 
dustry of your neighbor would soon make as wide a difference 
between your respective conditions as there exists at present." 



116 HalVs Journal of Health. 

" Very true, your honor," said lazy, " then we would divide 
again." 

Just as ridiculously absurd and one-sided are many of the 
sentiments entertained by the poor towards their more thrifty 
fellow citizens. But the rich can afford the indulgence of 
these and kindred feelings against them. 

Many of us have a sufficient want of magnanimity to cherish 
an inexpressed chuckle of gratification, at the intelligence 
that some notably rich family has met with some sudden 
calamity, personal, domestic or pecuniary ; and sometimes, the 
less cautious out-slip such an expression as " served them right." 
" Ah ! his wealth could'nt save him." "He ought to have 
trouble." " Nothing more than he deserves." How infinites- 
simally small is the poor human heart sometimes, in some of 
its phases. Of a multitude of wrong impressions about the. 
rich, we single out one, more particularly appropriate to the 
pages of a Journal of Health. It is this, that one of the penal- 
ties of wealth is disease ; this is not so, the rich are not more 
sickly as a class, than the poor ; they are not as much exposed 
to the causes of disease as the poor are, their lives are more 
equable, less subject to greal exposures whether to the extremes 
of labor, or of active effort or of heat and cold, and privation 
and hunger. Statistics in European countries plainly show, 
as exhibited in a previous number of our Journal, that the 
average age of the well to do in the world is greater, by quite 
a number of years, than that of the struggling poor. If the 
price of health were poverty, then it is a bootless endeavor to 
strive for the means of securing comfortable dwellings, and 
abundant fuel and clothing, and provision for the cheerless 
winter time. Especially is it true in large towns and in cities, 
that it is the children of the poor, who from want and neglect 
fill our grave-yards : often does the weekly mortuary report 
show the appalling fact that more than half of all who die, are 
young children, and a more minute examination of the list 
shows to the physician that the very large proportion of such 
deaths, are those which have their origin in exposure, and 
want and cold. How few of our comparatively very rich men 
die short of the sixties. In New Orleans, where exposures at 
certain seasons are so fatal, the very rich live to an old age, as 
witness McDonough, and Touro, and Fisk and Wilder, and a 



Health and Wealth. 117 

long list of others. Their wealth made exposures less necessary, 
and enabled them to take the world easy, a prophylactic which 
counteracts many a drunken bout, many a midnight carousal, 
man}- a gourmandic dinner ; as witness too the Lords, and 
Bishops, and Chancellors, and Dukes of England, who so often 
measure to the eighties, and at last, like the " Iron Duke" die 
with their harness on, in the full performance of their civil 
duties, to which results we believe they are mainly indebted 
to their wealth, which affords to them the comforts of life with- 
out embarrassment, while it gives them time for all things, 
relieving them from that weary, wearing, wasting away, which, 
is the inevitable result of our Yankee hurry, time and means t 
roll in the carriage, to drive in the phaeton or gallop on the 
horse over hills and dales, and far away. Our word for it, half 
of all the glorifications of poverty and its advantages, which 
so often help to turn a sentence or to fill out a line, are mere 
balderdash, the coinings of fledgelings of the quill, or of bran- 
died brains. We never could see any advantages in poverty, 
which intelligent wealth could not compass. Poverty, per se, 
is disreputable to any man, just as wealth of itself, is creditable 
to its possessor, being, as it is, prima facie evidence of long 
years of industrious economies and courageous self denials. 
That worthy people may be poor, and that unworthy people 
may be rich, we do not contravene ; we are speaking of the 
rules, not the exceptions. In our opinion, those who repro- 
bate the rich so glibly, are a set of poor lazy good for nothings, 
whose idolatry is their ease, ivhose god is their belly, and who 
glory in their shame. Who pretends that the poverty of a 
nation is not its crime, and reasoning from the greater to the 
less, from the masses to the individuals, is not particularly un- 
safe in this connection. It is the care of to-morrow, the gnaw- 
ing, corroding anxieties for the future, which eat away the health 
and life of multitudes. The rich man and the slave are wholly 
free from this everlasting worm, while in its stead, there is an 
abiding composure and quietude, worth more than all medicine, 
and to this we attribute in great part, the truth of one of the 
revelations of the last census, that thirty-three and a third per 
cent, more of blacks were reported to have died of old age than 
of whites ; although there are seven whites where there is one 



118 HalVs Journal of Health. 

There is another interesting similarity in the life of the rich 
man and the slave. While the fear of want troubles neither of 
them, their previous lives, although from very different causes, 
bear a striking resemblance, their lives have been lives of active 
industry, lives of temperance and self-denial, compulsory as to 
the slave, but from choice, habit, principle, on the part of the 
white Dives. We are speaking specially, be it remembered, 
of those who have made their own fortunes. 

From the laboratory of the Doctor then, we issue this for- 
mula, divested of all its hieroglyphical technicalities, and issue 
it too, with singular confidence for universal good, to wit : 

If you desire to live long in ease and comfort, free from grunts 
and groans, and aches and pains ; if you would have a counte- 
nance of genial sunshine, instead of vinegar, if you would 
be overflowing with risibilities, instead of being racked with 
Eheumatics ; get rich, by spending your youth in temperate 
industries and prudent economies, having in view the wise and 
kindly expenditure of your wealth, in a healthful old age. 



HOW TO LEAYE CHUKCH. 

Some one has said, that every fierce burst of passion, every 
exhibition of unbridled rage, shortens human life. We all 
know that men have died in a fit of passion ; and what destroys 
life in its intensity, must shorten it in its modified exhibitions. 
The shock of an unexpected item of news, has many a time 
sent the startled recipient to the judgment. And there is hidden 
meaning in the Divine inquiry, A wounded spirit who can bear $ 
How many an eye, bright and beautiful as the sun light, has 
paled away into the grave, from blighted affection. These 
known facts compel us to admit what a large influence the states 
of the mind have on bodily health, and press home on the 
heart and conscience of the noble few who make the law of love 
to one another the guiding star of life, the duty, the humanity, 
the blessing, of so shaping their words and actions, at home 
and abroad, in the private circle and in the public assembly, 
as to be least liable to "offend" to chafe, to wound, to shock, 
those who are about them. Were we all to do so, how many 
a sad heart would be less sad, how often might we plant a 
flower, where else we find a thorn ! To make this applicable 



Family Peace. 119 

to the heading of this article, we have only to record our own 
experience of the ugly, grating harshness which swept across 
us in those other years when we were younger and better than 
now, at the criticism some one made on a sermon, in passing 
out of the church. It was the sermon of a giant in grace and 
intellect ; of one who was just stepping into the grave, he 
seemed to be speaking back to us from the other side of the 
tomb, and while his tones of tenderness and grandeur were still 
thrilling our heart, through the prayer and hymn, and solemn 
benediction, the expression fell upon the ear like Milton's doors 
on rusty hinges turning, 

" Grating harsh, thunder." 

"It was a pretty good thing that sermon, wasn't it?" 
As we cannot say that some tender chord has not been 
touched in any given sermon or address, and as it is quite cer- 
tain that in every religious exercise some heart has been more 
or less dissolved to tenderness and some eyes to tears, we 
suggest, the policy, the wisdom, the beneficence of a rule : 
In passing from a place cf religious worship, do nothing by word or 
gesture or action, incompatible with the solemnity of God's pecu- 
liar presence. 

FAMILY PEACE. 

1. Remember that our will is likely to be crossed every 
day, so prepare for it. 

2. Everybody in the house has an evil nature as well as our- 
selves, and therefore we are not to expect too much. 

3. To learn the different temper of each individual. 

4. To look upon each member of the family as one for whom 
Christ died. 

5. When any good happens to any one, to rejoice at it. 

6. When inclined to give an angry answer, to lift up the 
heart in prayer. 

7. If from sickness, pain or infirmity, we feel irritable, to 
keep a very strict watch over ourselves. 

8. To observe when others are so suffering, and drop a word 
of kindness and sympathy suited to them. 

9. To wait for little opportunities of pleasing, and to put lit- 
tle annoyances out of the way. 



120 HalVs Journal of Health. 

10. To take a cheerful view of everything, of the weather, 
and encourage hope. 

11. To speak kindly to the servants, to praise them for little 
things when you can. 

12. In all little pleasures which may occur, to put self last. 

13. To try for " the soft answer which turneth away wrath." 

14. When we have been pained by an unkind word or 
deed, to ask ourselves, " Have I not often done the same and 
been forgiven?" 

15. In conversation not to exalt ourselves, but to bring 
others forward. 

16. To be very gentle with the young ones, and treat them 
with respect. 

17. Never to judge one another, but to attribute a good mo- 
tive when you can. — Churchman's Monthly Penny Magazine. 



OUK MEDICINE. 



The medicine which we, the Editor of HalVs New- York Jour- 
nal of Health, most unhesitatingly take for all the aches and ills 
that our flesh is heir to, which is uniformly successful, and 
which we almost daily recommend with the highest confidence, 
and which comes next in our esteem to the two great remedies 
of Air and Exercise, and which nobody but a Doctor can be 
induced to take, except now and then a sensible man among a 
million, is the Tincture of Time. The reason of its want of 
proper confidence is, that it costs nothing and has no mystery 
about it. What a grand thing it is for the Doctors that so few 
people have any sense, not even sense enough to take 
pains to keep well when they are so, to keep well by doing justly, 
living temperately, and pursuing in moderation the various callings 
of human life. 

Poisonous Mushrooms. — When mushrooms are prepared, 
an onion is to be put into the vessel and boiled or fried with 
them. If the onion retain its white color, the mushroom may 
be eaten without any fear ; but if the onion turns blue or black, 
you may be sure that all or at least part of the mushrooms are 
poisonous. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH*, AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] JUNE, 1856. [NO. VI. 



CHECKED PERSPIRATION 

Is the fruitful cause of sickness, disease and death to multi- 
tudes every year. If a tea-kettle of water is boiling on the 
fire, the steam is seen issuing from the spout, carrying the extra 
heat away with it, but if the lid be fastened down and the 
spout be plugged, a destructive explosion follows in a very 
short time. 

Heat is constantly generated within the human body, by the 
chemical disorganization, the combustion, of the food we eat 
There are seven millions of tubes or pores on the surface 
of the body, which in health are constantly open, conve}dng 
from the system by what is called insensible perspiration 
this internal heat, which having answered its purpose, is 
passed off like the jets of steam which are thrown from 
the escape-pipe, in puffs, of any ordinary steam engine ; 
but this insensible perspiration carries with it, in a dissolved 
form, very much of the waste matter of the system, to the ex- 
tent of a pound or two or more every twenty-four hours. It 
must be apparent, then, that if the pores of the skin are closed, 
if the multitude of valves, which are placed over the whole 
surface of the human body are shut down, two things take 
place. First, the internal heat is prevented from passing off, it 
accumulates every moment, the person expresses himself as 
burning up, and large draughts of water are swallowed to 
quench the internal fire — this we call " Fever.'''' When the warm 
steam is constantly escaping from the body in health, it keeps 
the skin moist, and there is a soft, pleasant feel and warmth 
about it. But when the pores are closed, the skin feels harsh, 
and hot, and dry. 



122 HalVs Journal of Health. 

But another result follows the closing of the pores of the 
skin, and more immediately dangerous ; a main outlet for the 
waste of the body is closed, it remingles with the blood, whu b, 
in a few hours becomes impure, and begins to generate disease 
in every fiber of the system — the whole machinery of the man 
becomes at once disordered, and he expresses himself as "feel- 
ing miserable." The terrible effects of checked perspiration of 
a dog, who sweats only by his tongue, is evinced by his becom- 
ing " mad." The water runs in streams from a dog's mouth in 
summer, if exercising freely. If it ceases to run, that is Hydro- 
phobia. It has been asserted by a French Physician, that if a 
person suffering under Hydrophobia can be only made to per- 
spire freely, he is cured at once. It is familiar to the common- 
est observer, that in all ordinary forms of disease, the patient 
begins to get better, the moment he begins to perspire, simply 
because the internal heat is passing off, and there is an outlet 
for the waste of the system. Thus it is that one of the most im- 
portant means for curing all sickness, is bodily cleanliness, 
which is simply removing from the mouths of these little pores, 
that gum, and dust, and oil, which clog them up. Thus it is, 
also, that personal cleanliness is one of the main elements of 
health : thus it is, that filth and disease habitate together, the 
world over. 

There are two kinds of perspiration, sensible and insensible. 
When we see drops of water on the surface of the body as the 
result of exercise, or subsidence of fever, that is sensible perspi- 
ration, perspiration recognized by the sense of sight. But when 
perspiration is so gentle that it cannot be detected in the shape 
of water-drops, when no moisture can be felt, when it is known 
to us only by a certain softness of the skin, that is insensible per- 
spiration, and is so gentle, that it may be checked to a very 
considerable extent without special injury. But to use popular 
language, which cannot be mistaken, when a man is sweating 
freely, and it is suddenly checked, and the sweat is not brought 
out again in a very few moments, sudden and painful sickness 
is a very certain result. 

What then checks perspiration ? A draft of air while we 
are at rest, after exercise, or getting the clothing wet and re- 
maining at rest while it is so. Getting out of a warm bed 



Remedy for a Cough. 123 

and going to an open door or window, has been the death of 
multitudes. 

A lady heard the cry of fire at midnight: it was bitter cold ; 
it was so near, the flames illuminated her chamber. She left 
the bed, hoisted the window, the cold wind chilled her in a 
moment. From that hour until her death, a quarter of a century 
later, she never saw a well day. 

A young lady went to a window in her night-clothes to-look 
at something in the street, leaning her unprotected arms on the 
stone window-sill, which was damp and cold. She became an 
invalid, and will remain so for life. 

Sir Thomas Colby, being in a profuse sweat one night, hap- 
pened to remember that he had left the key of his wine cellar 
on the parlor table, and fearing his servants might improve the 
inadvertence and drink some of his wine, he left his bed, walk- 
ed down stairs, the sweating process was checked, from which 
he died in a few days, leaving six millions dollars in the English 
funds. His illness was so brief and violent that he had no op- 
portunity to make his will, and his immense property was divi- 
ded among five or six day laborers who were his nearest rela- 
tions. 

The great practical lesson which we wish to impress upon the 
mind of the reader is this : When you are perspiring freely, 
KEEP IN MOTION until you get to a good fire, or to some place where 
you are perfectly sheltered from any draft of air whatever. 



EEMEDY FOE A COUGH. 



"This is the season for coughs and colds, and amid the 
changes of the weather too much care and caution cannot be 
taken in regard to them. There is a simple remedy for a 
cough, which we have occasionally tried, found effective, and 
can, therefore, recommend it. It is a mixture of one-third anti- 
monial wine, one-third of syrup of squills, and one-third pare- 
goric, in equal proportions, mixed. 

" A swallow of it occasionally, so as to moisten the throat. 
It is innocent in its effects, and can, at any rate, do no harm. 

" The apothecaries will sell a sixpence worth ; but the best 
way for those who can afford it is to get it at some reliable 



124 HalVs Journal of Health. 

druggist's — say twenty -five cents' worth of each in separate 
bottles, and mix it as they want it, themselves. 

" In respect to the antimonial wine, an article is sometimes 
sold, we have reason to believe, where alcohol, instead of wine, 
is used in the preparation. In that case it would be too strong. 
Almost every druggist, of good reputation, however, has the 
preparation as it should be from its name. The only incon- 
venience from using the other, as already stated, is its being 
stronger than most persons can bear, and is too heating for the 
system. 

" Persons having a cough, too, should be careful to abstain 
from the use of cold water as a drink, and also, as far as proper, 
from its use as an external application. A free bathing from 
pure alcohol, instead of water, of the throat and chest, to be 
wiped dry afterwards, would be of service. 

" Persons having a cough, also, would find much benefit from 
wearing over the throat and chest a layer of cotton-flannel. It 
could be suspended by a string from the neck, or fastened in- 
side of the garments. The cotton, of course, must be placed 
next to the flesh. 

We need not say that care should al all times be taken to 
keep the feet dry and comfortable, and avoid, as far as possible, 
at any time, letting the blood in any way become chilled. Those 
most subject to coughs and colds are the poor, who have to ex- 
pose themselves to the weather ; and to such, and others, an 
observance of the above hints may not be unattended with at 
least some beneficial effects." 

The above remedy for a cough, has been taken from a recent 
number of a religious newspaper, published in New- York, and 
we take occasion here to administer to this otherwise excellent 
periodical, in common with others of its class — a rebuke, which 
we hope will be felt and heeded. We cannot understand why 
it is, that the so-called religious press of this country is so steadily 
degenerating to secularization. With their shameful and crab- 
bed abuse of each other— their vindictive denunciation of those 
who have another faith than their own — their spiteful, impa- 
tient and sweeping epithets of one another — the long columns 
of foreign correspondence, which encumber their pages, often- 
times having the very slightest religious bearing — the selling 



Remedy for a Cough. 125 

their advertising columns to the most bare-faced impositions on 
the credulity of their patrons — we say, with all these things 
before us, we are inclined to the belief, that without a more dis- 
tinct line of demarkation between them and common news- 
papers, the sooner they are discontinued the better. With very 
few exceptions, there is not a religious newspaper in the United 
States whose editorials, in the course of one year, do not for- 
feit the title of a " Christian gentleman." If the scripture rule 
be applied to them strictly, " with what measure ye mete, it shall 
be measured to you again," very few of them, indeed, will have 
the invitation given — " come sit ye up higher." 

Ignorance is always reckless. It is the unpardonable reck- 
lessness of truth in reference to health, expressed in the article 
above referred to, which has, in this instance, provoked us to 
say hard things. It is within a month that we saw announced 
in a religious newspaper, published in the South, that during 
the year eighteen hundred and fifty-five, there was a very 
marked decline in deaths from consumption, and that it was to 
be attributed to the efficacy of " Ayres Cherry Pectoral." In 
another part of the same paper we noticed a long advertise- 
ment of this same medicine. In view of this, we simply inquire, 
what amount of respect is due any editor or proprietor, who 
will suffer himself to be bought over to such a palpable prosti- 
tution of his influence. But we wish more particularly to ex- 
pose the shameful falsities contained in this vaunted remedy for 
a cough. It is given with the advantages of editorial expe- 
rience, as it is not marked as quoted from any paper. One- 
third of the mixture is Paregoric. We think that editor would 
not have dared to recommend a cough remedy which was com- 
pose of over one-third brandy. We need enter into no argu- 
ment to prove that opium intemperance is more terrible than 
that from brandy : and yet this editor declares it is innocent in 
its effects, and can, at any rate, do no harm. Is this true ? 
Antimonial wine is alcohol, with a little tartar emetic in it ; and 
Paregoric is alcohol, with a little opium in it. Of the bulk of 
this remedy for cough, two-thirds is alcohol, and one-third water. 
We believe regular topers think that a glass of half-and-half is 
pretty strong, and they are unanimous in the opinion that it 
does no harm — in fact, they say it does them good ; but here is 
a religious editor, who declares, in effect, that an alcoholic mix- 



126 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ture, with only one-third water, a swallow of it occasionally, 
" is innocent in its effects, and can at any rate do no harm" 

The writer goes on to say, that while it is innocent, and can 
do no harm to swallow opium, dissolved in alcohol, for a cough, 
it does do harm to drink cold water, and that instead of wash- 
ing in cold water, it is better to wash with alcohol — that is to 
say, an " innocent" remedy for a cough, is to soak the inside 
with alcohol and opium, and the outside with alcohol alone, but 
water must be studiously avoided. The writer concludes in the 
following benevolent strain : — as the poor are more subject to 
coughs and colds, they should purchase fifty cents worth of 
alcohol, with a little tartar emetic and opium in it, and twenty- 
five cents worth of water, with a little squills, and take a swal- 
low of this occasionally. Shame on the ignorance and incon- 
sistency or negligence which could admit such an article in a 
paper, designed for religious family reading. And as to saying 
that opium, in any form, is innocent, or curative of any disease 
under the sun, none but a most unmitigated ignoramus would 
father such a sentiment. 

Gentlemen of the press, secular or religious, remember it is 
your business to communicate reliable news, and to uphold 
good morals, but not to teach medicine ; nor for a few dollars, 
now and then, to be made the tools of unprincipled, knavish 
and ignorant charlatans. The remedy above, will always and 
under all circumstances, retard a cure. 



EDITORIAL RECREATIONS. 

Sir : — Three months ago I sent you a year's subscription, as 
I can prove by the Post-master of this town ; not a single num- 
ber has been received. As I don't want to be trifled with, I 
hope your publication will be sent at once to 

Miss Mary Flanders. 

Reply. — Miss Mary : — The Journal has been regularly sent 
to your address at Mary-Gold Cottage, such being the designation 
of your first note. We send them again, however, to the Post- 
office, the official impress of which is on the envelope of your 
last. 



Editorial Recreations. 127 

Journal Editor : — 

Sir : — I have only received the January number, and I 
know by that that you have pocketed the dollar, and as I don't 
choose to pay a whole dollar for one number of your Journal, 
this is to express the hope that you will be honest and send 
them regularly. 

Jemima Peppercorn. 

Reply. — The name of your Post-office having been changed 
without our having been made acquainted with the fact, the 
Journal was sent to your old address. We however mail the 
missing numbers as per present letter. 

Editor of Journal of Health : — 

I have been at the trouble to obtain a number of sub- 
scribers for you. I have so many complaints about the tardy 
or non-reception of the Journal, that I don't think I will be 
troubled with it any more. 

Miss Powderflask. 

Reply. — My Dear Miss Powdry : — Your appreciated com- 
munication is duly received, and in reply thereto beg leave to 
say that we agree to mail the Journal regularly to all of our 
subscribers, but we* do not undertake to transport the United 
States mail. Your difficulty is with Uncle Sam ; all that we 
can do in such cases, and we shall do it promptly and willingly, 
is to supply missing numbers to all of our subscribers, without 
additional charge, on being made acquainted with the fact that 
any number has not been received. 

Dr. Hall:— 

Your Journal comes as an exchange to the office of this 
Magazine, in Chestnut-street, Philadelphia, and I am much 
pleased with it, but it is so cut up for copy I desire the bound 
volume, the price of which is enclosed. Will you please to tell 
me what will fetch down a big head ; mother says mine is a 
great deal larger than it ought to be, and that it was caused by 
eating so much molasses and candy and sweet cake, and I will 
be very much obliged to you. I am nineteen just. 

Eichard Countryman. 

Reply. — Master Eichard : — The Journal is sent as desired. 
I know of no means of diminishing the size of your head, but 



128 HaWs Journal of Health. 

I can suggest a sufficient remedy ; fill the head you have with 
substantial knowledge, and by a life of active industry out of 
doors, eating heartily of substantial meat and bread and fruits, 
make your body grow up to it — then the relative disproportion 
in size between the head and body will not be so great as to at- 
tract notice. 

Yery truly yours, 

Ed. Hall's J. Health. 
Editor Journal of Health : — 

I have seen so many extracts from your Journal, will 
you please send me five or six different numbers as a specimen 
and if I like it, and can spare the money, and could be sure 
that some one would not take it out of the letter, I think I 
might like to subscribe for it next year, if father will let me 
have the money. 

John Keen. 
We mailed John Keen a last year's Journal so that if he liked 
it, &c, his promise to take it "next" year would make him a 
subscriber to the present number. 

Dr. Hall:— 

I like your Journal very much and would like to take 
it, but cannot spare the money just now ; but if you will send 
it to me, I will send you the money next fall, when the crops 
come in. William Sureman. 

The above was received in the summer of last year, from the 
interior of Ohio, and the Journal was sent accordingly. When 
the crops were gathered the dollar was sent. And we record 
this as a striking instance of the looming up of a dollar, in the 
estimation of people in the country who do not handle much 
money. 



CLERICAL RECREATIONS. 

To no class of persons does this nation owe more of its sta- 
bility and greatness than to its clergy; their learning, their 
talent, their piety, their love of liberty and the right, their re- 
sistance against oppression and the wrong, are the glory of any 
people, and more essential to national advancement than a mil- 
lion times their number of bar room politicians and quibbling 



Clerical Recreations. 129 

lawyers. But with the talent and capabilities, which, if exerted 
in other directions, would place them at the head in the count- 
ing-room and on 'change, they do not, on an average, get the 
annual pay of a New York drayman. Such being the case — and 
shame is it to the intelligence and piety of this land that it is 
so — we have no right to direct them as to the expenditure of 
their time. But willing to do them a service, to suggest some- 
what that may add to their health and usefulness, we propose 
the following as a very profitable method of recreating them- 
selves during the summer : 

Let them travel together, two and two, on horseback, through 
the destitute and mountainous parts of the country, preaching 
in the forenoon, and at night of each day ; in the forenoon, at 
some country church or tavern, or cross roads, or post-office ; 
and at night, in some town or village. 

There is no more delightfully healthful form of exercise than 
that of moderate horseback travel, day after day, some eighteen 
miles between breakfast and dinner, and some twelve miles be- 
tween dinner and supper. The change of scene, of employment. 
of air, of food, of mode of preparation, the relaxation from 
severe study to that of a moderate and unlaborious sort, the 
freshness which will invest old ideas, and old skeletons and old 
sermons, when connected with the consciousness that they are 
perfectly new to the auditory, the pleasurable feeling which 
pervades the heart in the reflection that the seed of the word is 
thus sown to many who else might not have had it scattered to 
them again, perhaps in a life-time, with the assurance that it 
must take root in some hearts, we repeat it, all these things 
together, when a minister has a mind to the ivork, when it is his 
meat and drink to be thus employed, will work such a change 
in the physical conviction of a man as will enable him to return 
to the people of his charge with a store of health, with a vigor 
of mind, with a warmth of heart and elevation of spirit, of 
which those clergymen have no conception whose recreations 
are to feed and lounge on the sea shore, or at the Spa. Let 
each congregation that feels their minister ought to have a holi- 
day during the heats of summer, provide him with a hundred 
or two dollars extra, and say to him, as ye go, preach! We 
recommend the mountainous regions of our country for two 
reasons ; the atmosphere of the mountains is most pure and in- 



130 HalVs Journal of Health. 

vigorating, the exercise of riding and walking up and down 
hill leaves no muscle or fibre in the whole economy unem- 
ployed, and then, for the great moral reason, opportunities for 
religious instruction are very limited in hilly countries, and 
would be more highly valued and improved. We trust the re- 
ligious press will give these suggestions a wide circulation, for 
they are well worthy of the mature consideration and practical 
attention of all well meaning men. 



INFLUENCE OF QUACKERY ON HEALTH. 

We take the following pungent extract from a speech by 
Mr. Sanborn, in the New- Hampshire Legislature, upon the 
bill to incorporate the "New-Hampshire Medical Botanical 
Society :" 

" It is safe to assert that there is not an advertised nostrum 
in the market which does not hold out false hopes to the sick. 
Every such advertisement is an imposition upon the public, 
whether it came from physicians regular, irregular, or defective, 
and in the grammar of medicine the latter class is very nume- 
rous. If one tithe of what the patent medicine makers assert 
were true, we might attain unto what the progenitors of our 
race would have secured by partaking of the fruit of the tree 
of life. We might live forever if the pompous assertions of the 
makers of cosmetics, washes for the face and beautifying lotions 
were true, we might have ladies as beautiful as houris, with the 
assurance of perpetual juvenescence. In a word, we might bid 
defiance to the darts of death, and the vegetable doctor might 
stand over the prostrate king of terrors and exclaim in tri- 
umph, '0 death, where is thy sting?' and then turn to his 
patient and in the language of Oriental adulation exclaim, ' O 
patient, live forever.' 

" It is pretended that nobody is deceived by the professions 
of quacks. Every day's experience contradicts this assertion. 
The rich and the poor, the wise and the simple, are all occa- 
sionally deluded by these cheating, lying impostors. The 
human mind is so constituted that we must confide in others. 
We are made to trust each other, to believe the solemn decla- 
rations of our fellows. Without this mutual cnnfidence, soci- 



Inflluence of Quackery on Health. 131 

ety could not exist ; hence the abuse of it becomes the more 
odious. None are so credulous as the sick. They listen readiy 
to the advice and suggestions of others. Fearing the ravages 
of disease, they eagerly lay hold of any hope, however delu- 
sive, which empirics may hold out to them. The extensive sale 
of vegetable medicines proves this. A few years ago, when 
Morrison's vegetable life pills were so popular in this country, 
a suit was commenced in a court in Massachusetts, by Morri- 
son & Moat, against John K. Palmer, for selling a spurious 
article. It appeared there in evidence that the proprietors had 
been so successful in England as to be able to establish the 
1 British College of Health/ at an expense of $250,000, from 
which agents were sent into all the principal cities of Europe 
and America. The demand for these pills became so great in 
this country that the sale amounted to $250,000 in a single 
year ; and the seller of spurious pills had disposed of one hun- 
dred thousand boxes before he was arrested by the patentee. 
It appeared, furthermore, that this { British College of Health, 1 
with its high sounding title, had neither charter, professors nor 
students, but consisted of an immense building in the suburbs 
of London, with appropriate apparatus for the manufacture of 
{ Hygean pills ;" and that the proprietor was neither surgeon, 
physician nor man of science, but an arch quack. What has 
become of his vaunted remedy in the brief space of ten years ? 
Gone, like thousands of its predecessors, to the shades of Ere- 
bus and old Night. 

The fact that new nostrums remain popular only for a brief 
period proves that their healing virtues, like the diseases they 
profess to cure, are imaginary. Each remedy has its brief day 
of glory, and is succeeded by a rival candidate for the popular 
applause. Each new invention has a twofold office. It comes 
to bury the dead and herald a new race. Every fresh adven- 
turer denounces all rivals as deceivers and imposters. These 
makers and venders of nostrums abuse each other like pick- 
pockets. They wage upon every fellow-quack an internecine 
war. Every member of the fraternity is an Ishmaelite to every 
other. On all sides it is war to the knife, and knife to the hilt. 
The dead lie prostrate on many a hard fought field ? but it is 
the patients who die, not the quaclcs / But are we not bound to 
believe what these impostors say of each other ? Who should 



132 HalVs Journal of Health. 

know the tricks of the trade better than they ? if we can trust 
their promises we certainly are bound to credit their assertions 
concerning the fraternity. They warn us " as we value health" 
to shun all prescriptions of quacks except their own ; and this 
is done by every inventor of a new medicine. Look at the 
flaming advertisements of the rival Drs. Townsend, which stare 
us in the face from every paper printed in Concord, together 
with a beautiful wood-cut, representing old Dr. Jacob Town- 
send himself. They both offer for sale a syrup of sarsaparilla. 
The old Doctor says he has paid $200,000 within the last eight 
years for advertising ; and whence came this immense sum ? 
We cannot suppose that any man would devote more than a 
tithe of his income to advertising : therefore, the doctor must 
have been doing an excellent business in the sarsaparilla line 
for eight years. 

At the present day there is a great fondness for vegetabe, 
medicines. Any thing having the prefix of vegetable to it goes 
down with the multitude. Notwithstanding every body knows 
that no new vegetable has been discovered, and no new pro- 
perties have been detected in vegetables before known, still 
they confide in the assertion that the commonest herbs may 
be made sovereign remedies for " all the ills that flesh is heir 
to." It is equally well known that a majority of all the medi- 
cines in the pharmacopoeia of the regular faculty are of vege- 
table origin, and that the most deadly poisons, such as destroy 
life almost at a blow, like a thunder-bolt, are from the vegetable 
kingdom. — Still we are told that all vegetable remedies are safe, 
while mercury is the great bugbear of the many. But it has 
been proved in courts of justice, where quacks have been ar- 
raigned for manslaughter, that pills professing to be purely 
vegetable have produced salvation in the patient. There are 
perhaps, a score of infallible remedies for consumption, and 
there can scarcely be a doubt that the only ingredient in them 
all which serves to allay the irritation of a chronic cough is 
opium ! This for a time quiets the consumptive patient, and 
deceives him with the hope of recovery, but by frequent use 
of it the strength is exhausted, and the system sinks under the 
repeated assaults of empiricism. 

But, of all the gross and palpable impositions upon the pub- 
lic credulity, the pretence that the Indians understood the heal- 



Care of the Feet. 133 

ing virtues of roots and herbs, is the most absurd and monstrous. 
Civilized and Christian men having recourse to savages to learn 
science ! It is, however, a notorious fact that Indian " medicine 
men, as they are called, are the greatest impostors living. They 
surpass their civilized imitators. They " out-herod Herod," in 
knavery. The whole system of practice ameng the Indians has 
always consisted in fraud and pretense. Catlin, who spent 
years among the North American Indians, constantly affirms 
this. They know literally nothing of the power of simples. 
They employ, over the sick, charms, spells and incantations, 
and make use of amulets and consecrated medicine bags as 
curative agents. Yet our scientific botanists go to these ignor- 
ant, besotted dupes of superstition to learn medical science. 
Sometimes a veritable Indian doctor appears among us with 
more brass than copper in his face. He makes his prescription 
with great gravity and solemnity. He cuts his herbs and 
gathers his roots under the influence of certain astronomical 
signs. These signs by the way, are but a relic of old astrology, 
as ancient as the Pharaohs, and have no more significancy for 
us than the worship of Isis. But our doctor regards " the stel- 
lar" influence in gathering his herbs. He strips the bark up- 
ward for an emetic, and downward for a cathartic. He steeps 
the whole in river water taken up in a peculiar way. I once 
heard of an instance where the whole process failed because 
the patient dipped the water up stream instead of down ! " Be- 
cause you see," said the learned doctor, " if the water be dipped 
up stream it goes agin natur ; if down stream it helps natur." 
Such are Indian doctors. Ab uno disce omnes. 



CARE OF THE FEET. 



One evening in Boston, just as Washington Alston, the Paint- 
er, was approaching the door of a dwelling, where a splendid 
party had assembled, he suddenly stopped short and said to 
his friend, 

11 1 cannot go in." 

Nonsense ! why not ? 

11 I have a hole in one of my stockings." 

Pshaw, man, nobody knows it. 

" But I do," said the celebrated Artist, as he turned on his 



134 Hall's Journal of Health. 

heel and left his friend in doubt, whether to swear or laugh 
out-right. 

A long time ago, " when you and I were boys," reader, when 
dead people were brought in and thrown down upon the floor 
of the dissecting room, just as indifferently as a brawny 
butcher throws down a great big pig to dissect into sausage 
meat, ham and spare-rib, and just as nude, except the face, 
which alone tells in the recent subject, that the man is dead, we 
used as a past-time, while the lecturer was calling over long 
Latin and Greek names, as dry as a fence-rail, and as hard, to 
be cogitating in our own minds, what was the position of that 
body when in life, what its relative standing in society. Some- 
how or other we fell on the feet, as the most reliable indicator, 
especially, if the appearance of the body as to plumpness, in- 
dicated sudden death. Now and then, the well trimmed toe- 
nail, its freedom from collections under it, and in every other 
spot from toe-nail to ankle, scrupulously clean ; these showed 
full well, that the poor body so ruthlessly treated now, was 
tenanted but a few hours before, by a spirit of purity, refine- 
ment and elevation, or had friends around it in the last sad 
hours of life, who merited such a character ; and it was impos- 
sible to withhold our sympathy and respect for that lump of 
lifeless clay. At other times, the feet would be found in so 
filthy a condition, as to excite within us sentiments of the 
most irrestrainable disgust and contempt, and we felt as if the 
spirit which had so recently left that tenement was as foul and 
low as bestiality could make it. 

On a beautiful November afternoon, away back yonder in 
the Forties, we had just stepped ashore on the Levee at New 
Orleans after a ten days' journey from Louisville, and hurrying 
along down the water's edge, a few yards from the shore, in 
the direction of the Post-Office, thinking of how many letters 
we would find there from absent friends, and kindred, and pa- 
tients, we were aroused from our reverie by a tremendous con- 
cussion and noise ; the first glance was upward at the sky, 
filled with innumerable objects of every size and description ; 
they had scarcely got high enough to take their turn down- 
wards, and the first thought, that miracle of instinct was, could 
we by any rate of locomotion put ourselves beyond the point 
at which the falling articles would strike the earth; we looked 



Care of the Feet 135 

again, and thought we could ; if any individual ever " heeled it " 
in double quick time, it was the writer of this article ; every 
hair of the head and body seemed to stand on end, a chill 
thrilled through the whole frame at every successive step, we 
felt an expectation of an instantaneous crush to the earth ! Oh, 
how long that race for life seemed, for we were not forty yards 
from the Louisiana, at the moment of explosion. Not a single 
thing touched us, although we heard many pattering around us, 
apparently as thick as hailstones. In an instant we stood still, 
why, we cannot say, it was instinctive, not rational, and as soon 
as the sound of falling ceased, we turned to the scene of disas- 
ter ; just as we turned, a poor young fellow passed us, scarcely 
able to limp along, and the next instant, was a full grown man, 
flat on his back, without one atom of inj ury except he had no 
head ; the back-bone just protruded a little above the line of 
the shoulder. In that instant of time, some eighty-one persons 
if we remember well, were hurried into eternity. Some ling- 
ered a moment and died, others laid a long time and no aid 
came to them. The whole surface of the levee was covered 
with bits of human bones, and joints, and flesh, and hair, and 
parts of clothing : a piece of boiler weighing perhaps a thou- 
sand pounds, struck a bale of cotton, cutting a mule in two, 
and shivered a cast iron awning post, some four hundred feet 
from the ill-fated steamer. As litter after litter passed by us 
towards the hospital and town, bearing its blackened, mutila- 
ted, groaning, dying occupants, a resolution suddenly formed 
itself in our mind, as apparently foreign to scenes like these, as 
it was possible to be — that as long as we lived, we never would 
if alone, put our foot on a steamer or rail-car, except in our 
best clothing, and the whole body in as unexceptionable con- 
dition as razor, and soap, and water could make it. Now, 
why ? The argument ran itself out in our mind as follows : — 
" If in that terrible hour, I had been bereft of all sense, the at- 
tention shown me, and the place assigned me in a private house 
or public hotel, or large hospital, would have depended, to a 
considerable extent, on the character of personal belongings." 
This is a thought which will bear maturing by all travellers. 

Therefore, reader, if you would secure more marked atten- 
tion from your physicians or nurses in times of sudden calami- 



136 Hall's Journal of Health. 

ties and terrible mutilations of body, a clean person, a clean 
foot, would not be a despised passport. 

The feet should be soaked in warm water, for at least twenty 
minutes, twice a week, and at the same time, rubbed and scrub- 
bed with a brush and soap. Besides this, if they were dipped 
in cold water of mornings, ankle deep, both in at once, for a 
single minute, winter and summer, having them vigorously and 
briskly rubbed all the time they are in, then wiped dry and 
a walk taken, or held to a fire until perfectly warmed, the skin 
of the feet would be kept in a soft, cleanly, pliable condition, 
the circulation about them would be vigorous, and the result 
would be, in many instances, that corns and callosities would 
almost cease to trouble you ; coldness of feet would, to a con- 
siderable extent, be removed, and " taking cold 11 would not occur 
once, where it now occurs a dozen times ; for it is through the 
feet, that many of our most serious ailments come. In addi- 
tion, let us suggest, that one of the most useful of habits, as 
well as agreeable, during all the season of the year, in which 
fires are kept burning, let the last operation preceding getting 
into bed be, holding the naked foot to the fire, for ten or fifteen 
minutes, rubbing with the hands all the time, until most thor- 
oughly dry and warm. A good anodyne that. 



THROAT AIL. 

The first most frequent cause of this malady, in our opinion, 
is indigestion, the lining of the throat being a continuation of 
the lining of the stomach — one source of nerve-supply to both 
throat and stomach, being also identical. 

There is reason to believe that the second most frequent 
origin of this troublesome, mischievous and dangerous ailment, 
is the irregular and injudicious exercise of the vocal organs on 
the part of singers, clergymen, and other speakers. 

The muscles of the human body are under the same general 
physical laws; they are all developed and strengthened by 
moderate, regular exercise. If a man runs a hundred yards to- 
day it will tire him — if he do it a week hence the same result 
will be observed, for successive months. But if he runs a hun- 
dred yards to-day, and repeats it day after day, we all know 
that, if in ordinary health, the ease with which that race can 



Throat Ail 137 

be performed will become greater and greater, until it can be 
done without a scarcely appreciable effort. And so it would 
assuredly be if clergymen would speak in public, in moderation, 
every day, and when this is not practicable, I have advised the 
daily reading out aloud in a conversational tone, with the same 
animation usual to the delivery of a sermon. 

The non-use or the spasmodic exercise of any muscle in the 
human body, will result injuriously, if persevered in. 

Another item is of important consideration, and it is a point, 
too, on which every public speaker should keep his eye steadily 
fixed. It is not the irregular exercise of the vocal organs, of 
itself, which originates most of the difficulty; it is -that such 
exercise leaves the throat in a heated and debilitated condition, 
and in that condition, being suddenly exposed to an altered 
temperature, injury is the result, on principles precisely the 
same as are in operation under circumstances of checked per- 
spiration. Single injuries of such a nature would be compara- 
tively harmless, but when repeated weekly for successive years, 
it is not strange that troublesome symptoms are a permanent 
result. That clergymen more often suffer from Throat Ail than 
other public speakers, arises in part from the fact that the exer- 
cises are more artificial than those of the lawyer, the legislator 
or the congressman, but there is a circumstance which we con- 
sider a more decided element in producing these morbid 
phenomena, although we do not at present remember to have 
seen it alluded to by any medical writer at home or abroad, 
but which we think will at once strike the reflecting reader as 
being quite sufficient. The clergyman changes the circum- 
stances under which his public services are performed sooner 
than any other class of public men, Within ten or fifteen 
minutes after his discourse is delivered in a close and heated and 
vitiated apartment, and while yel the whole system, mind and 
body, is in a state of comparative debility and exhaustion from 
the two hours' previous effort, he is in a wholly different atmos- 
phere, in the street or on the road, breathing an air, oftentimes 
cold and damp, raw and chilly, dashing it in at each inhalation, 
through an open mouth, on a surface of throat equal to a foot 
square. The lawyer and the legislator usually remain for a 
considerable time after their efforts, thus allowing the parts to 
cool and to recover their tone and elasticity. Some of the most 



138 HaWs Journal of Health. 

intractable and fatal forms of throat disease which have ever 
fallen under our notice, have arisen from riding on horseback ov 
open vehicle, or walking on foot against a cold wind immediate- 
ly after preaching. The remedy suggests itself to every thought- 
ful reader — 

1st. Do not expose yourself to an external atmosphere after 
speaking, until the system is cooled down. 

2nd. Or if you must go out soon after, bundle up well, keep 
your mouth resolutely closed, so as to heat the air before it gets 
to the throat, by sending it along the circuit of the nose, and 
walk rapidly, so as to keep up a vigorous circulation. 



DONATION PAETIES 

Are an invention of the Father of Lies. In our view, Pan- 
dora's box could not exhibit a greater variety of ills and con- 
centrated deceptions, hypocrisies and shuffling managements. 
Just look at it. 

You have agreed to pay your minister a certain salary. If 
that salary is paid, and is fully sufficient for all his purposes, 
then he does not need any more. If you have so much that 
you cannot avoid giving, then bestow it on some poor widow, 
some orphan child in want, or some perishing invalid whom 
you are sure to have no favors to ask of, and from whom you 
cannot reasonably expect any reciprocities. 

If you are conscious that your minister's salary is not fully 
adequate to his wants, then stand frankly up to the mark and 
increase it, thus letting him feel that it is his due, that he can 
claim it as a right, and that he is not beholden to you in the 
least. As it is, the Donation system puts him in a false posi- 
tion in several ways. 

1. You place him under obligations to you by gifts. 

2. You lower him in his own estimation, and in your own, 
by making him, in some sort, the recipient of your charity. 

3. Persons more conscientious and less able than yourself, 
" are expected" to be at the party, when they have already put 
in as far as they felt themselves able ; while others, not willing 
to be behindhand, have strained themselves more than they 
would have done had they been left wholly to themselves. 

4. Besides these, there is another ill result; persons more 



Influences. 139 

considerate than the commonalty, may feel that the salary is 
not a sufficient one, but then it occurs to them the annual do- 
nation will make it up, whereas the intrinsic value of those gifts 
are overrated nine times out of ten, and quite as often, per- 
haps, are fancy articles of nominal value thrown in, which 
from their expensiveness, the minister's family may feel inap- 
propriate for their uses, and they are laid by as "keepsakes,' 
totally unavailable for practical purposes. 

Be a man, reader, and don't attempt to keep your minister 
under your thumb in any of these circumbendibus ways ; his 
palms should be as sacred from a bribe as those of the high- 
est judge in the land, he should be as far above the influences 
of your fear, favor or affection, as a liberal and all-sufficient 
salary can place him, and feeling this, he can work with a 
will, and willing hands give a glad heart and a sturdy spirit, 
which bring in their train high health, a clear head, sound 
logic and a safe divinity. 



INFLUENCES. 

For weal or woe, how are they falling around our children, 
especially in large cities, every hour of their existence, and how 
wide awake should every parental heart be to the direction of 
the character of those influences ! A short time since, one of 
our daily papers, in noticing the death of an individual, says, 
11 He was a man of undoubted talent, and had he fallen under 
proper influences, might have achieved a reputation and secured 
a fortune ; as it was, he died at forty-two, without character or 
morals, a drunkard, an outcast, and a forger." 

What were some of the malign influences which shaped this 
man's course for infamy, who otherwise might have been a 
credit to the nation and an honor to his kind ? The love of 
dress, the love of drink, and the love of the drama. Foppery, 
brandy and the theatre were his ruin, as they have been the 
ruin of countless multitudes before. And what were some of 
the li proper influences" which the notice above intimates would 
have worked out a different destiny ? — the influence of a home, 
made happy in childhood, by parental unity and piety — by 
sisterly purity and affection, and by such a remembrance of the 
sabbath day, as secures it to be spent in the sanctuaries of reli- 
gion. 



140 HalVs Journal of Health. 

AGRICULTURE 

Pursued with intelligent industry, affords a larger number of 
high advantages than any other occupation of human life ; it 
strengthens the body, invigorates the mind ; and while it re- 
fines the sentiments, it purifies the heart, by compelling it to look 
upward for reliance and help towards Him who giveth rain and 
fruitful seasons. It curbs inordinate ambitions, by yielding a 
moderate remuneration for toil, while at the same time it im- 
parts a feeling of quiet confidence in the future, from the de- 
claration that while the world stands, seed time a/nd harvest shall 
not cease. The young man brought up to till the soil, begins to 
feel gradually that the rewards of his toil, are proportioned to 
his labor, and this imparts by degrees a spirit of self-reliance, 
which begets independence, and an amount of industrious ac- 
tivities, worth more to that young man, in his after conflicts 
with the world, than the inheritance of unearned thousands. — 
Israel Putnam worked faithfully on his father's farm to his full 
age, and thus secured to himself those self-reliant feelings, 
which were the germs of all his subsequent distinction. 



GODEY'S LADY'S BOOK. 

Well done ! A monthly periodical which can be published 
over a quarter of a century and never allow a profanity to pol- 
lute its pages, makes another step forward, which is worthy of 
all praise, and which doubly shames nine-tenths of the religious 
newspapers of the day, in asserting in the number for the pre- 
sent month, from Philadelphia :- - 

" We were offered a few days since a very handsome sum of 
money if we would allow a pamphlet containing a notice of 
quack medicines to be directed to each of our subscribers. We 
declined, as we did not choose to make them pay postage on an 
article which could be of no possible use to them." How is it 
that Godey's Lady's Book can make its proprietor independent 
without prostituting it to profanity, uncourteousness and quack- 
ery, and yet the religious press, in order to "make it pay" will 
publish without stint, some of the most palpable and unblush- 
ing falsehoods, in reference to medicine and systems of medi- 
cine, to which they would not trust the life of a valuable horse, 
let alone their own lives. 






HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] JULY, 1856. [NO. VII. 



POPULAR FALLACIES.— (Continued.) 

Night air and damp weather are held in great horror by mul- 
titudes of persons who are sickly or of weak constitutions ; con- 
sequently, by avoiding the night air, and damp weather, and 
changeable weather, and weather that is considered too hot or 
too cold, they are kept within doors the much largest portion of 
their time, and as a matter of course continue invalids, more and 
more ripening for the grave every hour; the reason is, they are 
breathing an impure atmosphere nineteen-twentieths of their 
whole existence. 

As nothing can wash us clean but pure water, so nothing can 
cleanse the blood, nothing can make health-giving blood, but 
the agency of pure air. So great is the tendency of the blood 
to become impure in consequence of waste and useless matters 
mixing with it as it passes through the body, that it requires a 
hogshead of air every hour of our lives to unload it of these 
impurities ; but in proportion as this air is vitiated, in such pro- 
portion does it infallibly fail to relieve the blood of these impu- 
rities, and impure blood is the foundation of all disease. The 
great fact that those who are out of doors most, summer and 
winter, day and night, rain or shine, have the best health the 
world over, does of itself falsify the general impression that 
night air or any other out-door air is unhealthy as compared 
with in-door air at the same time. 

Air is the great necessity of Life ; so much so, that if deprived 
of it for a moment, we perish ; and so constant is the necessity 
of the blood for contact with the atmosphere, that every drop 
in the body is exposed to the air through the medium of the 
lungs every two minutes and a half of our existence. 



142 HalVs Journal of Health. 

Whatever may be the impurity of the out- door air of any 
locality, the in-door air of that locality is still more impure, be- 
cause of the dust, and decaying and odoriferous matters which 
are found in all dwellings. Besides, how can in-door air be 
more healthy than the out-door air, other things being equal, 
when the dwelling is supplied with air from without ? 

To this very general law, there is one exception, which it is 
of the highest importance to note. When the days are hot, and 
the nights cool, there are periods of time within each twenty- 
four hours, when it is safest to be in doors, with doors and win- 
dows closed ; that is to say, for the hour or two including sun- 
rise and sunset, because about sunset the air cools, and the 
vapors which the heats of the day have caused to ascend far 
above us, condense and settle near the surface of the earth, so 
as to be breathed by the inhabitants ; as the night grows colder, 
these vapors sink lower, and are within a foot or two of the 
earth, so they are not breathed. As the sun rises, these same 
vapors are warmed, and begin to ascend, to be breathed again, 
but as the air becomes warmer, they are carried so far above 
our heads as to be innocuous. Thus it is that the old citizens 
of Charleston, South Carolina, remember, that while it was con- 
sidered important to live in the country during the summer, the 
common observation of the people originated the custom of rid- 
ing into town, not in the cool of the evening or of the morning, 
but in the middle of the day. They did not understand the 
philosophy, but they observed the fact that those who came to 
the city at mid-day remained well, while those who did so early 
or late suffered from it. 

All strangers at Eome are cautioned not to cross the Pontine 
marshes after the heat of the day is over. Sixteen of a ship's 
crew touching at one of the West India islands slept on shore 
several nights, and thirteen of them died of yellow fever in a 
few days, while of two hundred and eighty who were freely 
ashore during the day, not a single case of illness occurred. 
The marshes above named are crossed in six or eight hours, 
and many travellers who do it in the night are attacked with 
mortal fevers. This does, at first sight, seem to indicate that 
night air is unwholesome, at least in the locality of virulent 
malarias, but there is no direct proof that the air about sunrise 
and sunset is not that which is productive of the mischief. 



Popular Fallacies, 143 

For the sake of eliciting the observations of intelligent men, 
we present our Theory on this subject. 

A person might cross these marshes with impunity, who 
would set out on his journey an hour or two after sundown, 
and finish it an hour or two before sun-up, especially if he 
began that journey on a hearty meal, because, in this way, he 
would be travelling in the cool of the night, which, coolness 
keeps the malaria so near the surface of the earth as to prevent 
its being breathed to a hurtful extent. 

But if it is deadly to sleep out of doors all night in a malarial 
locality, would it be necessarily fatal to sleep in a house in 
such a locality ? It would not. It would be safer to sleep in 
the house, especially if the windows and doors were closed. 
The reason is, that the house has been warmed during the day, 
and if kept closed, it remains much warmer during the night 
in-doors, than it is out-doors, consequently the malaria is kept 
by this warmth so high above the head, and so rarified, as to 
be comparatively harmless. This may seem to some too nice a 
distinction altogether, but it will be found throughout the world 
of nature, that the works of the Almighty are most strikingly 
beautiful in their minutiae, and these minutiae are the founda- 
tion of his mightiest manifestations. 

Thus it is, too, that what we call " Fever and Ague," might 
be banished from the country as a general disease, if two things 
were done. 

1. Have a fire kindled every morning at daylight, from 
spring to fall, in the family room, to which all the family should 
repair from their chambers, and there remain until breakfast is 
taken. 

2. Let a fire be kindled in the family room a short time 
before sundown ; let every member of the family repair to it, 
and there remain until supper is taken. 

In both cases, the philosophy of the course marked out con- 
sists in two things. 

First. The fire rarifies the malaria and causes it to ascend 
above the breathing point. 

Second. The food taken into the stomach creates an activity 
of circulation which repels disease. 

We learned these things in our medical childhood, from our 
great teacher, John Esten Cook of Transylvania University, 



144 HalVs Journal of Health, 

and practically and literally experimented upon them during 
our Doctorial novitiate, in one of the most virulently malarial 
localities in this whole country ; so fatal was it to all strangers, 
and to its own inhabitants also, that it was known by the name 
of " The Natural Burying Ground," and although we rode 
night and day, in sun-broiling and in storm, we were not sick 
an hour. But to what end do we write these things ? Will 
one man in a million practically heed them ? Not one. But 
we are believers in the doctrine that truth will ultimately pre- 
vail, and our double great grandchildren will look back with 
pride upon an ancestor who was a century or two ahead of the 
intelligence of his age. 



HEALTHY BEEAD 



Is advertised by some man in Boston, who has discovered a 
Dietetic Saleratus, which he avers to possess two remarkable 
characteristics. 

1st. It is pure saleratus which "is not so destructive to the 
digestive organs as the common kind," thus admitting the 
"destructive qualities" of both! 

2nd. This saleratus makes eight pounds of bread out of seven 
pounds of flour, intimating that there is one-eighth more of 
nutriment in a pound of flour made into bread with his salera- 
tus, than there was in the flour itself, which is a manifest un- 
truth ; the weight is increased, but the amount of nutriment 
is not. Does successful trade require such deceptions ? We 
think not. 

Saleratus will always increase the evil which it is designed 
to remedy, because, to produce a specified effect, the quantity 
must be increased from time to time, or it will become wholly 
inefficient. 

In the second place, there is nothing curative in saleratus ; 
it removes a present effect, which we call " acidity? but it has 
no possible tendency to prevent that acidity the very next 
time food is eaten. Acidity is caused by want of power in the 
stomach to digest that kind of food which, when eaten, gives 
rise to what is commonly called Heart-hum. To prevent this 
acidity, we must give the stomach more power, more strength 
to perform its accustomed — its natural work. 



Healthy Bread. 145 

Now, when a man feels weak, what does he do ? He rests ; 
rest gives strength ; and until his strength improves, he. does 
such light work as that strength will allow. So to give more 
power to the stomach, we must give it more rest by giving it 
less work to do, which is done in two ways. 

First. By eating less frequently, we allow more time for repose, 
for recuperation. A dyspeptic person is hungry all the time ; 
is eating all the time ; because, if he does not, he "feels bad; 11 
but if he yields to his appetite, he very soon feels worse ; it 
is only for the few minutes his food is passing clown his throat 
that he feels better, for which he pays hours of subsequent suf- 
fering. This is a specimen of man's wisdom. 

Second. To afford rest for the stomach, we mu%t give it easy 
work, by studying and observing what kinds of food it manages 
most readily, but that great simpleton, man, is too lazy or too 
ignorant to make such observations, and goes at once to taking 
some kind of "Bitters" or " Tonic," with the avowed object 
of "improving his appetite;" that is to say, to enable him to 
eat more, when the fact is, he is already eating too much ! In 
addition to that, instead of observing what his own stomach 
receives most kindly, he turns round and begins to eat what 
somebody else said cured him. To make your field produce 
largely of a certain crop, you must put upon it that kind of 
manure which contains most largely that element which the 
field lacks, and which that particular crop most requires. To 
make the stomach yield the most nutriment to the body, you 
must put into it that kind of food which has the element which 
the particular body most requires ; nature — instinct — tells what 
that is. We know it is said by some that the appetite is viti- 
ated, and is not a safe guide, but this is rarely so ; the error is, 
not that what nature calls for is unwisely called for, but that 
man is such a glutton, he cannot be satisfied with a moderate 
quantity of what is called for, but must stuff himself like a pig, 
must gobble it down until he can scarcely swallow another par- 
ticle. Shame on our want of rationality and self-denial ! In dys- 
pepsia, acidity, heart-hum, indigestion, or by whatever name it may 
be called, our highest wisdom consists in the first place in giving 
preference to that kind of food which nature most craves, and 
if, after several trials, that food is invariably followed by some 
discomfort, we must not conclude that such food, although 



14:6 HalVs Journal of Health. 

strongly craved, is unsuitable of itself; it is safer to infer that 
mischief has resulted, not from the quality of the food, but 
from its quantity ; and very certainly we will arrive at the 
quantity which will not only give no discomfort, but which 
may be eaten with satisfaction, and disposed of without an 
effort, and that article should be continued as an aliment until 
nature takes a dislike to it and craves something else. These 
are the principles which should guide us in the class of ail- 
ments we have named, and there is more virtue in them than 
in all medicine ; but happily for us doctors, the people have 
neither the intelligence to perceive their wisdom, nor the firm- 
ness to carry them out. 

We ought ib know that our Maker is beneficent enough to 
cause that kind of food to flourish most in the locality where 
the human residents most need its elements. How strange 
that infatuation which causes us constantly to overlook the mul- 
titudes of evidences about us of the forethought of our Creator ! 
This great principle is evidenced in our finding meats and ani- 
mal oils almost exclusively as the aliment of the Greenlander, 
while fruits in rich profusion are found in all tropical coun- 
tries, fruits being cooling, and meats and oils necessary to 
keep up an internal fire where quicksilver freezes. 

On this self-evident principle we found our conclusion, that, 
had it been better for us to have had saleratus in our corn and 
wheat, the Almighty would have placed them there in such 
combination as no Bostonian could ever hope to equal. 

If a man's stomach is healthy and strong, he needs no salera- 
tus in his bread : if it is not healthy and strong, bread will 
sour, if largely eaten, because the stomach can digest only a 
small quantity of it. If saleratus is put in the bread, more 
bread can be eaten without souring on the stomach, but no 
power is added to the stomach to digest that larger quantity ; 
the saleratus has kept under a single effect, that is, souring or 
fermentation, and the ability of digestion not being increased, 
we only, by the use of saleratus, give the stomach a greater 
work to perform, and keep it longer at it, when we should have 
given it a less task, thus enabling it to get through its work 
the sooner, and consequently have a longer time for recupera- 
tion. Surely it requires no great depth of thought to see into 
these things. 



Exercise, 147 

EXERCISE, 

Like cold water, :s an excellent thing in its place, and out of 
its place, may be mischievous, deadly. A man in a chill may 
be chilled to death by being soused into cold water, but, if he 
survives it, it may cure him. It is too dangerous a remedy un- 
less under intelligent direction. A man on the verge of cholera 
will infallibly fall into its most fatal form, if he keeps on his 
feet, this is as certain, as that an unsupported stone will fall to 
the earth. 

The benefit of Exercise consists in knowing the How and the 
When. 

In a previous number of the Journal, the question of the 
How, was fully answered — the When, we propose to discuss 
at this time, with reference to those whose business is of a se- 
dentary character, whose general occupation is not one of bodily 
activity, of those more especially still, whose main employment 
is head work, the banker, the scholar, the artist, the clergyman, 
the clerk, the book-keeper, &c. 

It is a conceded fact, that after a night of sound repose, a man 
wakes up, feeling that he is invigorated, he has a certain amount 
of nervous energy to be expended during the subsequent day, 
apart through the brain and a part through the body ; and 
having been busy, he feels at nightfall weary and tired* 

Any man must see, that he can work best in the morning, 
the strokes then count double, physically speaking. On the 
same principle, the brain works best in the morning, being 
backed, as it is, by a large supply of nervous power. But sup- 
pose a man makes his living by head work, suppose his occu- 
pation is of such a character, that success depends on great 
nicety of observation and clearness of judgment, and strength 
of combinations, it is apparent that the larger amount of nervous 
energy undrawn upon, the more efficiently he can work. But 
suppose that supply has been taxed by a long walk, or one or 
two hours of bodily labor, the brain is that much crippled for 
want of resources, the deposite is just that much reduced, there 
are just that much less means to "operate" upon. Therefore, 

Ye Wall-street men ! ye brain- workers ! do not walk down 
town to your business of a morning, " to settle your breakfast," 
as it is expressed. The best settler of a meal is bodily quiet- 



148 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ude and mental hilarity, a joyous laugh on the sofa amid your 
family. No horseback traveller will get into his saddle the 
moment his noble animal has fed. Of two dogs, eating heartily, 
one left in his manger, the other taken on a hunt, after several 
hours, both were killed, the one at rest had passed all the food 
from his stomach, while, in that of the other it was almost un- 
changed, from the time of its having been eaten. 

The time for physical exercise to the brain-worker is in the 
after part of the day. When the brain is wearied with work, 
the whole body feels tired. But who has not found, that under 
such circumstances, a leisure walk or ride ; or light work, invi- 
gorates, refreshes both body and mind. The other morning, 
as we were riding down Broadway, we saw a noted banker, 
staving a-head with all his might, as if he were walking for a 
wager against time. His body was on the side-walk, the other 
part of him was in his counting-room. He saw nobody, spoke 
to nobody ; his eyes were bent on the pavement ; his head was 
far forward ; his whole body made the segment of a circle ; he 
was consuming his nervous power at a fearful rate ; his candle 
was burning at both ends ; all his energy was going out at his 
heels and head; while the stomach, which should have mono- 
polized the supply, until the breakfast had been taken care of, 
was left neglected. Now, can any man of reflection imagine 
that our eye was fixed upon a stout, robust looking person, 
whose firm tread, and keen eye and portly mien, and satisfied 
and composed expression of countenance --all bespoke the man ? 
No ! No ! He was a little bit of a thin bodied, weazen-faced, 
care-worn, ricketty-treaded individual, that a very moderate 
puff of wind might have swept into the gutter ; his face all 
wrinkles, the corners of his mouth turned down, with a coun- 
tenance so distressingly anxious and solemcholy, that even at 
this moment, we think of him with commiseration, and we 
wouldn't exchange our health for his hundreds of thousands. 
How strongly we believe in the doctrine of compensations ! 

Another item we must not overlook, as it has proved the 
death of many a man. Such a walk of a summer's morning, 
leaves a man in a perspiration ; in that state he enters his office, 
which most generally feels cool to him, he pulls off his hat, and 
most probably changes his coat, and puts on his slippers, all of 
which being colder than the articles of dress just removed, 



Health for Children. 149 

cool off his body rapidly, and very often, before he is aware of 
it, he feels a little chilly, or at least, a little cooler than is com- 
fortable ; the reaction of this, is " fever." A single occurrence 
of this kind may be comparatively trifling, but, like a drop to 
the ocean, it is still felt; it does an appreciable harm, and being 
habitually repeated, it works in the course of years, the ruin of 
the constitution. 

Be assured, reader, that it is attention to these apparently 
trifling things, which secures a long life of vigorous health ; 
while their neglect has attached to it an unfailing penalty, the 
penalty of premature death or a life of daily aches and pains 
and symptoms, which, in the aggregate, are worse than being 
hung at once. Now, is it wise in you to dismiss the subject by 
saying, " Well ! if I am to be everlastingly bothered with at- 
tention to such a multitude of little things, I may as well die 
off at the outset." Men do not reason thus in their efforts to 
accumulate money. Our most successful men, our millionaires, 
are men, who, from early life to the present hour, count up all 
the quarters of cents, pick up all the pins and save all the but- 
tons and pieces of strings they come across ; nor do they con- 
sider it a burden to do such things, on the contrary, it is an 
actual pleasure, and having got into the habit of it, it is no 
trouble at all. Thus it is with men who have the intelligence 
to see the importance of taking care of their health, the wisdom 
to know how it ought to be done, and the firmness of charac- 
ter to carry it out ; it is pleasurable, because profitable, and they 
find it is even easier to do right than it is to do wrong, when 
one has got into the habit of it. 



HEALTH FOR CHILDREN. 

Three times as many children die in cities as in the country, 
and half the children born do not reach ten years. Such a re- 
sult could never have been intended by the wise and kind 
Maker of us all. A different result must be brought about, by 
the exercise of the reason which is implanted in all parents, and 
which, if properly cultivated and practised in the lights of our 
lime, would soon work a wonderful change in infantile mor- 
tality. 



150 HaWs Journal of Health, 

1. Children should sleep in separate beds, on mattresses of 
straw or shucks of corn. 

% Eequire them to go to bed at a regular early hour, and let 
them have the fullest amount of sleep they can take, allowing 
them in no case to be waked up. 

5. Except a rug beside the bed, there should be no carpet on 
the floor of their chamber, no bed or window curtains, no cloth- 
ing of any description hanging about, no furniture beyond a 
dressing-table and a few chairs, no standing fluids, except a 
glass of water, and nothing at all in the way of food, or plants 
or flowers. In short, a chamber should be the cleanest, driest, 
coolest, lightest and most barren room in the house, in order to 
secure the utmost purity of air possible. 

4. Make it your study to keep your children out of doora 
every hour possible, from breakfast time until sundown, for 
every rive minutes so spent in joyous play increases the proba- 
bilities of a healthful old age. 

3. Let them eat at regular hours, and nothing between meals ; 
eating thus, never stint them ; let them partake of plain sub- 
stantial food, until fully satisfied. Multitudes of children are 
starved into dyspepsia. The last meal of the day should be at 
least two (2) hours before retiring. 

6. Dress children warmly, woollen flannel next their persons 
during the whole year. By every consideration, protect the 
extremities well. It is an ignorant barbarism which allows a 
child to have bare arms, and legs and feet, even in summer. 
The circulation should be invited to the extremities * warmth 
does that ; cold repels it. It is at the hands and feet we begin 
to die. Those who have cold hands and feet are never well. 
Plenty of warmth, plenty of substantial food and ripe fruits, plenty 
of sleep, and plenty of joyous out-door exercise, would save millions 
of children annually. 



THE DOLLAK AND BLOOD AEISTOCKACY. 

Our first visit to London found us in private lodgings — No. 
Three, Spring Gardens. Early next morning, we sauntered into 
St. James' Park, close by, and on inquiring the ownership of a 
very common; unpainted, dingy looking dwelling, some three 
stories high, if we remember well, we learned it was the resi- 



The Dollar and Blood Aristocracy, 151 

dence of " Queen Victoria." Not far from it was an old 
cow, tied to a tree, around which were congregated a number 
of nurses, each with a baby and a mug, going up in turn to get 
their share of pure and undiluted milk. We cannot tell how 
wide our unsophisticated mouth opened just at that moment, 
but it was considerable, if not more so. Our ideas of a Palace, 
formed away out yonder in the grazing pastures of Kentucky, 
a long, long time ago, were, that it could not be much less 
than a dozen stories high, with all sorts of towers and gilded 
things to match ; and as for such a vulgar article as a cow 
being within miles of it, we never dreamed of such a thing, 
but the reality was as we have stated. We cannot imagine 
that Queen Victoria feels at all lowered in occupying for her- 
self, and rearing her children in a common three story brick 
house. It is on her blood and birth that she relies. Her cha- 
racter and her position are her pride. Yes ! the heirs of an 
untoiled for income of hundreds of thousands a year are con- 
tent to occupy a three story brick house. It is the recently 
rich, the newly .elevated, who revel in glare, and glitter and 
show. It is the brewer's wife, whose whole ambition is to get 
into society. It is the butcher's daughter, who dresses vio- 
lently. Those whose positions have been undoubted for gene- 
rations, man, woman or child, would not be considered "any- 
body in particular" in a walk along Broadway, from anything 
that pertained to dress, but an observer detects it in a moment; 
there is an "air," there is a "presence" about them, which 
needs no interpreter. On the other hand, what violent transi- 
tions are there between the " superbly dressed woman" and her 
plebeian face ; between the splendid " turn-out" and its pug-nosed 
occupant; between the band-box exquisite, or the "flushed" 
black-leg, and the impudent stare, or cowering look, which are 
the inseparable attendants of the consciously degraded, the 
world over. 

Well ! passing up our own Fifth Avenue, or down Four- 
teenth street, or around Union Square, or Madison Park, or 
Murray Hill, we find multitudes of palatial residences, as far 
superior in their external appearance to the Palace of St. 
James as one can well imagine. A residence costing Fifty Thou- 
sand Dollars is a common thing in the above-named localities. 
The oak carvings, beautiful and chaste they are, of a single par* 



152 HalVs Journal of Health. 

lor in University Piace, cost three thousand dollars; and there 
are several dwellings, the adornments of single rooms of which 
have cost fifteen, twenty, and even as high as thirty thousand. 
More than one residence in New-York has cost, with its fur- 
nishings, not much less, exaggerations lain aside, than two hun- 
dred thousand dollars ! These men have made their own 
money by severe industry and patient assiduity in business; 
and we are rather fearful that we are not a little impertinent 
in making any special remark about the outlay of what is 
their own. The fact is, we like a generous expenditure of 
one's means ; it elevates the man, and has an elevating influ- 
ence on all about him, his servants, his tradesmen, his friends, 
his children, and all. It is your poor, pitiful, narrow-hearted, 
close-fisted, mean-minded miser, who never parts with a dollar 
but with a pain ; that is the kind of man on whom we look 
with unpitying contemptuousness. But for all this, we have 
often inquired whether any parent, wisely kind, can bring up 
his children in a style and manner of living which he cannot 
leave them the means of sustaining. There are men so stupid, 
that their heads cannot be turned by any elevation ; no unan- 
ticipated heights make them dizzy. But to descend safely, to 
do k in youth, to begin married life with a declivity, who is 
equal to it ? not one in many thousands. And what is the' re- 
sult? ye merchant princes, ye successful stock-jobbers, ye re- 
tired bankers of New- York, Philadelphia and Boston, we repeat 
the inquiry. What is the necessary result, as a general rule, as 
affecting the destinies of your children, who cannot, if they go 
out into the world, sustain the style of their father's house? 
The boys decline marriage, and with it give up, at one fell 
swoop, the purities, the joys, the elevations of domestic life. 
The next thing is to join some " Club," where introductions 
are soon made to the cigar, the wine-cup, the chess-board, the 
coarse jest, the loud laugh, the bacchanal song, the rail against 
" Puritanism" the Sabbath drive, or yachting, or sauntering. 
Then comes apace things said and done, which the pure ears 
of beauty can never hear, nor eyes see, nor hearts conceive, 
without mantling the young cheek with shame. 

As for your daughters, so loving and so loved to you, what 
is their future? To marry "upwards," as the world calls it, 
they cannot. Nor can they marry men, except in rare in- 



JEfarly Marriages. 153 

stances, who can even maintain the style of living in their 
father's home. They must therefore marry downwards, or not 
marry at all, and not marrying, may almost as well be dead. 
In a few years, and father and mother will be gone. Brothers 
have formed other ties. One by one of the associates of other 
years is lost from their visiting list, by removal, or marriage, or 
death. Every year leaves them more and more lonely, more 
and more neglected ; and soon thereafter the great world loses 
sight of them ; their very names are only now and then men- 
tioned, while all this time they are consuming themselves with 
sad memories, and anon pass unwept into a forgotten grave. 

Therefore, we say to wealthy parents, if you truly love your 
children, live in that style which you can enable each one of them to 
sustain. . 

EARLY MARRIAGES, 

By which we mean, under twenty-three for the woman and 
under twenty-eight for the man, are the misfortune and 
calamity of those who contract them. The constitution of the 
woman is prematurely taxed by early child-bearing, and is 
broken down before she is thirty-five, the age in which she 
ought to be in all the glory of matronly beauty, of social and 
domestic influence and power and enjoyment. But instead of 
this, in what condition does " Thirty-five" find the great ma- 
jority of American women ? thin, pale, wasted, hollow cheeks, 
sunken and dark circled eyes, no strength, no power of endur- 
ance, with a complication of peculiar ailments, which, while 
they baffle medical skill, irritate the body and leave the mind 
habitually fretful and complaining, or what is less endurable, 
throw it into a state of hopeless passivity, of wearisome and 
destructive indifference to family, children, household, every- 
thing ! 

The influence which these things have on the manly ambi- 
tion of the husband, is disastrous ; his solicitude and sympathy 
for his suffering wife, waste the mental power which ought to 
have been put forth on his business ; his time is diverted, whilst 
the reckless waste of servants unlooked after, and that unavoid- 
able wreck and ruin to house and furniture and clothing, which 
is an inseparable attendant on every wifeless family ; these 
things, we say, soon begin to have a depressing effect on the 



154 Hall's Journal of Health. 

energies of the young father and husband, who is but too often 
driven into do-nothing-indulgence, into reckless shifts, or into 
the forgetfulness of habitual drunkenness. All this time, the 
children are increasing in number, are more and more neglected, 
growing up in ignorance and idleness ; or if learning at all, 
having the more leisure to learn but too well, the habits and 
practices of ignorant, trifling, deceiving, blarneying, treacherous 
servants, for such the mass of them are, as we know by sorrow- 
ful experience, in all the large cities of this country. 

A woman who begins to have children at eighteen cannot 
have that vigor of body and mind which is essential to a well- 
regulated household ; we say therefore to every young man, 

Do not marry under twenty-eight for yourself, nor under 
twenty -three for your wife ; and remember, too, that the best 
dower a woman can bring you, is a sound constitution ; it is 
worth more to you than " a fortune" while its moral and phy- 
sical effect on the future health and happiness of the children 
who may be born to you, cannot be measured by any array of 
dollars. 



FEUITS IN SUMMER 



By an arrangement of Providence, as beautiful as it is benign, 
the fruits of the earth are ripening during the whole summer. 
From the delightful strawberry on the opening of spring, to the 
luscious peach of the fall, there is a constant succession of de- 
lightful aliments ; made delightful by that Power, whose loving 
kindness is in all his works, in order to stimulate us to their 
highest cultivation, connecting with their use also, the most 
health giving influences ; and with the rich profuseness of a well 
attended fruitery, it is one of the most unaccountable things in 
nature, that so little attention is paid, comparatively speaking, 
to this branch of farming. 

It is a beautiful fact, that while the warmth and exposures of 
summer tend to biliousness and fevers, the free use of fruits and 
berries counteract that tendency. Artificial acids are found to 
promote the separation of the bile from the blood, with great 
mildness and certainty ; this led to the supposition, that the 
natural acids, as contained in fruits and berries, might be as 
available, and being more palatable, would necessarily be pre- 



Fruits in Summer. ' 155 

ferred. Experiment has verified the theory, and within a very 
late period, Allopathic writers have suggested the use of fresh, 
ripe, perfect, raw fruits, as a reliable remedy in the diarrhoeas of 
summer. 

How strongly the appetite yearns for a pickle, when nothing 
else could be relished, is in the experience of most of us. It is 
the instinct of nature, pointing to a cure. The want of a 
natural appetite, is the result of the bile not being separated 
from the blood, and if not remedied, fever is inevitable, from 
the slightest grades, to that of bilious, congestive and yellow. 
" Fruits are cooling," is a bye-word, the truth of which has 
forced itself on the commonest observers. But why they are 
so, they had not the time, opportunity or inclination to inquire 
into. The reason is, the acid of the fruit stimulates the liver to 
greater activity in separating the bile from the blood, which is its 
proper work, the result of which is, the bowels become free, the 
pores of the skin are open. Under such circumstances, fever 
and want of appetite, are impossible. 

HOW" TO USE FRUITS. 

To derive from the employment of fruits and berries all that 
healthful and nutritive effect which belongs to their nature, we 
should 

First — Use fruits that are ripe, fresh, perfect, raw. 

Second — They should be used in their natural state, without 
sugar, cream, milk or any other item of food or drink. 

Third — Fruits have their best effect when used in the early part 
of the day, hence we do not advise their employment at a later 
hour than the middle of the afternoon ; not that, if perfect and 
ripe, they may not be eaten largely by themselves, within two 
hours of bed time, with advantage, but if the sourness of de- 
cay should happen to taint them or any liquor should inad- 
vertently be largely drank afterwards, even cold water, acidity 
of the whole mass may follow, resulting in a night of distress, 
if not actual or dangerous sickness. So it is better not to run 
the risk. 

To derive a more decided medicinal effect, fruits should be 
largely eaten soon after rising in the morning, and about mid- 
way between breakfast and dinner. 

An incalculable amount of sickness and suffering would be 
prevented every year if the whole class of desserts were swept 



156 HalVs Journal of Health. 

from our tables during summer, and fresh, ripe, perfect fruits 
and berries were substituted, while the amount of money that 
would be saved therebj 7 , at the New York prices of fruits, 
would in some families, amount to many dollars, dollars enough 
to educate an orphan child, or support a colporteur a whole year, 
in some regions of our country. 



EDITORIAL DEGRADATION. 

Mighty prompt were New York Editors within a year to 
raise, the hue and cry against a Judge who was tried for official 
corruption in this city ; and they have the holiest horror too, as 
to men who have their price. In describing the characters, of 
those who are convicted of official corruption, the English lan- 
guage is depleted of its adjectival supply. But what means the 
following incidents ? 

A paper published in a southern city, in noticing that during 
eighteen hundred and fifty-five, the number of deaths from all 
causes, was smaller than during the preceding year, intimates 
the belief, that this was a result of the freer use of a certain 
man's medicines, which medicines were largely advertised in 
that paper. Several of the New York dailies and weeklies 
have been paid to insert among their reading matter, editorials 
from one another, and an article from another publication, that 
the reason why there were fewer deaths from Consumption in 
New York during eighteen hundred and fifty-five, than during 
the preceding year, notwithstanding it had a larger population, 
was properly attributed to the fact that Medicated Inhalation had 
been introduced as a remedy, and then they launched out in 
praises of the same at a dollar a line! Now having given cur- 
rency to an untruth for pay, will any one of them show a late 
repentance, by publishing without pay, the following state- 
ments, taken from published official tables, showing that not 
only in New York, where Inhalation was fabricated and cher- 
ished, but also in Philadelphia and Boston and Baltimore, 
which had not yet taken the infection, not only were deaths 
from Consumption fewer than during the previous year, but 
deaths from all other diseases were fewer in number. This 
double fact, simple enough in itself, and undeniable while it 



.■ Food and Exercise. 157 

sinks beneath contempt the men who have made use of a part 
of a fact to bolster up a falsehood to make money thereby, at 
the expense of the health of their fellow citizens, does at the 
same time present a humiliating picture of the credulity or 
recklessness or purchaseability of some among us, who conduct 
the editorial department of our newspapers. 

The mortality in four of our larger cities during the three 
years past is as follows : 

1853. 1854. 1855. 

New York, 21,864. 28,458. 23,107. 

Philadelphia, 9,750. 11,811. 10,509. 

Baltimore, 5,117. 5,938. 5,447. 

Boston, 4,369. 4,418. 4,030. 

That is to say, the rate of decrease of death from all causes 
in 1855, as compared with 1854, was thirteen per cent for New 
York, twelve per cent for Philadelphia, nine per cent for Bos- 
ton and three per cent for Baltimore. 

We think that the unfairness in making use of a part of a 
fact, must lower the authorship, as well as the abettors of the 
same, in the estimation of all lovers of truth. It is the exagger- 
ation of this, which makes the common liar and the heartless 
perjurer. And it must be apparent to every person of reflec- 
tion that any system which needs such aid cannot be true, 
that any system which draws to it men who are reckless of the 
truth, must be as baseless as the characters of its advocates. 



FOOD AND EXEKCISE. 



In our book on Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, page seventy- 
seven, eighth Edition, we have selected an " incident" which 
we repeat here, as suggestive of important deductions in refer- 
ence to health. The point to which we wish to direct attention 
at this time is, that in cases where exercise cannot be taken, 
comparative health may be enjoyed for a considerable period, 
amounting to months and years, if during that time, the person 
would eat in moderation, of the plainest and simplest food, 
allied almost to the "Bread and Water" considered to be 
" prisoner's fare" of past ages. It will be seen that during the 
long imprisonment, nothing is intimated to cause us to believe 
that the unfortunate prisoner was unhealthy, but the reverse. 



158 HalVs Journal of Health. 

COU^T CONFALIONERI 

wrote from the great jail of Vienna as follows :-4* 

" I am an old man now, yet by fifteen years, my sou] is young- 
er than my body : fifteen years I existed, for I did not live. It 
was not life in the self-same dungeon, ten feet square. During 
six years I had a companion ; nine years I was alone. I never 
could rightly distinguish the face of him who shared my cap- 
tivity in the eternal twilight of our cell. 

a The first year we talked incessantly together. "We related 
our past lives, our joys forever gone, over and over again. 

" The next year we communicated to each other our ideas on 
all subjects. 

" The third year we had no ideas to communicate ; we were 
beginning to lose the power of reflection. 

" The fourth, at intervals of a month or so, we would open 
our lips, to ask each other if it were indeed possible that the 
world was as gay and bustling as it was when we formed a por- 
tion of mankind. 

" The fifth year we were silent. 

"The sixth, he was taken away, I never knew where, to exe- 
cution or to liberty. But I was glad when he was gone : even 
solitude was better than that pale and vacant face. After that, 
I was alone. 

" Only one event broke in upon my nine years' vacancy. 
One da}', it must have been a year or two after my companion 
left me, my dungeon door was opened, and a voice, I knew not 
whence, uttered these words : ' By order of his Imperial Ma- 
jesty, I intimate to you, that one year ago, your wife died.' 
Then the door was shut. I heard no more. They had but 
flung this great agony in upon me, and left me alone with it 
again." 

The great practical point is this, The only possible way for 
a lazy man to live in moderate health, is to live upon nothing 
but bread and water. We must exercise in proportion to our 
eating. 

CARE OF THE EYES. 

Do not read or write before sun up or after sun down. Let 
the light fall upon the page from behind. 
Never read while lying down. Those whose eyes are weak 



Editorial Degradation. 159 

should never read or sew by candle or gas light, nor by 
twilight. Suffer nothing to be applied to them unless by the 
special advice of an experienced physician. If the lids stick 
together in the morning on waking up, moisten them with the 
saliva, it softens and dissolves the matter sooner than any liquid 
known. The best and safest treatment for most affections of 
the eyes is rest, especially if weak or inflamed, rest from read- 
ing, writing or sewing, from every use of them which requires 
close observation, spending a large portion of the time out of 
doors, as then, large objects are mostly viewed. Persevere in 
this for weeks and months if necessary, and if not then relieved, 
consult a physician. 

Avoid reading on horseback or in rail cars or any wheeled 
vehicle while in motion. Many persons will find that in read- 
ing before breakfast an effort is required to keep the sight clear 
but after breakfast, no such difficulty is experienced, the reason 
is, the eye under such circumstances is more or less inflamed, 
that is, has too much blood about it, but nature calls that ex- 
cess of blood away to the stomach after eating, to enable it to 
perform its work more thoroughly. Therefore, persons with 
weak eyes should not read or write or do fine sewing on an 
empty stomach. Our Preceptor, Professor Dudley, who is 
among the very first of living Surgeons, used often to say, 
"Young gentlemen, never let anything touch the eye or ear 
stronger than luke-warm water." We have but one sight to 
lose, its preservation merits all our care, and it is unwise to 
tamper with, or experiment upon an organ so indispensable to 
our comfort, happiness and usefulness. 



TO PREVENT SLEEPING IN CHUKCH. 

Too many of our clergy have settled down into a conviction, 
that some how or other, their sermons in the aggregate, in the 
long run, will have a converting effect on the minds of their 
habitual hearers ; and not being worked up into any expecta- 
tion of an immediate conversion, their pulpit efforts, in the 
main, have degenerated into a tread-mill monotony ; and it 
cannot but be expected that under such discourses, an active 
business man, who has been stirred up all the week by the 



160 Hall's Journal of Health. 

merry jingle of dollars, can do otherwise than grow drowsy. 
He may be ashamed of it at the time ; he may have conscience 
enough to lament it, and a will too, to fight against it, but the 
power, where is it ? And any vain effort he may make to wake 
up, and get at the " thread of the discourse" only diverts his at- 
tention. For our part, we know of no available method of 
keeping wide-awake, within the sound of a dull sermon than 
this, 

Take a Nap befoee you go. 



DAMP WALLS. 



Multitudes of people contemplate building family dwellings 
this year. Most persons can bring to their remembrance cases 
where splendid mansions have been erected with a portion of 
the wealth which a life-time of well directed industry and 
economy has secured, and just about the time when everything 
has been completed, the owner has lain down and died ; if not 
indeed, other members of the family ; damp walls are a suffi- 
cient, yet not the only cause of such a result. Walls are not 
damp of themselves, but they are made so, as a pane of glass is 
made damp, the glass itself being colder than the atmosphere 
of the room, condenses some of the moisture which that atmos- 
phere contains, and drops of water are formed on its surface ; a 
glass or pitcher of ice water presents the same appearance. In 
southern cities, streams of water may be seen on the floor, having 
trickled down from the walls when the atmosphere has been 
overcharged with vapor. To prevent this, strips of wood an inch 
or more thick, should be fastened to the walls, on which the 
laths should be nailed, this leaves a space for the circulation of 
the air, and keeps the whole building dry in all seasons of the 
year. Our readers may 'rest assured, that a very large propor- 
tion of the diseases which afflict men and prevent them living 
out half their days literally, arise from ignorance, and inatten- 
tion to the known laws of things. 



Hair, or even Straw Mattresses, are more healthy to sleep 
on than feather beds. Never put children on these heating 
beds. Keep their sleeping rooms very clean and well -aired, 
and do not cumber them with unnecessary furniture. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLX 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] AUGUST, 1856. [NO. VIII. 



THEOLOGICAL THERAPEUTICS. 

About a hundred and seventy years ago, there was a little 
boy ; and he must have been a very little boy, for when he 
reached man's estate he measured scarcely five feet ; and besides 
being, he was doing, to wit : he was on his knees in a school- 
room, while the schoolmaster in his gown was offering up the 
morning prayer, according to the good old Puritan custom. 
Our little hero's attention was attracted by sights rather than by 
sounds, and observing, between his fingers, (how many grown- 
up people do the same thing now-a-days on Sundays !) a little 
mouse crawling down the bell-rope, he was thoroughly aroused. 
Presently the mischievous little thing went up to the master, 
and began to tug away at the tail of his gown. The Dominie 
twitched, and the mouse twitched back again, but mousey had 
the advantage, for it had its eyes open, while it would have been 
greatly out of place for the Dominie to have opened his, al- 
though it was plain that he wanted to do it. It is needless to 
say, that the little scholar enjoyed the contest amazingly ; and 
the sense of the ridiculous came over him so avalanchingly, 
that he could hold in no longer ; he tried to, for it is Yery 
wicked to laugh at prayers, but the more he tried the more he 
couldn't, and out it came — the irrestrainable guffaw — full, loud, 
ringing. " Now, you little 'monkey 1 " — the only epithet which 
the pious old teacher would allow himself — "if you don't make 
me a piece of poetry offhand, I'll punish you severely for such 
irreverence." The little culprit trembled, and well he might — 
who could write poetry under fear of the ferule ? We have 
generally understood that poetry was the offspring of solicitation, 
not compulsion. Many poets solicit the Muses for an inspira- 



162 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tion: not a few solicit brandy-and-water. But desperation 
nerves us to wonders, sometimes ; and our little hero, more 
dead than alive, muttered out : — " Please, Sir, 

" A little rat, for want of stairs, 
Came down the rope to say his prayers." 

It is needless to record the Dominie's mollification ; and he, 
who afterwards became the almost (in our estimation) inspired 
Dr. Watts, saved his skin whole at that time. 

Now, to come to the point by way of persuasion ; having 
roused your curiosity and your blood this hot day of midsum- 
mer, having no hope of doing it in any other way, we proceed 
to tell you, that this same renowned man must have been a kind 
of medical doctor as well as a theological, and an observant one, 
too, for he found out, what we have since done, and what we 
have repeated in our pages often, in consequence of its im- 
portance. We will give you his idea in our own words, for we 
think we have a knack of saying just exactly what we mean ? 
and in such a way that it cannot mean anything else, and in 
such a way, too, that it does not give one the headache to study 
out its meaning. A great many "inferences" may be drawn 
from this subject. 

First: an observer of mice in his youth, may become an 
observer of men in maturity. Second: The observation of little 
things makes the great man. 

We want to have the influence of this great name in enforc- 
ing our views. We are well aware that there are multitudes of 
people who wouldn't care a fig what Dr. Hall says, but would 
be 6trongly influenced by any saying of Dr. Watts, whether it 
pertained to theology or physic. 

After all, we do not believe in the theory of the renowned 
Doetor. He observed a fact, which we receive as a fact, but the 
appendages thereto we do not allow. For example : he believed 
thart the "Adversary, 1 ' as Friends call the Evil One, made use 
of 'high living to worry the Christian, and the more certainly to 
destroy the sinner. But for fear we may "put a point" on his 
discourse, which might not be allowed by others, we will give 
his (language. u The Adversary is very busy at his mischievous 
work, especially when the powers of nature labor under any 



Early Rising. 163 

disease, and such as affects the head and the nerves ; ever ready 
to fish in troubled waters, when the humors of the body are 
out of order." 

Now, as dyspepsia makes " the powers of nature labor," ana 
" affects the head and nerves," putting " the humors of the body 
out of order," and as high living, unphilosophical living, eating 
too much and exercising too little, originate these very things, 
it is a fair conclusion, without retracing each link of the chain, 
that religious enjoyment is diminished by sickness, and conse- 
quently health must promote it ; and if health promotes religious 
enjoyment, while disease lessens it, the 4 great fact forces itself 
on every reflecting mind, with a moral power which is irresisti- 
ble — " Health is a Duty." 

Taking Dr. Watts' theory that Satan uses ill-health as an 
instrument to ,( give greater disturbances to the mind, stimulat- 
ing and urging to the unruly passions," then we do wrong to 
place that instrument in his hands, and we do right in studying 
how to keep that destructive weapon out of his hands ; in other 
words, laying figures of speech aside, we ought to study how to 
keep well, if we are so already ; how to regain health, if we have lost 
it ; as a means of enjoying tliat religion to the full whose end and 
aim is an immortality of bliss. 



EAELY RISING. 



A friend has sent us The Weekly Comet, of Baton Kouge, 
Louisiana, whose editor gives us a column of epithets for 
11 coming out in our book against early rising," and in the high 
excitement of the subject exclaims — "Holy Moses and the 
lamb, is there no truth ?" This is one of the many cases where 
a man sits down to criticise what he never read. So far from 
opposing early rising, we have recommended it in all our writ- 
ings ; always and everywhere, by published theory and private 
practice, advocating the doctrine that " it was one of the safest, 
wisest, healthiest, and most profitable practices, to go to bed early, get 
up early, eat breakfast and go to work." If any one can fabricate 
a more sensible platform than that we would like to make his 
acquaintance. 

Either we or some of our readers are decidedly obfuscated. 



1 64 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The Water- Cure Journal, in reply to a correspondent inquiring 
if "Dr. Hall's theory against early rising was a true one, 7 ' 
answers — " Fudge" ; which is so conclusive an answer that we 
have nothing more to add. 

Another editor, who also imbibed the idea that we asserted 
that early rising was unheal thful, exclaims in the exuberance of 
his intolerance — " Do not the birds get up by daylight, and are 
they not the most healthy people in the world?" Why yes, 
certainly. How could you imagine that we thought them un- 
healthy ? The argument is unanswerable. How few of us read 
and think ! How many skim ! 



CLIMATE FOE CONSUMPTIVES. 

Some fifteen years ago, we published an article on the subject 
of localities of consumption. The general idea for which we 
contended was this, that warm climates hastened consumption ; 
that an inseparable attendant of consumption, under all circum- 
stances, was debility. The healthiest of us feel the debilitating 
effects of summer heats. And how an invalid is to be strength- 
ened, by what debilitates a healthy man, we cannot understand. 
Consumptive people do not need the warm, damp, vapor-laden 
atmosphere of Cuba and Florida, but the cool, dry, still air of 
high latitudes. A man in consumption will more certainly get 
well in Greenland than in the West Indies. Dr. Kane was 
an invalid in the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, in summer. 
Many considered him doomed for consumption. In six months 
he was in Greenland, and after remaining there several years, 
exposed to all the rigors of the Arctic seas, he has returned, in 
better health than he has known for several years. 

From the details furnished from many sources, a member of 
the Massachusetts Medical Society has prepared a paper, con- 
clusive of the fact, that all low and damp places originate and 
aggravate consumptive diseases, and that restoration and ex- 
emption must be found in cool and dry latitudes. And for 
similar reasons, sea voyages, and sea coast and lake shore and 
prairie localities have a pernicious effect upon all persons whose 
lungs are diseased. This subject is fully discussed under the 
head of Climate and Sea "Voyages, in our book on " Bronchitis 
and Kindred Diseases." 



Dying Words of Celebrated Men, 165 

DYING WORDS OF CELEBRATED MEN. 

From " Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases.' 1 

" Head of the army." — Napoleon. 

" LTsle D'Elbe, Napoleon."— Josephine. 

" I must sleep now." — Byron. 

" It matters little how the head lieth." — Sir W. Raleigh. 

" Kiss me, Hardy." — Lord Nelson. 

"Don't give up the ship." — Lawrence. 

" I'm shot if I don't believe I'm dying."— Chancellor Thurlow, 

" Is this your fidelity ?" — Nero. 

II Clasp my hand, my dear friend, I die." — Alfieri 
" Give Dayroles a chair." — Lord Chesterfield. 

" God preserve the Emperor." — Hayden. 

" The artery ceases to beat." — Holier. 

" Let the light enter." — Goethe, 

u All my possessions for a moment of time." — Queen Elizabeth. 

,l What! is there no bribing death."— Cardinal Beaufort. 

II I have loved God, my father, and liberty." — Mad. De Stael. 
11 Be serious." — Grotius. 

" Into thy hands, O Lord." — Tasso. 

" It is small, very small indeed, (clasping her neck). — Anne 
Boleyn. 

"I pray you, see me safe up, and for my coming down, let 
me shift for myself" (ascending the scaffold). — Sir Thos. More. 

" Don't let that awkward squad fire over my grave."— Robert 
Burns. 

" 1 feel as if I were to be myself again." — Sir Walter Scott. 

u I resign my soul to God, and my daughter to my country." 
— Jefferson. . 

•• Am I so far gone ?" — Niebuhr. 

" There is not a drop of blood on my hands." — Frederick Fi, 
of Denmark. 

" Let me hear once more those notes which have so long been 
my solace men t and delight." — Mozart. 

" A dying man can do nothing easy." — Franklin. 

" Let not poor Nelly starve." — Charles II. 

" Let me die to the sounds of delicious music." — Mirabeau. 

11 The Lord reigns, let the earth rejoice." — Rev. Dr. E. Corne- 
lius. 



166 HalVs Journal of Health. 

" Remorse." — John Randolph of Roanoke. 

" Doctor, I think I am getter weaker, feel my pulse." — John 
Newland Maffit. 

" Adieu, my beloved Cuba ; adieu my brethren," (the instant 
before his execution). — General Lopez. 

" Sister, I am weary, let us go home." — Neander. 

" But even the log on the Delaware, has its care-taker." — Dr. 
Joseph Parish. 

"How violent is this disorder, how very extraordinary it is!" 
— Stephen Girard. 

" 1 forgive the authors of my death, and I pray that my blood 
may not fall upon France,' ' (the moment before he was guillo- 
tined). — Louis XVI. 

"I'm most gone." — Rev. Andrew Todd. 

"It is well." — Washington. 

11 Independence for ever." — Adams. 

" It is the last of earth." — J. Q. Adams. 

" I wish you to understand the true principles of the govern- 
ment. I wish them carried out. I ask nothing more." — Harrison. 

" I have endeavored to do my duty." — Gen. Taylor. 

u Doctor, I am dying very hard, it seems as though I shall 
never get through with it." — Vice President King. 

" I could wish this tragic scene were over." — Quirm, the Actor. 

u God bless you all. A general good night." — Dr. Chalmers. 

" 1 still live." — Daniel Webster. 

" My son, don't leave me. I'm going soon/'— Henry Clay. 



HINTS TO PEW OWNERS. 



In entering city Churches, persons are often seen standing, 
waiting for the sexton to show them a seat; if they have to 
wait long, the temper of many becomes ruffled and they either 
leave the house or take their seats in a state of mind unsuited 
to the solemnities of religious service. We propose our own 
practice, as a means of lessening the evil. We know before 
leaving home how many seats will be occupied by the members 
of our family, and in case of a known vacancy, we conduct any 
stranger at the vestibule to our own pew. The very act saves 
time to the sexton, relieves him of the necessity of asking your 
permission to receive a stranger, prevents your having to get 



The Nature of Cough, 167 

up, march out into the aisle, bow the stranger in and you fol- 
lowing, thus discomposing your own reflections, and attracting 
the attention of the congregation ; and above all, it excites a 
feeling of kindness towards you, in the stranger's bosom, as 
creditable and profitable to himself, as the courtesy which 
originated it, was to you. 



THE NATUKE OF COUGH, 

Is an instinctive spasmodic effort of the lungs to expel the 
air which they contain, through their " pipes," or their bronchial 
branches, for the purpose of carrying before it, and out through 
the mouth, any thing which is in the lungs or air passages, and 
which ought not to be there. It is a law of the animal economy 
to relieve itself; not the least of all the wonderful adaptations 
which infinite wisdom and benevolence has ordained for our 
preservation. The eye begins to water and wash out with tears 
the particle of dust or sand which offends it. The stomach re- 
volts instantaneously at the presence of poison, and rejects it. 
The tongue repels anything placed upon it, that is not adapted 
to the well being of the system. And if the lungs were less 
vigilant, accumulations would take place from time to time, and 
they would eventually fill with solid substances, air could not 
enter, and we would die. Cough is excited by putting a straw 
or feather or other offending substance in the ear ; thus if a 
person is asleep, and an insect were crawling in, the cough 
would arouse him. 

Cough is the common attendant of consumptive disease. 
Although it does not imply that because a man has a cough he 
must necessarily have consumption, yet no one can have con- 
sumption without a cough, sooner or later, with extremely rare 
exceptions. 

This cough is an effort of nature to remove from the lungs 
that which ought not to be there, that which is causing mischief, 
just as vomiting is an effort of nature to remove from the 
stomach that which, if permitted to remain longer, would cause 
increasing mischief. Therefore to take medicine to repress 
cough is to counteract nature, and if persevered in, will always 
hasten death. Hence opium, paregoric, laudanum, morphine, 



168 HalVs Journal of Health. 

or any other anodyne known to men, when taken day after day, 
will inevitably and under all circumstances make death the more 
certain in all forms of consumptive disease, unless there is a 
physician in attendance to counteract their mischievous effects. 
And as every intelligent druggist knows that of all the patent 
or secret medicines sold for coughs, colds and consumption, 
there is not a single one that does not contain an opiate or ano- 
dyne in some shape or form, so they all fight against nature, 
derange her machinery, lock up the glands of the system, dis- 
order the secretories, and therefore must prepare the way for 
a more certain decline and death. It is therefore suicidal to 
use them. 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION OF CHILDREN. 



To this day, the tent is the only dwelling of many of the 
pastoral tribes of the East. Nothing more is necessary. It is 
considered more healthful to dwell in tents than in houses. 
Many families that can afford to do so, are in the habit of for- 
saking their houses and of dwelling in tents in the fields during 
the summer months. This is especially true of the inhabitants 
of their large cities. On account of the narrowness of the 
streets, and of the filth ahd accumulated rubbish, and perhaps 
from other causes also, Jerusalem is now considered so sickly, 
that most Europeans residing there and the more wealthy 
Turkisk families, are in the habit of passing the summer or 
early autumn in tents on the surrounding hills. 

The late Pasha of Egypt had a palace built in the desert, as 
one goes from Cairo to Suez, where his stores and harem were 
lodged, and around which he and his court encamped once a 
year for several months. A late King of Persia, also was in 
the habit of leaving his capital every year with his nobles, and 
more than half of its inhabitants, to encamp in the open air on 
the plain of Sultanieh. The exodus of our cities in the summer 
time is borrowed, therefore, from the East. And a great pity 
it is that the model is not more faithfully followed. If, instead 
of congregating at fashionable watering-places, and crowding 
,badly-ventilated saloons, and sleeping in cells, and keeping late 
hours, and eating and dressing as if under orders to commit 



Physical Education of Children. 169 

suicide in the most approved manner, the inhabitants of our 
cities were found upon the mountains and the plains, and com- 
pelled to live on plain fare, and sleep in the open air, they 
would be great gainers in health and beauty, and length of life. 

As a people the Americans are the most careless, headstrong, 
and indifferent people about life and health upon earth. They 
have few manly sports for their boys at school. The exercises 
of the youth of the English nobility, at Eton, at playing ball 
and swimming, and the like, which are as much a part of their 
daily routine as their recitations, are considered amongst us as 
too boyish, even for boys. Our daughters, too, grow up without 
being able to walk, and many of them without knowing how 
to ride a horse. Their getting about in the city has to be by 
transportation on wheels. Our children sit and eat and sleep 
and study too generally in apartments that seem to have been 
constructed studiously to prevent the admission of pure air. 
Our assembly-rooms, school-houses and churches are generally 
built without any reference to a free circulation of fresh air. It 
is my solemn conviction, from long observation, that many 
children are made dwarfs, or live pale, emaciated, nervous, con- 
sumptive specimens of humanity, and then die before their 
time, from the want of pure air, more than from any other 
cause. 

Why is it that dyspepsia is an American disease ? "Why is 
an American, and especially an American student or clergyman, 
known at sight in Europe by his pale lean face, and drooping 
emaciated form ? The main reason is, in his youth and in ac- 
quiring an education, he has not taken exercise in the open air, 
and too often his food has been too poor. Why are not the 
Arabs and the Indians, and the dwellers in tents, the victims of 
paralysis, gout, rheumatism, dyspepsia, and consumption ? The 
main reason is they live in the open air, and their limbs are 
strengthened by exercise. 

Let our children then starve for bread rather than for air. 
Let us see to it that their apartments at home and in the school- 
room are well ventilated, and that they are not too long confined 
on hard benches in crowded rooms. Let them learn to play as 
well as to study. Let us educate their bodies as well as their 
minds. « I am always sad when I hear it said that such a boy or 
girl is a remarkably good child. For by this is generally meant 



170 HalVs Journal of Health. 

that they are very clever at a book, and that they do not romp 
and play, and occasionally get a dirty nose or present a torn 
garment. I am sad, because as a general thing, these good 
children are precocious, and either die before maturity, or drag 
out a life of feebleness. It is the noise-making child — the stir- 
ring child, that developes his physical parts with his mind, that 
is able at last to make a noise in the world to some purpose. It 
is very certain we need to pay more attention to physical edu- 
cation. The result is inevitable. If we do not we must degen- 
erate. Our children must have plenty of pure air and of cheer- 
ful exercise. 

HOW TO KEEP COOL. 

On going once into the Medical Museum in Edinburgh, on a 
summer's day, we felt chilly, and on looking at the Thermo- 
meter we found it at sixty-eight, while out of doors it was 
oppressively warm. Sixty-eight degrees in summer there, is 
quite cool enough for a sitting apartment; but if you go into 
a room of that temperature in mid-winter, a feeling of suffoca- 
tion, of oppressiveness, comes over you. The noon of a day 
whose morning is sixty-eight will give over ninety in the sun. 
If on getting up in the morning, every window and door of " a 
floor 11 are thrown open and thus remain until about sun up, 
and are then closed, shutters and all, it will be nearly night 
before the thermometer is materially raised, and persons coming 
into our office, often exclaim, "how delightfully cool your 
office is, how do you manage it." If we close our doors in mid- 
winter to keep the warmth in, may we not do the same thing 
in summer to keep it out ? 



INHALATION FOR CONSUMPTION. 

In our July number we denied the claim of Inhalation to the 
increased health of the country ; especially did we oppose the 
idea that the diminished mortality from consumption was owing 
to the curative effects of medicated inhalation, because in other 
cities, where inhalation had not been introduced, the mprtality 
had decreased. 



Inhalation for Consumption. 171 

The diminished mortality, from all diseases, of 1855, in com- 
parison with 1854, although the population had increased, was 
for 

New York, eighteen per cent. 

Philadelphia, twelve per cent. 

Boston, nine per cent. 

Baltimore, three per cent. 

By this showing, it appears that New York mortality was one 
third less than that of Philadelphia, being as eighteen to twelve. 
Does that difference in favor of New York arise from the fact 
that during 1855 medicated inhalation flourished like a green 
bay tree, while for the same year it was unknown in Philadel- 
phia ? It is rather difficult to prove a negative. It is known to 
intelligent men, that fewer foreigners came to New York in 
1855 than came in 1854 by scores of thousands, and that it is 
from the death of these emigrants New York appears by statis- 
tical tables to be more unhealthy than it really is. Yery many 
of these foreigners reach this city in a diseased and dying con- 
dition. 

From this same cause — the diminution of foreign emigration 
— the diminution of the number of deaths from consumption is 
properly attributed. For, in round numbers, of the three thou- 
sand persons who died of consumption in New York city during 

1854, nineteen hundred, nearly two thirds, were foreigners ; 
and when we remember that perhaps two thirds of the inhabit- 
ants of New York are natives of the United States, the relative 
proportion of foreigners who die of consumption above the 
natives, is very great — at least seventy per cent. 

To expose the fallacious claims of Inhalation further, it is 
sufficient to state, that the increase of mortality for 1854 above 

1855, was owing to the fact that thousands died of cholera in 
1854, which, as we all know, renders consumptive diseases 
more speedily fatal. 

All that can be properly said in reference to the diminished 
mortality of New York in 1855, and the practice of medicated 
Inhalation, is, that it was merely a coincidence. Such changes 
occur in the history of all large cities ; for example, in round 
numbers, 

THE INTERMENTS IN PHILADELPHIA, 

during the first half of eight successive years, is as follows : 



172 HalVs Journal of Health, 



1849 


. . . 3800 


1853 


. . . 4700 


1850 


... . . 3800 


1854 


. . . 5100 


1851 


. . . 4000 


1855 


. . . 5000 


1852 


. . . 5200 


1856 


. . . 5400 



From this table it will be seen that the first half of 1853 gave 
500 less deaths than 1852, and that the first six months of the 
present year gives a mortality of 400 over the same time in last 
year, although medicated inhalation has been introduced into 
Philadelphia since February last, by agents from head quarters 
in New York, to say nothing of the multitude of outsiders, who 
practice it independently. Now it would be as great a violation 
of honorable truth to say that the increased mortality of Phila- 
delphia for the first half of 1856 was in consequence of medi- 
cated inhalation, as to say that the diminished mortality of 
New York for 1855, as compared with 1854, was the result of 
medicated inhalation. An honorable controversialist scorns 
the use of a doubtful argument, and would no more employ a 
mere coincidence for proof, than a brave man would strike a 
fallen foe. 

There is no class of men in the world who would hail with 
more delight, any available remedy for consumption, or for any 
other disease, than educated physicians; it is as much against 
their nature not to do so, as it would be for a printer to oppose 
the employment of one of Hoe's presses. It is as much to the 
interest of the physician to lay hold of every new remedy for 
disease, provided it be an efficient one, as it is for an intelligent 
mechanic or farmer to take advantage of any of the labor- 
saving appliances which the industry of ingenious men is daily 
bringing to light; and with the same unmeasured contempt do 
they regard all men who endeavor to palm upon them, as an 
improvement, what is in reality not so — to palm upon them as 
a novelty what has been known for a century. 

If there be any curative power in medicated inhalation, it 
will become known, and if it can cure consumption it will sur- 
vive all opposition, as it ought to. But if it is available, why- 
has one of the two principal inhalers of New York, who 
breathed alcohol, swallowed alcohol, and soaked in alcohol, for 
the cure of consumption, left the city permanently ? If it is a 
cure, there is enough practice within ten miles of the city hall 
to make a dozen men as rich as they could desire. Or if a feel- 



Inhalation for Consumption. 173 

ing of benevolence causes them to travel about for practice, we 
consider it an error of judgment, for New York is more easily 
accessible, and by a larger number of people, than any other 
spot in the country. 

If medicated inhalation does cure consumption, where is the 
man of notoriety and education who has been cured by it, or 
who is willing to recommend it under his own signature ? 

If medicated inhalation is an efficient remedy for diseases of 
the lungs, how is it that there is not a medical name, of any 
eminence, who has adopted the practice, in any school t 

If, then, the intelligent men of the country cannot see prac- 
tically or theoretically the advantages of this treatment, over 
others, the only rational conclusion to be arrived at is simply 
this — that it possesses no advantages above other forms of treat- 
ment, worthy of any special claim. 

CONSUMPTIVE EDITORS. 

As a specimen of the means adopted to advance the claims 
of medicated inhalation, we append part of an editorial ; whether 
the real author was the Inhalationist himself, and whether it 
was inserted for a consideration, and whether it was not intended 
to be copied into other papers for pay, are side questions. 

" The fact is now too well established for dispute, that inha- 
lation of medicated vapor, is the most natural, powerful and 
successful mode for consumption as yet reached — causing the 
absorption of tubercles, the cicatrization of cavities, and arrest- 
ing the progress of disorganization of the lungs, when no other 
agency affords the least hope. 

u We found a numerous representation of printers from all 
quarters of the country, owing to their peculiar liability to con- 
sumption. 

!* Of those who presented some remarkable cures, were different 
parties connected with the press of New York, as leading edi- 
tors and proprietors. Through this we presumed, had they 
become identified with the advocacy of inhalation, in a manner 
which indicated an interest which nothing else could probably 
induce. Messrs. Clayton, of the Commercial Advertiser, 
Jones, proprietor of the Daily Times, Bennett, of the Herald, 
and other similar persons in the press here, having been bene- 
fited by this new practice, gave it the impulse which it has had 
through that channel." 



174 HalVs Journal of Health. 

From seeing the above article, the general impression made 
on the mind of an ordinary reader is, that the persons there 
named were cured of consumption by means of medicated in- 
halation. But on a second reading, no such thing is pretended 
to. All that is really claimed is, that these persons were 
" benefited " by the new practice. 

That such a prominent paper as the New York Express 
should spare a quarter of a column in praise of the virtues of 
medicated inhalation, because it had merely 'benefited'' the per- 
sons there named, is most extraordinary. If every medicine or 
every doctor having claims to have " benefited" a patient, were 
praised at this rate, newspapers would have nothing else to do. 
But the point of the article, to which we wish to direct the 
reader's attention is, its criminality, if producing a false impres- 
sion is criminal. It was adroitly written, and no doubt with 
much study, for the whole sentence, without saying so, leaves 
the impression on the mind of a casual reader, that among the 
" remarkable cures " effected by medicated inhalation, were the 
men whose names are given. But when the article is analyzed, 
the names of those who were " benefited' " are very particularly 
mentioned, while the names of those who presented cases of 
" remarkable cures" and which really it was most important to 
know, are not given at all ! 

It is a shame, that men will lend themselves to such petty 
deceptions for a few dollars ; and yet, so it is, and so it ever 
will be, until intellect and morals ; until intelligence and 
truth ; until cultivation and honesty, shall become one and in- 
separable. 

THE FIEST SIGN OF CONSUMPTION. 

It is not as extensively known as it ought to be, that, in the 
large majority of cases, consumption begins with a slight cough 
in the morning on getting up. After a while it is perceived at 
night on going to bed ; next, there is an occasional " coughing 
spell " some time during the night ; by this time there is a 
difficulty of breathing on any slightly unusual exercise, or in 
ascending a hill ; and the patient expresses himself, with some 
surprise, "Why, it never used to tire me so ! " Next, there is 
occasional coughing after a full meal, and sometimes " casting 



Summer Complaint. 175 

up." Even before this, persons begin to feel weak, while there 
is an almost imperceptible thinning in flesh, and a gradual di- 
minution in weight — harassing cough, loose bowels, difficult 
breathing, swollen extremities, daily fever, and a miserable 
death ! Miserable, because it is tedious, painful, and inevitable. 
How much it is to be wished that the symptoms of this hateful 
disease were more generally studied and understood, that it 
might be detected in its first insidious approaches, and applica- 
tion be made at once for its arrest and total eradication ; for 
certain it is that, in very many instances, it could be accom- 
plished. 

It must be remembered, that cough is not an invariable at- 
tendant of consumption of the lungs, inasmuch as persons 
have died, and on examination, a large portion of the lungs 
were found to have decayed away, and yet these same persons 
were never noticed to have had a cough, or observed it them- 
selves, until within a few days of death. But such instances 
are rare, and a habitual cough on getting up, and on going to 
bed, may be safely set down as indicating consumption begun. 
Cough as just stated, is originally a curative process, the means 
which nature uses to rid the body of that which offends, of that 
which is foreign to the system, and ought to be out of it ; hence 
the folly of using medicines to keep down the cough, as all 
cough remedies sold in the shops merely do, without taking 
means at the same time for removing that state of things which 
makes cough necessary. 



SUMMER COMPLAINT. 



How many a sweet child is torn from the arms of its parents, 
in a great city like this, every day during summer, the 
" Weekly Reports " fully testify. And what hopes are blasted 
thereby ; what wounds are made, never to be wholly healed on 
earth ; what houses are desolated ; what hearts broken ; never 
can be known. But we know, that a large part of all this is 
avoidable. To those who cannot leave the city, we recommend 
to keep their children in the second or third stories of their 
dwellings, until after breakfast, and to confine them to the same 
from sundown until the next morning, for the general reason, 



176 HalVs Journal of Health. 

that the most unwholesome atmosphere, mornings and evenings, 
is at the surface of the earth. The higher we sleep, the 
healthier. 

To those who can go away, we most earnestly say, do not 
wait an hour, but take your little ones to the sea shore, some- 
where. Even if you do not expect them to live a day, not an 
hour, go along! The change of an hour's distance from New 
York, in the direction of the sea, is often miraculous. 

Far Eockaway, we greatly prefer to all others in the vicinage 
of New York, for the following reasons : 1st, It is accessible by 
four trains every day ; only twenty-one miles distant, twelve in 
the cars, and nine by staging over a plank road, the whole dis- 
tance being performed in three hours, for seventy-five cents. 
2d. Musquito bars are not needed, according to our experience, 
nor have we seen sand-flies or gnats there. 3d. A very great 
consideration is, it is out of the way of the rabble. The pro- 
prietors of the place having judiciously interdicted the landing 
of steamboats there, and being reached by stages only, no great 
numbers can come at any one time. There is not a spot within 
any reasonable distance of New York, so wholly free from rol- 
licking and rowdy people. And being as it is, on the very 
shore of the veritable Atlantic, with its beautiful, hard, white 
beach, where one can promenade or sit and gaze for hours in 
quiet, we consider it altogether delightful. The accommoda- 
tions are various, from five to fifteen dollars a week. To those 
who can afford it, we recommend " The Pavilion" which is well 
kept, and accommodates six hundred persons comfortably. 
There is preaching in its hall every Sunday. There is a quiet 
respectability about the whole establishment, which at once 
commends it to the eye of an observant traveller. An excellent 
physician visits the hotel regularly every day ; and fresh, pure 
rich milk is abundantly provided twice a day, for the special 
benefit of sick children. 

These remarks are made without fee or reward, past or pro- 
spective. We do not even know the names of the proprietors ; 
and we have only written this article in the wish that it may 
save to other families, as it saved to ours last year, a darling 
child, whose loss to us would have thrown a cloud over our 
future existence which no sunshine could have ever dispersed, 
which no after gladness could ever have driven away. 



Cleanliness. — A Good Wife. 177 

CLEANLINESS 
Of person — the strictest cleanliness — should be among the 
earliest and most imperative of our teachings to our children ; 
not external cleanliness, but that which is most promotive of 
health — cleanliness of the skin and the garments which are 
nearest to it. With what contempt would we look on the best 
dressed and handsomest person on the street, if we could know 
that the feet had not been washed for a week, nor the inner 
garments for a month ; and yet it is undeniable that many per- 
sons are satisfied that the outer garment should be unexcep- 
tionably clean ; if that be whole and without a rent, it mat- 
ters not how soiled and tattered those out of sight are. No 
such mind can be pure ; it implies a deceptiousness of heart 
which it is impossible to admire. Let mothers especially 
charge it upon their daughters from earliest life, that it is 
actually as discreditable to have a hole in the stocking as in 
the silk dress ; that a splotch or stain, or grease spot on an in- 
ner garment, is not less unpardonable than if found on a 
shawl or cloak, or bonnet. Let every mother feel that cleanli- 
ness, temperance and thrift, are the antipodes of filth, bestiality 
and improvidence, and that spotless cleanliness of person, and 
purity of mind, are absolutely inseparable. 



A GOOD WIFE. 



In the eighty -fourth year of his age, Dr. Calvin Chapin 
wrote of his wife : " My domestic enjoyments have been, per- 
haps, as near perfection as the human condition permits. She 
made my home the pleasantest spot to me on earth. And now that 
she is gone, my worldly loss is perfect." 

How many a poor fellow would be saved from suicide, from 
the penitentiary and the gallows every year, had he been 
blessed with such a wife. 

" She made home the pleasantest spot to me on earth." What 
a grand tribute to that woman's love, and piety, and common 
sense. Bather different was the testimony of an old man some 
three years ago, just before he was hung in the Tombs' yard of 
this city. " I didn't intend to kill my wife, but she was a very 
aggravating woman." Let each wife inquire, " Which ami?"* 



178 HalVs Journal of Health. 

SUMMER TRAVELLING. 

It is an almost universal practice for persons who travel, es- 
pecially when children are along, to take a variety of cakes and 
sweetmeats. We earnestly warn our readers against the prac- 
tice — it is in every way pernicious. Sweetmeats tempt the ap- 
petite, induce thirst, which when gratified produces a sensation 
of fulness and discomfort and crossness. It takes away the 
appetite of grown persons, clogs the stomach, and deranges the 
whole system. 

There is nothing better for children and grown persons, than 
some crackers or cold bread, with some slices of ham. If really 
hungry, these will sustain nature, without being liable to the 
objections of sweetmeats. But for grown persons it is far best 
not to eat anything at all while travelling, except at regular 
meals. But if you are not sure of at least a full half hour, for 
actual sitting at the table, do not go to it. Take a sandwich, 
and travel on. 



REWARD OF PHYSICAL LABOR. 

At the funeral of a clergyman who died with his harness on, 
at the age of eighty-eight years, it was said of him : " He was 
favored with a robust and healthy constitution. On his father's 
farm he acquired the habit and love of agricultural labor, which 
he retained through life, and which contributed so eminently to 
the health and vigor, which, with scarcely any interruption, he 
enjoyed all his days." 

We believe that the Church commits an error in putting young 
men into the ministry so early. If the Divine Author of our 
religion worked at the trade of a carpenter until he began to be 
about thirty years of age, we see no sufficient reason why men 
less divine, and so immeasurably less gifted, should hurry into 
it at an earlier period, with all their inexperience of men and 
things ; that veiy inexperience which has led many a talented 
young clergyman into the commission of mistakes, which 
have colored a subsequent lifetime ; mistakes, which have made 
life a failure. 

We are not sure that a five years' course of working with 
one's hands for daily bread would not, in the long run, be pro- 



Stimulants. 179 

ductive of incalculable benefits to the Church and to the world. 

First It would raise up a ministry of robust health, capable 
of performing in one year more real hard work in the field of 
the world, than would a score of theological fledgelings of the 
present day. 

Second. It would give a ministry who, knowing something 
of human nature, could sympathize with its sorrows, could com- 
passionate its weaknesses, and could, having been tempted as 
we are, be touched with a feeling of our infirmities, could 
weep with those who weep, and rejoice with those who rejoiced. 



STIMULANTS, 

Whether of wine, or ale, or opium, or alcohol, are the 
greatest enemies of our kind. It is a wide mistake that the 
lower classes mainly fall into habits of intoxication ; the very 
brightest minds of the past age and of our own time have been 
prematurely wiped out by the stealthy fiend Alcohol. Of the 
stars of a preceding century, which have gone out in the night 
of drink, to shine no more, we might name Addison, and Steele, 
and Moreland, and Sheridan, and Charles Lamb, and Theodore 
Hook, with myriads of others. And of our own time, what a 
long array, which delicacy to the living forbids us to marshal 
by name, of all professions and of every calling ! And in addi- 
tion, not a few of the daughters of our land fall, unsuspected, 
into the arms of the remorseless destroyer. 

We are not opposed to the moderate, the rational use of tea 
or coffee, for these and other beverages may be advantageously 
employed. Against the immoderate use of so called " stimu- 
lants," whether in the milder forms of beers, wines and cordials, 
or of those more decidedly alcoholic, there are two infallible 
safeguards — one for a sage, one for a simpleton. For the lat- 
ter, for the overwhelming majority, there is only one ground 
of safety, and it may be thus plainly stated: — 

If you never touch a drop of any preparation containing 
alcohol, you will most assuredly never die in the gutter; if 
you ever do touch a drop, you may. 

There is no middle ground which any man or woman can 
safely tread, only that of total and most uncompromising absti- 
nence. 



180 HalVs Journal of Health. 

To the very few who are wisely firm, who have that strength 
of character which is the parent of the most perfect self control, 
we may give a safe advice. Use a specified amount at specified 
times, and never, under any circumstances, without medical 
advice, or under great urgency, increase that amount by a 
single drop in quantity or in frequency. And after all, to be 
perfectly safe — 

" Touch Not— Taste Not— Handle Not." 



MONEY AND MIND. 



Of five hundred and fifty-one lunatics in Great Britain, there 
are five hundred and five whose aggregate annual income 
is near twelve hundred thousand dollars, or about twenty- 
three hundred dollars each. 

In connection with this fact we may state, that of a given 
number of lunatics in Massachusetts, three-fourths were of 
parents, one or both of whom drank liquor largely. Extremes 
meet. The rich, who revel in luxury and ease, and the poor, 
who riot in rum, furnish the children for the mad-house; thus 
giving us the strongest reason to infer, that if our race is per- 
petuated in physical vigor and mental power, it must be done, 
in the parents, by the practice of temperance and industry : 
temperance in the indulgence of all the appetites of our nature, 
and industry in the prosecution of our callings, whatever those 
callings may be — giving the preference always to out-door acti- 
vities. No man was made to be a loafer ; no man was made to 
be a beast. And he who violates nature in either case, is 
working out for himself or his children, if not for both, a cer- 
tain and miserable end. 



FOKEIGN IMMIGKATION. 

During the year 1854 four hundred and twenty thousand 
foreigners came to the United States ; during last year, 1855, 
only two hundred thousand — of whom, perhaps, two-thirds 
landed in New York. 

It is this foreign element which makes our city appear so 
unhealthy as it does. Thousands are landed every year at Cas- 
tle Garden in a dying condition. 






HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS." FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURE JL« 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] SEPTEMBER, 1856. [NO. IX f 



CONSUMPTION 

Is a gradual destruction of the lungs, a slow wasting away of 
the "lights," as they are called, by many, when applied to ani- 
mals. 

There are various kinds of consumption, Consumption of the 
Throat, Consumption of the Bowels, but when the word " Con- 
sumption" is employed, by the great mass of people, it means 
Consumption of the Lungs, and there arises in the mind the 
idea of cough, of pale face, of wasted flesh, of stooping frame, 
of slow and careful walk, of large round eyes, the white pre. 
dominating, a waxen countenance, as serious as the grave, with 
a general look of anxiety and distress, which wakes up warmest 
sympathies in hearts that seldom feel at all. 

The reason of this universal application of the word u Con- 
sumption" to the lungs is, that so many are destroyed by it in 
civilized society. It is estimated that one adult out of every 
six, dies of this disease. Such being the case, scarcely a man 
who reads these pages, but will, sooner or later, even if he 
escape himself, have his eye moistened or his heart stricken by 
the work of this great destroyer. These things being so, every 
man owes it to himself, to his family, and to his kindred, to ob- 
tain a knowledge of this disease, as to its nature, its causes, its 
prevention, and its alleviation or cure. Information of this 
kind can be communicated without the necessity of long dis- 
quisitions, of tedious investigations and distressing niceties of 
discrimination. The ailment is so common, it is of such every 
day occurrence, that most readers are familiar with it, can pro- 
nounce upon its existence in the person of another with con- 
siderable correctness, in its decided stages ; yet such is the de- 



182 HalV* Journal of Health. 

ceptive character of the malady, that it is almost a symptom of 
it, that the man himself cannot be made to believe in its presence, 
in his own person, until within the last weeks of his existence, 
and in very many instances, not until the last, the very last 
hour of conscious life. On being called to a gentleman on one 
occasion for the first time, it was apparent that he would soon 
die. When informed of his true condition, he replied, " Doc- 
tor ! you do not understand my case ; if I only had a carriage 
to ride about the city, I would be a new man in a few days." 
He died that night. Another was a young gentleman of high 
promise. I had been attending him for some time and steadily 
acquainted him with the progress of his disease. But he con- 
stantly talked of his plans and purposes, with that patronizing 
consciousness of the groundlessness of my fears, which it was 
difficult to withstand with equanimity. '' Why," said he, " my 
mind is as clear as a bell." And so it continued to be, on all 
other subjects. Soon after, his factor came to render an ac- 
count of bills of sale of his cotton crop. He examined it with 
great care, and in adding up the column, detected an error of a 
few dollars. He died the next day. 

The great reason of this deception is, there is sometimes no 
pain at all, no suffering, no apparent violence, and the patient 
proposes to himself the question, " How can I be seriously ill, 
when I am conscious of no distress ?" He feels that if he only 
had a little more strength, he would be well enough. Besides, 
there are moments during any day either soon after a sound 
sleep, or in the excitement of fever, when he feels as if he had 
that strength, and this increases the illusion. A young gentle- 
man of family and fortune was travelling homeward with this 
disease upon him. On waking up early one morning, he said 
to me, " I feel as if I could travel a thousand miles." The same 
week, he slept the sleep which knows no waking. 

There is something fearful in the thought of being a victim 
to such a delusion ; of travelling along the very verge of the 
grave, believing ourselves to be treading on solid ground, all 
unconscious of the actual fact, that every moment it is crum- 
bling from beneath us. 

There is a moral reason for this strange delusion. We are 
all loth to admit unpleasant truths. A man in business is the 
very last one to perceive that he is a broken merchant. His 



Consumption. 183 

neighbors have known it long ago, but he himself does not be- 
become fully conscious of the fact, until the sheriff turns the 
key on his door. 

One of the consequences of this delusion is, that it prevents 
the person who is the subject of it, from taking those active 
measures which would avail to defer the malady indefinitely, 
if not to accomplish a permanent cure. Forewarned is to be 
forearmed. A stitch in time here, saves a million. 

As the reader, however strong and robust now, however high 
in health and buoyant in hope of years, long and successful, 
may at any time become the subject of a malady so deceptive, 
he will, if he is wise, be at pains to obtain such a knowledge 
of it, as to prevent him becoming a victim to its delusions. 

There is another thought in the minds of men, in reference 
to this affection, which is not less illusory than the one already 
named. Persons often express themselves thus, "I wish I 
could die of consumption, it is so painless a disease, and gives 
one full time and fair warning to prepare for death." The time 
it does give, as about two years is the average of its duration. 
As to the warning, it is certainly given in tones loud enough to 
be heard by thousands afar off, but not loud enough for the ears 
of the man himself-^-given in arguments so convincing and so 
palpable, that the humblest intellect can perceive them, but not 
clear enough to make the- invalid himself appreciate their 
power. 

As to the painless nature of consumption, the delusion is as 
complete as it is general. In some very few cases, there is com- 
paratively little pain, one in a million perhaps. In all, there 
are times of comparative exemption from severe suffering. But 
the very countenance of a consumptive shows an abiding dis- 
tress, so continued, so ever present, that it has fixed its unmis- 
takable imprint on the whole man. " Death by the drop" as 
it is called, where a single drop of water falls upon the head 
at one spot, is said to be rather pleasant at first, but continued 
hour after hour, day and night, soon produces delirium, and if 
continued, the man becomes a raving maniac for life. But 
there is nothing in consumption which is even transiently agree- 
able, not one symptom, but many. The whole man is diseased, 
every drop of his blood is on fire. The ceaseless fever burns 
out his life. And when all his fat and flesh are consumed and 



184 HalVs Journal of Health. 

there is no more oil to feed the flame, no more carbon to keep 
up the dying fires, nothing left but skin and bone and tendon 
and ligament and strings, then he begins to freeze. The fingers 
first, and feet, all his efforts cannot keep them warm. Week 
after week the cold chill of death creeps higher and higher, 
nearer and nearer in the slow progress of months, until the 
heart itself becomes an icicle, and the man is no more. 

So far from death by consumption being an easy one, there 
are few maladies which involve a more fearful amount of suf- 
fering in the aggregate. The shivering chill of the forenoon, 
the burning fever in the after part of the day, then the drench- 
ing night sweat, clammy and cold as death, and thus for days 
and nights, for weeks and months, if there is any " ease" here, 
we cannot bring our mind to perceive its reality. 

THE COUGH. 

The very sound of it, in an advanced stage of the disease, is 
unspeakably distressing. At night fall, the poor, wasted, 
wearied body longs for repose, the eye looks longingly to the 
bed, while the effort for undressing seems herculean and the 
time requisite for it, an age. Thefleshless skeleton totters to its 
pillow, and on the instant, the very instant, the cough begins, 
at first hard and dry ; nothing comes up. Cough, cough, 
cough ! racking, jarring, straining. He feels "If I could only 
get it up, how sweetly could I rest." And he coughs on. The 
slow minutes are hours, and the hours, ages, as he tosses on his 
bed, the wan face bathed in the perspiration of exhaustion, or 
flushed with the fever which is burning out his life. At last a 
mouthful does come, and he hopes for rest. A mouthful of 
lungs rotted away, falling upon the floor in thick yellow lumps, 
with spraggling, ragged edges, giving the coveted repose, not for 
houis, nor even minutes always, but for one, a few brief seconds 
only, and then begins again the sad, sad labor, to be completed 
only until the grey of the morning comes, when more dead than 
alive, and from utter exhaustion, the patient falls into a troubled 
sleep, as unsatisfying as it is brief; and more weary than when 
he retired, he leaves the bed with the same confident hope of 
relief as he had on retiring, and as certainly to be unrealized ; and 
thus baffled from sunrise until evening, and from nightfall until 
the morning comes, he wears his life away. 



Consumption. 185 

Death by consumption easy ! Look at it. The appetite is 
usually good, he looks forward to the eating hour with interest 
and satisfaction ; he thinks over and over again how he would 
enjoy this and that article of food, and in the delirium of anticipa- 
tion, he projects himself into the long years of the future, and 
revels in thoughts of how, when he gets well again, he will 
take care of his health and purchase him a little farm, and am- 
bitionless of society, and position, and equipage and office, and 
wealth and a name, he will devote himself to the leisure culti- 
vation of fruits and flowers, and feast day after day on pure milk 
and fresh eggs, and new butter, with vegetables from his own 
garden and honey from his own hive. Upon this elysian reverie 
the call to dinner breaks, and with watering mouth and eager 
expectancy, forgetful of every symptom, oblivious of every 
pain and suffering, he lays himself out for a hearty meal. He 
eats much and long, and enjoys it. Food never tasted half so 
good and he rests not until the feeling of perfect satisfaction 
comes over him. But the first material change of position, 
moves also the fluid mass of rotted lungs within him as certain- 
ly as the motion of a glass changes the position of the water in 
it; this change of matter to a fresh part of the lungs, the sensi- 
bilities of which have not been obtunded by the long pressure 
of this decayed substance on one spot, excites a tickling sensa- 
tion, not in the lungs themselves, but in the hollow at the bot- 
tom of the neck in front, just as the eye sees,, not at the eye 
ball, but on the retina, just as the stricken elbow gives the 
sensation at the distant finger ends, this tickling gives cough, a 
mere heck at first, but each successive heck causing another 
quicker and more decided, until a regular hard cough sets in, 
bringing on gagging, and soon the whole meal is cast up, for no 
rest comes until it is all brought away. And thus it is with 
every meal, for many of the last weeks of life, and in which we 
look around in vain for any " ease?' 

To listen to the merry laugh of others, but no such mirth to 
you, for it brings on a cough, which may last for the next half 
hour. You hear the song of gladness in others, but the first 
note you strike, brings on the inevitable cough. You hear some 
Bplendid speech, or contemplating some noble action, or gazing 
at some magnificent object of nature or of art, the thrill 
of admiration sweeps over you! and the hated cough comes 
on by the very emotions of the mind. 



186 HalVs Journal of Health. 

You look out upon the gay fields of a summers morning, or 
upon the bustling crowd in the business street, or the more joy- 
ous promenaders of the avenue, or the sleigh bells tingle by on 
the bed of driven snow, and the ceaseless laugh, or the loud 
yell of youthful recklessness, all, all pass before you with sweet 
remembrances, the sweeter from the distant impression, that 
none of these may be ever yours again. In none of these can 
you participate now. There is no strength of limb to walk the 
summer fields ; there is not breath enough to enable you to keep 
pace with the busy crowd, no heart to join with the gayer 
throng, while the very thought of sleighing over the cold snow, 
causes you to shrink back with a shiver, and the sympathetic 
cold chill drives you from the window to the fire place. If 
there is any "ease" in aught like this, it is imperceptible to me. 

But when confinement to the bed gives loud note of death, 
and one by one your delusions have all passed away, and you 
sit propt up by pillows, your only apparent enemy being the 
phlegm, which you wish to get away, there is less prospect of 
ease than ever. Every breath you draw makes it boil up and 
rattle and flutter within you. You feel as if a little cough would 
bring it up. But the sensibilities of the parts are in the main 
taken away, for you are dying. You have not strength to 
cough, except at intervals, and then so faint, that it does not 
" reach it" or if it does, it barely brings it up to the throat, 
when it falls into the " Swallow," and goes down into the 
stomach, there to be mixed up with your food and drink, whole 
pints of it in a day sometimes! let me run away to some 
distant planet, to escape so horrible an end. 

At last there is not strength enough to bring it as far up as 
the gullet, and accumulating every hour, the remaining lungs 
become clogged up, the slightest amount of air gets in, and a 
dreadful oppression comes over you ; you feel as if one good, 
long, full breath would be perfect happiness, and no giant could 
labor harder to get that breath than you. In that terrible effort, 
the effort for life, the eyes become glary, the mouth remains 
open, the bosom heaves laboriously, each partial breath a groan, 
large drops of clammy sweat stand upon the forehead, the 
speechless tongue, the pulseless wrist, the fading light, and all 
is over ! 



Consumption. 187 

CAUSES OF CONSUMPTION. 

Such being a history of the progress and end of this ruthless 
disease, it may be instructive to inquire into its causes. 

Suppose we close the books, lock up the libraries, consign all 
theories to the grave and rely upon that best of all informers, 
observation, and with the aid of common sense, endeavor to 
learn some facts for ourselves and deduce conclusions, which it 
is impossible to gainsay. 

The first idea which strikes us, on mention of the word 
" Consumption," is that of a pale, emaciated form. We all 
know that paleness of the face arises from the absence of the 
natural amount of blood, the pure blood of health. Emaciation 
forces on the mind the conviction of a want of nourishment. 
We then arrive at that most important fact, underlying all 
others, that the essential nature of consumption is a marked 
deficiency of flesh and blood, paleness and emaciation being its 
universal attendants, conditions, or symptoms, without which it 
never can exist. It must then strike the thoughtful reader, that 
if paleness and emaciation are always present in consumption, 
debility must be as inseparable from it, as death is inseparable 
from the grave ; and this other conclusion is equally obvious, 
that inasmuch as Paleness, Emaciation and Debility are always 
present in consumption, that whatever causes paleness, emacia- 
tion and debility, in continuance, is capable of causing con- 
sumption. 

It must not be inferred here, that every man who is pale, 
emaciated and weak, has consumption. The fact is stated, and 
there left, " Paleness, Emaciation and Debility are never absent in 
any case of common consumption of the lungs, and that whatever 
causes these, in permanence, is capable of causing consumption." 

Now, instead of going on naturally, and stating the causes of 
consumption, we will first proceed to show what are not the 
causes of consumption, in order to make the contrast more in- 
structive and impressive. 

A man naturally shrinks from taking ground antagonistic to 
generally received opinions and it ought never to be done, ex- 
cept on mature investigation, on the clearest conviction and 
with the fullest impression, that it is for the public good, by 
advancing the truth. It is by the pure truth that the world is 
to be millenialized, and made a paradise ; and the universal sen- 



188 HaWs Journal of Health. 

timent should be, Let truth prevail, wherever it may lead. "We 
have nothing to do with the consequences of pure truth. He 
who is Truth itself, will take care of that. 

" Tight lacing" as it is called, does not originate consump- 
tion ; its tendencies are to prevent it, if not actually present, and 
to cure it, if it is. 

All physicians know that consumption attacks the top of the 
lungs, under the collar bone, and that long before it reaches 
half way down, the man dies, not actually for want of enough 
sound lungs to live upon, for persons have lived to a good old 
age, who have had but one half of the whole lungs in healthful 
operation, but they die from the effect which the disease has had 
on the whole system. 

Tight Lacing affects the lower portion of the lungs mainly, and 
causes the person to breathe less with the bottom of the lungs 
and more with the top. We have seen that the bottom of the 
lungs can take care of themselves. It is not one time in many 
thousands, of those who die of this disease, that the lower por- 
tions are materially affected, if at all. 

The reason that the lower portion of the lungs is the last to 
become consumptive is, that it has more room for full action, the 
lower portion of the ribs and the stomach are distensible, and in 
drawing a full breath, we see how readily they swell out. And 
consumption never can exist where the lungs have free, full 
play to the influences of a pure atmosphere ; and even when the 
atmosphere is foul, those portions which work most freely, are 
the last to become diseased ; and conversely, the upper parts of 
the lungs, being encased by unyielding bony walls, have not 
the capabilities of distension which the lower portions have, and 
consequently are more liable to disease. 

It is intuitive to us all, that those who are out of doors most, 
who run and race about most, who are most active in their pur- 
suits, are less liable to consumption than those who follow still 
occupations, indoors. Reasoning from a general fact we would 
conclude then, that very many more women die of consumption 
than men. But it is simply not so. Now what is the reason? 
Women breathe more with the upper portion of the lungs than 
men do; any one's observation will confirm this assertion. 
Therefore, the province of woman being more naturally within 
doors, a beneficent Providence seems to have so created them, 



Consumption. 189 

that there should be an antagonism within them, and beyond their 
control, to the otherwise natural liabilities to the disease. We 
therefore arrive at the inevitable conclusion, that compression 
of the lower portion of the lungs, throwing as it does, a large 
part of the breathing and distension to the upper portion, does 
thereby render the upper portion less susceptible to disease. 
We mean moderate compression. 

What then becomes of the impression that tight lacing origi- 
nates consumption ? It must simply go the way of multitudes 
of specious errors. 

The reader will please bear in mind, that we do not advocate 
tight lacing. On the contrary, we are opposed to all kinds of 
compression, all impediments to the fullest and freest action of 
every member and portion of the human body, that there should 
not be a buckle or button, or string or pin or pad about us, 
more than is absolutely necessary to keep our clothing from fall- 
ing off our bodies. We are only speaking of Tight Lacing in 
its bearing on consumptive disease. If the statements which we 
have made are startling to some, and inconclusive to others, let 
us appeal to facts. The advent of the Cold Water Era has been 
the means of introducing many wholesome truths. Its friends 
have been energetic, enthusiastic men, not over bright, it is 
true, but they have been sincere ; whether they have done more 
good than evil, it is not now necessary to inquire. But one ef- 
fect, which their efforts have aided very considerably in bring- 
ing about, is the comparative abolition of tight lacing, and for 
their labor they deserve much praise, showing as it does, that 
they are not so bigoted that they cannot follow ! in the path of 
educated medicine, when they believe that path is truth. 

It has taken ten years to bring about the abandonment of the 
corset. And now we have two simple questions to propose. 

Do fewer women die of consumption to-day, when the corset 
is in comparative desuetude, than ten or twenty years ago when 
tight lacing was all the rage ? All statistics show that there is 
no remarkable change. 

The people of the town are more dressy than those of the 
country, more apt to go to extremes, and more universally fol- 
low leaders. Is the proportion of women who die in town of 
consumption, materially greater than in the country ? Statis- 
tics say no. Binguet says of ninety-one women dying of con- 



190 HalVs Journal of Health. 

sumption, forty- seven were brought up in town and forty-one in 
the country, showing a difference of only one-seventh in favor 
of the country. But women wear corsets and men do not, yet 
in 1837, of persons dying in a Paris Hospital of consumption 
during four years, one-tenth more were males than females. 

In England, the returns of the Kegister General show, for 
1845, that in the country, where corsets are less worn, more 
women die of consumption than men ; but that in London 
and other large cities, the mortality from this disease is much 
less among women than among men. Now it is reasonable 
to infer, that there is less tight lacing among a farming popu- 
lation than in a city, and the above fact shows that where 
tight lacing most abounds, consumption is less prevalent. We 
do not say that tight lacing has the credit of this exemp- 
tion, but it is clear that if tight lacing does tend to produce con- 
sumption, there are causes in operation which greatly over- 
power that tendency ; hence we have some reason to infer that 
such a tendency has no appreciable existence. 

It is thus seen, that in cities, where corsets are more worn, 
fewer women who wear them die of consumption than men, 
who do not wear, notwithstanding their greater liability to 
the disease from their sedentary indoor employment, and so 
great is the difference of liability, as to in and out door occu- 
pation, that in Geneva, thirty-seven per cent, of varnish 
painters died of consumption, while of gardeners who perish- 
ed by the same disease, there was only four per cent. Of 
painters, tailors, engravers, clerks, &c, a hundred and forty- 
one out of every thousand died of consumption, while only 
eighty-nine of agriculturists, blacksmiths, slaters and the like 
died of it. With these strong facts before us, we are obliged to 
infer, that there is something in woman which is exemptive of 
consumption, and it is legitimate to conclude, that one of the 
elements of that exemption is a fuller, freer working of the 
upper portion of the lungs, which is uniformly the seat of the 
disease. This is fully coincident of the admitted fact, that full, 
free breathing, tends to prevent consumption. If additional 
proof of this most important practical fact is needed, it is found 
in the uniform statement of great travellers and close obser- 
vers. Buffon writes that all animals inhabiting high altitudes 
have larger lungs, and more capaciou? chests than those which 



Consumption. 191 

live in the valleys. Wilson and Audubon agree that birds which 
practice the highest flights have the largest receptacles for air. 
Thus it is, that reasoning from birds and animals to men, there 
is no city in the world so free from consumption as Mexico, it 
being nine thousand feet above the level of the sea. For in the 
same year, while three persons out of every hundred died of 
consumption in that city, there perished by that same disease, 
in our larger cities, eighteen persons out of every hundred. 
Why ? Because the rarified atmosphere of high altitudes, com- 
pels the breathing of larger volumes of air, to answer the wants 
of the system, there being less substance in a rarified, than in a 
condensed atmosphere ; and this taking in an increased volume 
of air at every breath, produces a corresponding development, 
distension of the lungs, which is, as we purpose to show here- 
after, the fundamental essential, in the prevention, the ameliora- 
tion, the cure, in every case of consumption ever reported. 

Hereditary Tendency is not specially promotive of consump- 
tion ; it is more nearly a preventive. 

To concentrate the argument in a few words, and make the 
ordinary, the every day observations of reflecting men consti- 
tute the proof, it is only necessary to draw attention to one 
familiar fact. It is not the feeble of adult life who soonest die. We 
can all bring multitudes of cases to our remembrance, where the 
stout and robust and strong, full of vigor and health, have long 
since been laid under the clods of the valley, and whose names 
are remembered to the very few ; while of others, so tottering 
and frail, that no one believed they could possibly live beyond 
a few short years, an age or two have passed away, and they are 
living yet, and likely to live a good long time to come. At the 
age of twenty-two, P. S. was believed to be in a hopeless de- 
cline, "she can't possibly live beyond a year or two," was a 
very common expression among her friends. But she did live, 
has survived three husbands, and half a century besides. And 
this day, we know her to be in better health than at any time 
within the last ten years, and bids fair to reach " four score." 

The explanation of this fact is simple, conclusive, and of 
great practical value. 

The feeble feel the absolute necessity of taking care of them- 
selves. They know that upon it hangs the question of enjoy- 
ment and suffering, of life and death ; indiscretions, impru- 



192 HalVs Journal of Health. 

dences, tell upon their feeble frames, with almost telegraphic 
rapidity, and there is only one alternative, carefulness or suffer- 
ing. 

On the other hand, those who abound in vigorous health, 
feel that their constitutions are impregnable, that nothing can 
hurt them. Thus they are habitually negligent, careless, and 
often even reckless. The result is, they soon pass away, many 
of them long before their prime. Hence, practically, persons 
hereditarily consumptive, do not very necessarily suffer more 
from consumptive disease, than those who are exempt from this 
tendency. 

This at least is the theoretical statement ; but mere theory 
should never override carefully ascertained statistics. And to 
this very point, the attention of scientific men has been long 
drawn, and we only record the statement of one of them, and 
he had large opportunities of long and wide observation. 
" Hereditary predisposition to consumption is as frequent among 
persons brought up in the country as among those brought up 
in town. Those born of consumptive parents seemed not to be 
more liable to take cold than others.' ' 

The same writer states, that " of ninety-eight persons who 
died of consumption, thirty-three were naturally of a robust 
constitution, and twenty-one were of a feeble constitution. 

Bad colds do not originate consumption. Truth is useful every- 
where. Its practical application in physics and morals tends 
to ameliorate the evils of life and elevate our natures. Hence, 
we make the above statement, which many will consider as 
extravagant as it is untrue. 

The result of the very prevalent opinion that bad colds 
beget, generate, originate consumption, is that, for fear of 
taking cold, many are induced to avoid going out of doors, 
except in the mildest weather ; this causes them to remain in- 
doors, especially if invalids, full nine-tenths of their time, in 
this climate ; hence, nine- tenths of their time they are breathing 
a vitiated atmosphere, which is quite competent to generate 
general disease where it is not, and aggravate what already 
exists. 

But suppose the impression was as general that bad colds 
were curative of consumption, as that they originated the 
disease, then, the consumptive would expose himself more 



Consumption. 193 

freely, would go out in all weathers, hot or cold, rain or shine, 
fair or foul, burning or freezing, and with a kind of desperate 
recklessness, he would court what is now considered the danger, 

AND THAT WOULD CUKE HIM ! ! 

A bad cold can no more originate tubercular consumption, 
than powder could ignite without fire. When tubercles are 
already existing in the lungs, bad colds may develope them. 
As the powder must be there, before the fire can produce ex- 
plosion, so tubercles must be in the lungs, before a bad cold 
can develope them into consumption, and the prevalence of 
tubercles is the result of operations going on in the system for 
years ; while a bad cold has nothing in it which tends to produce 
tubercles, for it runs its course usually in ten days, just as 
measles run their course, or mumps, and then passes out of the 
system. 

The reason of the prevalent belief of the connection between 
a common cold and consumption is, that cough is the distin- 
guishing feature of both. Hence, whenever a consumptive gets 
worse, the almost invariable expression is : "I must have taken 
cold in some way, and yet I do not see how it can be so, for I 
have taken every precaution." So that, whenever the cough 
becomes worse, is more decided or troublesome, the invalid's 
inference is that he has taken a fresh cold. This is a delusion, 
and in its practical bearings, is a fatal one, as it results in more 
continued confinement to the house, in order to prevent taking- 
cold, and to the securement of an even temperature, when, in 
reality, an even temperature, a temperature of room regulated 
to a degree for months together, is as certainly fatal in any case 
of decided consumptive disease as we can readily imagine. 
In the reading of an age, we do not remember to have seen a 
single case described in medical publications, in which a regu- 
lated temperature did not end in death. So, the fear of taking- 
cold, in the belief that such a cold aggravates consumption, 
effectually cuts off the invalid from the most important of all 
means of cure. For, without a full and free exposure to out door 
air, regardless of all weathers, no case of consumption ever has been 
cured; while icith it, and it alone, many cases may. Let the 
reader manufacture his own statistics on this point in this way. 
One person out of every six dies of consumption. 

Of these, five have had bad colds a thousand times during 



194 Hall's Journal of Health. 

their life, and here we have five thousand bad colds without a 
single case of consumption ; and as to the man himself, he had 
a bad cold five, six or eight hundred times before, and under it 
all, he never became consumptive. And because one bad cold 
out of five or six thousand was reputed to have been followed 
by consumption, it is the slimmest of all arguments to make it 
the foundation of a conclusion, that consumption is originated 
in a bad cold. No theory ever worth a thought could stand 
upon a foundation like this, and since that theory originates a 
very general and practical and fatal error, we owe it to our- 
selves, every lover of truth, every humane man owes it to him- 
self, to give the subject a stern and thorough investigation. 

If, then, Tight Lacing does not originate consumption ; 

If Hereditary Tendencies do not practically make persons more 
liable to die of consumptive disease ; 

If Bad Colds do not originate consumption ; 

What are some of the more prominent and pregnant causes 
of a disease, under which there are suffering in England and 
Wales, every year, no less than seventy thousand human beings, 
and, no doubt, an equal number in the United States ? 

We have already seen that Paleness ) Emaciation and Debility 
are symptoms which are always present in common consump- 
tion of the lungs ; and, although these are not always indicative 
of the presence of consumption, yet it is a legitimate inference 
that, whatever causes these, is a sufficient cause for consump- 
tion ; and, consequently, it is our duty to know the occupations, 
and callings, and pursuits, the intemperate prosecution of which 
inevitably induces, if persevered in, paleness, emaciation and 
debility. Let it be remembered, it is not designed to advocate 
the total abandonment of these pursuits, for they are useful and 
necessary ; but to follow them only so far as they do not se- 
riously impair the health. We know of no calling of human 
life, which may not be pursued with impunity, which may not 
be pursued in such a way as to promote health, if done judi- 
ciously, wisely, moderately. 

What, then, are some of the callings of human life which, in 
our own observation, give the pale face, the wasted flesh and 
the feeble walk ? 

Indoor employments, especially those which do not demand 
activity on the feet, supply much the largest number of victims 



Consumption. 195 

to consumption, while those who are out of doors a great deal 
are almost wholly exempt, or if attacked at all, it is the result 
of a change of life, to an inactive or indoor employment, or to 
some unpardonable instance of thoughtless indifference, or some 
hardy recklesness. 

Out of every hundred varnish painters, thirty-seven die of 
consumption. They live mostly indoors. 
Yarnish Painters, 37 Slaters, 9 

Tailors, 14 Agriculturists, 9 

Engravers, 14 Butchers, 7 

Printers, 14 Tanners, 7 

Clerks, 14 Candle Makers, 7 

Polishers, 12 Easy Circumstances, 5 

Plasterers, 12 Butchers, 5 

Sculptors, 12 Dyers, 5 

Stone Cutters, 12 Bleechers, 5 

Watch Hand Makers, 12 Watermen, 5 

Carpenters, 9 Gardeners, 4 

Blacksmiths, 9 

The influence which out door activities have on the general 
health accords with that had on consumption. 
The average life of 

Stone Cutters is 34 years. Surgeons, 54 years. 

Sculptors 36 " Masons, 55 " 

Millers, 42 " Gardeners, 60 " 

Painters, 44 " Merchants, 62 " 

Carpeters, 46 " Clergy (Protestant) 63 " 

Butchers, 53 " Magistrates, 69 " 

Lawyers, 51 " 

By a careful examination and comparison of these tables, 
which are regarded as merely approximative, it will be seen that 
there is a striking correspondence between the causes of general 
disease and the causes of consumption ; that persons who are 
out of doors most, and most active, live longest, and are most 
exempt from consumption. 

In speaking of the causes of consumption it is useful to re- 
mark, that among those who are least liable to consumption are 
persons in " easy circumstances." What a loud and impressive 
lesson is here read to humanity. What a strong reproof to 
the men and women who are working their very eyes out for 



196 HalVs Journal of Health. 

gold ; who day and night, summer and winter, are tugging, 
and striving, agonizing after money, who rob themselves of 
necessary sleep, who stint themselves of necessary food and 
clothing and comfort, to hoard up that which perisheth with the 
using, who work beyond their strength every day of their lives 
in their struggle after the greed of earth. These are people of 
uneasy circumstances, and it is not they who are exempt from 
consumption, but those who are in easy circumstances, and being 
content there to remain, are in easy circumstances still. To be 
in moderate circumstances, and take the world easy, that is the true 
philosophy of life. 

What a sad tale, that item about " easy circumstances,' 1 tells of 
poor humanity ! while they are almost exemptive of consump- 
tion, how forcibly does it speak to us of the converse as a cause. 
The uncertainty of to-morrow's bread ! to not know where the 
next " renf is to come from ! to not know but in another twenty- 
four hours, one's family will be roofless ! To lean day by day 
on the dagger of unrequited love, of misplaced affection, of con- 
fidence forfeited, of heart broken ! To pine away in desertion, 
in hopelessness, in the consciousness that our life time has been 
a failure, and that it is too late to try again ; to be young and 
all one's kindred gone, sister, brother, father, mother, all passed 
away ; to be yearning for something to love and lean upon, but 
to meet indifference and coldness and rebuffs ; or to be old, the 
sad and sole survivor of a large kindred, the friends of our 
school time, the associates of our youth, the companions of 
riper years, the dear, dear children of our prime, of these not 
one left, departed all — not "easy 1 circumstances these, but terri- 
ble; and no wonder, is it, that under them, the heart and body 
too, pine away, and only find an end in the consumptive's grave. 

We then have arrived at a great fact that depressing mental 
influences are a " cause" of consumption, while in connection 
with it the interesting and instructive truth presents itself, that 
while moderate bodily exertion out of door exempts from con- 
sumption, immoderate labor or comparatively inactive out door 
employment invites the disease. The sculptor, who stands at 
his stone, chisel in hand, in the self-same square yard for days 
and weeks together, and for hours at a time in the self-same, 
almost immovable stooping position, is one third more liable 
to consumption than the agriculturist, who is constantly changing 



Consumption. 197 

the position of his body, constantly bringing a large variety of 
muscles into exercise, and whose locomotion amounts to miles 
asunder every day. Nor is it less curious to observe that the 
gardener is one hundred per cent, less liable to consumption 
than the agriculturist ; a sufficient explanation lies in the fact that 
his labor is more moderate, and uniform, attended with less 
anxiety and surrounded with the more pleasing associations 
which gather around fruits and flowers. The tastes of the man 
are compelled into exercise and his mind is drawn out, dozens 
of times every day in comparisons as to proportions, adapta- 
tions, appropriateness, and beauty, all pleasurable, all elevating, 
while the farmer's heart is eaten out by the two great cormorants, 
Season and Price. Did any man ever know a farmer who was 
not an habitual grumbler, who was not always ready with a too 
dry or too wet, too backward or too forward, too hot or too 
cold? We ourselves have known some, not many, who were 
habitually and humbly thankful for whatever kind of weather 
a kind Providence thought proper to send. 

Whatever renders the blood impure tends to originate con- 
sumption. Whatever makes the air impure makes the blood 
impure. It is the air we breathe which purifies the blood. 
And as, if the water we use to wash our clothing is dirty, it is 
impossible to wash the clothing clean, so if the air we breathe 
is impure, it is impossible for it to abstract the impurities from 
the blood. 

What then are some of the more prominent things which ren- 
der the air impure ? It is the nature of still water to become 
impure. It is the nature of still air to become impure. Kun- 
ning water purifies itself. Air in motion, drafts of air, are self- 
purify ers. Thus it is that the air of a close room becomes im- 
pure inevitably. Thus it is that close rooms bring consump- 
tion to countless thousands. Hence all rooms should be so 
constructed as to have a constant draft of air passing through 
them. The neglect of it, murders myriads. A man of ordi- 
nary size renders a hogshead of air unfit for breathing, con- 
sumes its blood-purifying quality every hour, so perfectly, 
that if a man could re-breathe a full breath of his own the next 
instant after its expiration without any intermixture with the 
outer air, he would be instantly suffocated. Hence sleeping in 
close rooms even though alone, or sitting for a very short time 



198 HalVs Journal of Health. 

in a crowded vehicle or among a large assembly is perfectly 
corrupting to the blood. Close bed rooms make the grave of 
multitudes. 

Among other causes of consumption are insufficient food or 
clothing ; sleeping in basements or sitting habitually in damp 
apartments. A dog will become consumptive in a few weeks 
if confined in a damp cellar, especially if it be a dark one. 

Hence the room which we occupy for the largest portion of 
each twenty-four hours should be the lighest, dryest, most airy 
and cheerful in the whole building. 

As occasional causes of consumptive disease, there may be 
mentioned all suppressions, the sudden driving in of all erup- 
tions, such as measles, tetter and the like, the sudden healing 
up of sores which have been running for a long time, without 
intelligent medical advice, in carrying off the drains of the sys- 
tem in another direction. Many lives are thrown away by 
ignorant officiousness, in applications to old sores: they are 
elated to the highest degree in having " cured up" an ulcer, 
which the " regular doctors" had failed to do after months of 
effort, but they fail to note the after fact, that within a very 
short time the " cured up sore" has broken out again, or fall- 
ing on the lungs, has laid the victim in the grave. 

It is the province of the skilful physician to know when to 
let alone as well as when to act. To do little or nothing is 
sometimes the highest wisdom. 



CINDERS IN THE EYE. 



Travelling by Rail is a fixed institution, and among the 
many millions who do it, there are not a few whose travelling 
for pleasure, turns out acutest pain, from locomotive cinders 
getting into the eye. They do not work out as readily as other 
foreign particles, because the rapid motion of the cars creates a 
current of air which gives the cinder such a momentum, that it 
plants itself in the body of the eye like a barbed arrow, and the 
usual resort of rubbing the eye only drives it in deeper. 

Norton Carrol. A fine name for a novel, and fitting would 
his life be, as material for an over strange tale. The contented 
and careless occupant of a one storied board house on the shore 



In and Out Door Air. 199 

of the sea, his yacht and his angle rod, being the light of his 
eye and the delight of his heart, he floats along with the tide of 
life, all oblivious of position and fame and fortune and renown, 
yet the blood of Charles Carrol, of Carrolton, of the Clintons, 
of the Livingstons and other names of the old Knickerbocker 
stock, courses his veins. Born in the city of New York, a pupil 
of Columbia College, and reared amid all the luxuries which 
wealth and a family name could procure, abdicating all, long 
ago, he went down to the shores of the sea, and may any day 
be seen basking on Far Kockaway's beach ; or in the stoop of 
his cabin, with rocking chair, cigar, and hoisted feet, and the 
latest novel, he dreams life's hours away. 

But that life is not a vain one, for every mortal has his uses, 
whether of wood or hay or stubble or solid rock, or gold or 
diamond, in the great building of eternal ages, and he has com- 
municated a fact, which is destined to save many an eye to 
Beauty, and many a tear from childhood's cheek, not for the hour 
or the day, but for all time to come. The sire's benevolence 
descended to his son, for little "Gabe" lost his life in the vain 
effort to save his cousin from drowning. Now, having roused the 
reader this hot August afternoon to the proper pitch of atten- 
tion and remembrance, we empty our knowledge box before 
him. 

Between the eye lid and the ball, introduce the bight of a 
horse or other strong hair, so as to include the spot where the 
particle appears to be, close the eye, and gently draw out the 
hair ; the relief is said to be instantaneous, perfect and per- 
manent. 



IN AND OUT-DOOR AIR. 

If a small portion of the air of a crowded room is made to 
pass up through distilled water, a sediment is left, which contains 
various colored fibres of clothing; portions of hair, wool; bits 
of human skin ; or scales, with a kind of fungus growth, with 
its particles of reproduction, which adhere wherever they strike 
or fall on wet surfaces, or bruises, or sore places, and grow 
wherever they adhere; there is also a small amount of sand and 
dirt, with great numbers of the various forms of animal life. 



200 HalVs Journal of Health. 

No wonder, then, that the blood is soon tainted and corrupt- 
ed by making sitting apartments of our chambers, by spending 
hours in crowded assemblies, or stage coaches, or rail cars, 
where every breath we draw is a mouthful of monster life. 

But if that room be emptied for a few hours, and a portion 
of its atmosphere be treated in the same way, nothing will be 
found but a little sand and dirt, a few fibres of wool and cotton, 
only a trace of fungus, but no animal life, and no bits of skin 
and hair, and scales of dead human matter. 

If five times the amount of neighboring out-door air under- 
goes the same process, a fibre of wool or cotton is now and then 
found, a little sand and dirt, with specimens of fungus and 
their atoms of reproduction, but no traces of decayed animal 
matter, and no signs of organic life ; thus showing, that in our 
close apartments we are surrounded with organic living bodies, 
and that animal matter living, dead and decayed, loads the 
atmosphere which we breathe in the chambers of our dwellings 
and crowded rooms, and that these corrupting particles are 
swallowed, and are breathed into the system every moment 
of in-door existence, thus strongly urging us, by all our love 
of pure blood and high health, to hurry from our chambers at 
the earliest moment in the morning, and to consider every 
hour of out-door breathing, a gain of life. 



GET MARRIED. 



Young ladies ! you will never be satisfied until you do. It 
is the surest road to a long life and a happy one. There is a 
thorn in the path now and then, but there is a rose always 
hard by. Did you never know it before? We will tell you 
something. We never heard it, nor read it. We found it out. 
Doctors, you know, are very inquisitive folks, always prying 
and peeping about, through their own eyes, and other peoples, 
and when these are not sufficient, they use the microscope, a 
very favorite instrument with some of them, inasmuch as it 
enable them 

" To see what is not to be seen " 

by anybody, except themselves ; and full often, they are like 
the sailor on the look-out : he could not see land exactly, but 



Reproductive Poiver of Filth. 201 

he could pretty near do it. Well, all at once, one day, this 
bright idea (so we call it for the present, it may afterwards 
arise to a fact, for there is a shade of difference between the 
twain) broke in upon us effulgently. The roses and the 
thorns of married life are not one and indivisible ; they grow 
on separate stocks, and all that is required to part them, is a 
good head and a kind heart. There is one difficulty in the 
way, the thorns are indestructible, but you have only to throw 
them aside, and if anybody else chooses to pick them up, that 
is their look-out : every one must see for himself, A bunch of 
this sort happened to fall to our lot once upon a time, but we 
can easily account for it, and that is highly satisfactory : we 
always had weak eyes, and the vicinage thereof is much of a 
sameness, in a certain phase of the moon. But we fully calculate 
on repeating the operation ; and we intend to have a pair of specs, 
next time, such as will diminish the blinding glare which Curls 
and Cotton, in certain conjunctions, attitudes and combinations, 
do most devastatingly throw around them. 

Not long since, a man was head over heels in debt, and he 
declared that his last speculation left him head over heeler. 
So, one who tries by marriage to get out of trouble, sometimes 
gets into greater ; but in the large main, marriage is the balm 
of life, it is the natural condition of human kind, hence, Divi- 
nity has ordained it. 

The idea which we wished to convey, in connection with 
the heading of this article, is that while more women than 
men, in the country at large, die of consumption, yet five 
hundred married men will die of consumption, while three 
hundred married women die of it. Therefore, as to women, 
marriage, after twenty -five, is a preventive of consumption. 



EEPRODUCTIVE POWER OF FILTH. 

A single atom of Spanish moss attaches itself to a southern 
tree, every moment and hour, day and night, summer and 
winter, it steadily extends itself, until the whole tree is hung 
in the drapery of death. 

The toad-stool mushroon, so deadly in its nature, is the work 
of a night, and augments with wonderful rapidity. 

So it is with a low grade of animal and vegetable growth, 



202 HalVs Journal of Health. 

which feeds on filth, and reproduces itself with the utmost 
celerity, thus spreading its area, and concentrating its corrupt- 
ing and destructive agencies, sweeping away human life like 
chaff. 

These pernicious growths, scarcely themselves perceptible 
to the naked eye, have something immeasurably more minute, 
which answer to seeds, which flying in every direction, and 
attaching themselves to all moist surfaces, begin instantly to 
grow. Thus it is, that spots of neglected filth need but a little 
moisture and warmth to breed their deadly contagions, and 
scatter their leprous diseases far and wide. 

Let every family, then, remember that each particle of damp 
dirt about their dwellings is a plague spot, and let every 
servant and child be visited with the severest reproof, who 
knowingly permits its continuance for a single moment. 



LIFE'S IRRITABILITIES. 

What's the use of it ? Don't worry yourself to death on 
account of what other people may say of you, as long as you 
know it is not true. Take care of the truth, that's your business. 
All falsehoods go to the bosom of their father the Devil, and 
their framers soon follow. So much as to falsehoods of you. 
As to falsehoods to you, and as to every tale the most remotely 
prejudicial to another, treat it, and the narrator, with the utmost 
possible indifference, until you hear the story of the other party; 
this only is just, and wise, and kind. 



RULES FOR THE SICK ROOM. 

Never place yourself between the patient and the fire, for 
there is always a current in that direction from all parts of the 
room, hence the effluvia from the sick man passes by, and is 
breathed by you. 

Never swallow the saliva, nor eat or drink anything in a 
sick room. 

Do not go where the sick are while in a perspiration nor un- 
der any circumstances of exhaustion. 

In your visits to the sick, in pity, be brief. 



Weak Eyes.— Wisdom of the Wicked. 203 

In watching with sick people, eat a regular meal before you 
go into the room, and repeat at intervals of not over four hours, 
this keeps the stomach in a state of excitement, which repels 
infection. 

Speak kindly, cheerfully, encouragingly to the sick 

In waiting upon them study the happy mean in anticipating 
their wants, without being annoyingly officious. 

Do not stare at a sick man, nor show a surprised countenance, 
and speak softly, with distinctness. 



WEAK EYES. 

Some persons are unable to read much, because there is a 
constant effort to clear away something by winking the eyes, 
at other times they water, and thus interfere with their useful 
employment. Under such circumstances, do not hurry off to 
an Oculist, nor go to poulticing your eyes, nor use any of the 
hundred and one cures, which reckless and presumptuous 
ignorance will advise with wonderful volubility and confidence. 
In many instances, the difficulty may be controlled by darken- 
ing the room, letting only a small amount of light fall upon 
the page or sewing, just enough to enable you to see distinctly 
without straining. Let the light come in rather from behind, 
and to one side. 

The habit of reading and sewing by artificial light is ruinous 
to many eyes, and those who persist in it will bitterly regret 
it in after years. 



WISDOM OF THE WICKED. 

Passing down Broadway the other day, we noticed two signs, 
and significant they were. They were signs that liquor drink- 
ing was not politic, and that the venders of it are on the look- 
out for means of sustaining themselves by devices creditable at 
once to their ingenuity and observation. 

One of these signs was, " The Office" — the other " The Li- 
brary." Does not the reader see the tact of the thing? It 
would be too vulgar to say, " Let's go and take a drink," or 
"walk over to the bar-room," which we suppose is a contrac- 



204 HalVs Journal of Health. 

tion of Barrel Room. Bat " Will you walk over to the I Office?' " 
"Let's go to the Library." 

Ah me ! how much better it would be for humanity if the 
children of the light were as wise in their generation as the 
children of this world, and. would study as hard all the little 
ways of luring men to virtue, which the wicked do in luring 
them to death. 



VARIETIES. 

" Died, Cornelius Bogart, at his residence, 126 Bleecker- 
street, New York, on Monday, August 11th, 1856, of Dysentery, 
having passed four score years. It is said that he left his fa- 
mily well provided for, and that, until his fatal illness, he had 
never known a day's sickness. He was always a hale, hearty 
man, and continued in the practice of his profession (Law) un- 
til the last week of his life." 

This is an instructive narrative, showing that a man may 
live to a good old age, in a large city ; may enjoy vigorous and 
uninterrupted health until the day of his death, and may secure 
a steady, honorable prosperity. Why should not this be the 
rule, instead of the rare exception ? 

The Fly Plague. — Cover the openings of unclosed windows 
and doors with a net made of white thread, the meshes being 
about an inch in diameter, but the light must enter the room 
from one side only. This was made known by Spence twenty 
years ago. This keeps outsiders out; if you want to persecute 
them further, a Chinese Linden, or Lime tree before your door 
will poison a peck daily. If both these are impracticable, keep 
every room in your house, dining room, kitchen and all, clean, 
dry and darkened. Flies have a perfect antipathy against clean 
houses. Flies revel in filth, the world over. 

Eggs are good for invalids sometimes, and always for 
healthy people. A tea spoonful of Cayenne Pepper given to a 
dozen hens, with their food, every other day, winter and sum- 
mer, will nearly double the daily yield of eggs. This same 
Capsicum, at meals, is far better for the human stomach than 
brandy, better for the debilitated than any "fo/uc," drops or 
bitters, ever swallowed. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SOOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS, PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] OCTOBER, 1856. [NO. X. 



THE NATURE OF CONSUMPTION. 

If a green bush is pulled up by the roots, and these roots are 
cut off close to the body of the bush, a good general idea may 
be had of the " Air Passages," if this bush is turned upside 
down. The end of the bush next the ground represents the 
part of the throat where the voice organs are, the body of the 
bush represents the windpipe, the branches of the bush repre- 
sent the bronchial tubes, the leaves of the bush represent the 
lungs themselves ; and as the leaves cover the branches from 
sight, so the lungs, which are nothing more than little bladders 
distended with air, hide the bronchial tubes. Here then are 
four distinct parts of a great apparatus, each different in locality, 
and each locality the subject of a distinct disease, requiring dif- 
ferent remedies and a different treatment. Liquid guano de- 
stroys the leaf, but gives life to the roots. Water does but lit- 
tle good if thrown over a tree, but saves it from dying if thrown 
on the ground about it. So what would benefit one part of the 
air-passages, might be wholly unavailing if applied to another 
part. What would cure a disease of the windpipe, might de- 
stroy the lungs, or be perfectly useless. Thus showing how 
important it is to know certainly what the disease is, and where 
it is located, in reference to the great fountain of life, the breath- 
ing apparatus. 

In the book called " Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases" 8th 
edition, these parallels are carried out minutely. Here it is 
sufficient to say, that when the disease is located at the voice 
organs, it is called Throat-Ail or chronic laryngitis. The com- 
mon and well-known name of Croup is an affection of the wind- 
pipe. Bronchitis belongs to the branches of the windpipe; 



206 HalVs Journal of Health. 

while consumption is a disease of the lungs themselves, destroy- 
ing the little air bladders to which reference has been already 
made. Perhaps a diagram may illustrate more plainly. 

Boot, Yoice Organs, Throat- Ail. 

Body, Windpipe, Croup. 

Branches, Air Tubes, Bronchitis. 

Leaves, Lungs, Consumption. 

Throat- Ail gives a change of voice. 

Croup gives difficult breathing. 

Bronchitis gives a stuffed-up feeling. 

Consumption gives steady emaciation. 

Thus it is seen that throat-ail, or chronic laryngitis, is a dis- 
ease at the top of the windpipe, where the voice organs are, its 
distinguishing feature being some change of the voice. Occa- 
sional additional feelings and symptoms are a huskiness of 
speech ; sometimes the patient can only speak in the slightest 
whisper. Conversation is attended with an effort. Sometimes 
there is a painful feeling about the " swallow," a hurting sensa- 
tion. At other times there is a pricking in the throat. Now 
and then these sensations extend up along the side of the neck 
towards the ear. An entire indisposition to talk is not unusual, 
for it requires an effort, or may excite cough. In almost all 
cases there is an everlasting disposition to heck and hem and 
clear the throat, present sometimes even in the sleep. 

A gentleman applied to us in eighteen hundred and forty- 
three in the last stages of simple, uncomplicated throat-ail ; he 
could swallow no food ; even liquids returned by the nose ; the 
pain was terrible. He starved to death. 

Croup is so common a disease among children that it requires 
no description here ; it affects the windpipe. As it attacks sud- 
denly, most often in the night, and as an hour's time may be 
all the difference between life and death, it is proper to state 
the most reliable course to be pursued until a physician can be 
obtained. 

1st. Keep the feet warm by having a jug of hot water kept 
against them ; let them also be well wrapped up in woolen flan- 
nel. 

2nd. Have a bucket of water almost as hot as the hand can 
bear. Have two pieces of woolen flannel of several thick- 
nesses, one being on the throat while the other is in the hot 



Bronchitis Described. 207 

water, renew every two or three minutes, until relief is given or 
the physician arrives. The water in the bucket must be kept 
hot by the constant addition of boiling water. 

Bronchitis is a disease of the branches of the windpipe, which 
are the tubes, conveying the air from the windpipe to the lungs 
themselves. The distinguishing feature of Bronchitis, as above 
stated, is a stuffed up feeling. The eyes and nose Water very 
much. There is a sensation of oppression. In fact, Bronchitis 
is a common cold, lasting for many days. But custom has given 
the name of " Bronchitis" to the symptoms of a common cold 
when they have become permanent. Properly speaking, this 
is chronic bronchitis, for shortness called " bronchitis. ," The reader 
will do well to remember that "bronchitis," that puzzling name, 
that mysterious, that fondly hugged designation, pronounced so 
often, so glibly and familiarly by the deluded consumptive, is a 
common cold protracted. And as in a common cold the cough 
is not the first symptom, not appearing sometimes for a day or 
two, and then becomes the main feature : so the first symptoms 
of bronchitis are as above stated, but they end in a cough, 
which soon becomes the all-absorbing symptom, tearing and 
racking the lungs day and night, with scarcely any inter- 
mission sometimes, and in this, is strikingly different from con- 
sumption, for its cough is mainly at night and in the morning. 

While, then, throat-ail is an affection of the voice-making 
organs, and croup is located in * the windpipe, and bronchitis 
belongs to the air-tubes, which come out from the windpipe as 
the branches of a tree come out from its body, diverging wide- 
ly ; so consumption is a disease which attacks the lungs them- 
selves, answering to the leaves of the tree, the lungs being at 
the extreme points of the air-tubes, as leaves are at the ex- 
tremities of the branches of a tree. 

But it is of consumption that these pages mainly speak. No 
doubt some degree of minuteness will be acceptable to the great 
mass of readers. 

Imagine each leaf of a tree to be a small bladder or air-cell, 
filled with air, reaching them through the branches which draw 
their supply from what passes along the windpipe derived from 
without. These air-cells are of various sizes, from a pin head 
to a pea, and thinner than any paper we know of. All over 
these air-cells, like a vine on a wall, there are branches of blood- 



208 HalVs Journal of Health. 

vessels, bringing the blood directly from the heart. These blood- 
vessels must necessarily be very minute, and to pass along them 
with any degree of facility the blood must necessarily be very 
pure, that is, it must not be thick, must not have in it foreign 
matter, sediments, the wastes of the system, its impurities. 
Mush will not readily flow through a hose-pipe. If water was 
so filled with mud as to have the consistency of stirabout, all 
the efforts of our gallant firemen would be in vain. This idea 
is of such vital importance, theoretically and practically, that 
the reader is earnestly desired, before " he proceeds farther, to 
master it fully. 

Of not less importance is it to remember a familiar fact that 
if a hose-pipe lays in a direct line, the water passes along with 
great ease and power, but if the hose are laid crooked and an- 
gular, even the purest water moves slowly. 

If you take a common bladder, fully distended with air and 
draw straight lines from its neck to the bottom, those lines will 
become very crooked, if a great portion of the air be allowed 
to escape. 

In health, the lungs are fully distended. The blood vessels 
are, comparatively speaking, in a direct line. The blood itself 
is pure, and from both causes it courses along the channels of 
life with rapidity and ease. 

The first foundations of consumption are laid in the want of 
free breathing ; the consequence, instantaneous and inevitable 
is, that the little blood-vessels stretching along a distended air- 
cell become tortuous, winding, doubling, thus retarding the flow 
of blood, and retardation is death. The moment the life-blood 
stagnates, that moment it begins to die, and in approaching ac- 
tual stagnation it becomes corrupt, impure, thick. But more 
blood coming in from behind, the pressure becomes greater, the 
sides of the blood-vessels become distended and at last begin to 
yield, and there is an oozing through of the more liquid por- 
tions of the blood in the shape of distinct atoms or drops, 
which as they ooze, become hard, as the gum does from a 
puncture of the bark of some tree ; this oozed blood-particle, 
hardened, is the hateful Tubercle, the seed of consumption 
and death. 

An atom ever so small takes up room, and millions of them 
amount to a great deal, hence the room, in the air-cells, already 



Spitting Blood, 209 

diminished by the want of full breathing, and further by the 
detention of the blood in the tortuous blood-channels, is still 
farther taken up by the hard tubercles, so that from the three 
causes, there is very little room for any air at all; thus it is that 
shortness of breath is never absent in any case of consumption. 
In fact, it is an early symptom, and comes on by slow degrees, so 
slow as to be imperceptible ; it comes on months before any cough 
is noticed. 

But another result springs from the increased diminution of 
room in the lungs, caused by tubercles of all sizes from a white 
mustard seed upwards ; they help to intercept the flow of blood 
along the veins and arteries, and the pressure from behind still 
continuing, the blood-vessels cannot bear the strain, and burst, 
pouring out the blood into the lungs, that is, bleeding of the 
lungs, spitting of blood, the forerunner of death. 

Spitting blood is present in perhaps two-thirds of all who die 
of consumption. 

"When blood appears as a mere speck or drop or streak in the 
saliva, it is not a symptom worthy of notice. In any other 
form, it is the knell of death in men. In women, the mere spit- 
ting of blood, if during the periods, is no critical symptom ; 
does not indicate the presence of tubercles necessarily. In men, 
it does. That is, when the blood is mixed up with the saliva, 
or comes clear, from half a teaspoonful at a time to a quart, 
tubercles are largely present, and in about two years the man 
will die, "unless this symptom is removed. 

Spitting of blood relieves the over fullness of the lungs, and 
diminishes cough remarkably, sometimes. Thus it is that bring- 
ing up a mouthful or two at a time, at intervals, is a relief, and 
may protract life for several years longer than would have been 
the case had it not been a symptom. Women losing blood 
naturally and periodically, thus protract the disease indefinitely. 

We have recorded the birth of tubercles as founded in a want 
of sufficient distension of the air-cells by fall breathing, to give 
the blood-tubes a direct line of conveyance. 

But it is important to observe that precisely the same result 
will follow, if the blood becomes thick, mush-like. The blood- 
tubes may be ever so straight, yet if the blood be thick with 
impurities or from being of an imperfect material, the blood 
vessels will, if but moderately distended, allow the oozing 



210 HalVs Journal of Health. 

through of its thinner particles, and give rise to tubercle. If the 
distention is intensified, then they burst their sides, and there 
is Haemorrhage of the Lungs. In plain English, spitting of blood. 

Thus we have come to two great important practical facts: 

The want of full breathing gives birth to tubercle. 

The want of pure blood gives birth to tubercle. 

And here we have the two universal causes of Consumption : 
Imperfect Breathing. Impure Blood. 

Surely it will not be difficult to remember these two things. 
We thus can plainly see how it is that persons who sit a great 
deal become consumptive ; and any one may apply it to himself 
in the various occupations of life, without any further specifica- 
tions as to this branch of the causes of Consumption. 

More time will be spent in considering the other great branch 
of causes, Impure Blood, because it is not generally understood 
what are the more general causes of impure blood, and they 
ought to be generally known. 

The heart has two suits of rooms, one filled with impure 
blood, going to the lungs to be purified ; the other containing 
the purest blood of the body, which having undergone purifica- 
tion and perfection in the lungs, has been returned to this other 
side of the heart, to be propelled therefrom to the most distant 
portions of the human frame, imparting in its progress, renova- 
tion, restoration and life. The right side of the heart contains 
the impure, imperfect blood, while the pure blood is found in 
the left. But it cannot get from the right side into the left, 
without passing through an out- house, the Lungs, where the 
purifying process is carried on ; and how? 

We have seen that the blood is in the little branches of blood- 
vessels spread like a vine on the walls of the air-cells, the 
lungs, distended by air. Now, the blood does not come in ac- 
tual contact with the air, the membrane of these minute vessels, 
thinner than the thinnest paper, manufactured only in Heaven, 
by omnipotent skill for the express purpose, is between the air 
and the blood. But a most wonderful process goes on here ; 
there is a passage of substances through these membranes, the 
life of the air, the oxygen, as we say, passes out of the air-cell 
into the blood in the blood-vessels, and the impurities, the 
death of the blood passes from the blood-vessel into the air- 
cell, and in a moment the dead blood is made alive, and the air 



Necessity of Pure Air. 211 

so pure from without but a moment before, is now deadly. Sc 
the death of the blood and the life of the air pass through 
these membranes, as light passes through glass or as electricity 
along the wires. Thus the Lungs are the great 'Change of life 
— the market place where Vitality and Death change their 
wares, the air being the nobler of the two, for while it takes death 
from the blood, it gives its own life therefor, the savior of phys- 
ical humanity. 

Let the most careless reader note and feel here, how impos- 
sible it is for the blood to be purified unless he breathes abun- 
dant pure air. The importance of breathing it constantly is 
strikingly exhibited in the established fact, that every ounce 
of blood of the whole body is thus aired every two and a half 
minutes of our existence. Thus the breathing of a pure air for 
so short a time as two and a half minutes imparts purification 
and refreshment to the whole human frame. This explains the 
instantaneousness with which persons are revived when taken, 
into the air after confinement to a close room or crowded apart- 
ment for some time. 

Thus it is, that after writing, or reading, or sewing, in one 
position for a long time, and the whole body feels tired, w r e get 
up, stretch the body, draw a full deep breath and walk across 
the room a few times, there is a feeling of rest and refresh- 
ment comes over us which is most agreeable. Why ? Because 
the full breath distends the air-cells, straightens the blood ves- 
sels, the blood passes onward, presenting itself as it passes, to 
the life giving influences of the air in the freshly and fully 
distended air vessels. What madness it is, what deliberate 
suicide, to repress these yearnings of our instincts for the life- 
giving agencies which a beneficent Providence has thrown 
around us with such bounteous profusion : the Pure Air of 
Heaven ! 

But how does the blood become thus impure at the right 
side of the heart, before it goes for renovation to the lungs? 
There are two sources of impurity. A barrel of the purest 
water will be sadly defiled, if taken to the attic, and every floor 
in the house is washed with it, down to the cellar. The blood 
starts from the lungs pure and clean, it goes through the whole 
frame, washing out as it goes along, all the particles of our body 
which have died since the last visit ; for we are always dyings 



212 HalVs Journal of Health. 

reader ! Particles which have subserved their uses, and hav- 
ing answered the great end of their creation, must be swept 
away as the cinders from the grate or the ashes from the 
hearth. Thus the blood, so pure but two and a half minutes 
before, is now loaded with offal, and is deposited in the heart, 
the great Clearing House of the body. So this body of ours is 
swept out, is washed clean every two minutes and a half of our 
existence. Like a magnificent steam engine requiring the con- 
stant attendance of the engineer, who if he does his duty, is 
all the time cleaning and oiling, so as to keep it in perfect 
working order, so is our body. 

Does not the reader see, then, that not only is the want of 
full breathing a cause of impure blood, but that if the air he 
breathes is not pure when first breathed, it can no more unload 
the blood of its impurities as perfectly as it ought to have been 
done, than dirty water can wash a garment clean ? You, who 
habitually breathe an impure, that is, confined air, for all con- 
fined air is impure, are a moral suicide. Hurry then, from 
your bed-chamber the instant of rising ; hoist the windows of 
your sitting apartments, fling wide open your doors, divers 
times daily, even in the coldest weathers, and let out the death, 
instead of drawing it into your own system, to fester, and cor- 
rupt and rot you. 

The other great cause of blood impurity at the right side of 
the heart, is the following: 

We eat to live. What we eat is turned into blood, the ob- 
ject of that blood is two-fold. First, to keep us warm. Se- 
cond, to repair the wastes of the system. Washing these wastes 
away in the manner we have named, is a matter of secondary 
importance, as to the blood ; it is rather an incidental work. 
To keep us warm and to repair, these are First Things. 

The process of converting food into blood is as follows : 

After entering the stomach, it is converted into a sweetish 
whitish fluid in about two hours, when it is gradually passed 
out of the stomach along the intestines down to the vent of the 
system, receiving as it passes out of the stomach, drop by drop, 
the bile from the liver. In about four hours after eating an 
ordinary meal the stomach is empty, and in another hour or 
two we begin to get hungry. Opening into the stomach and all 
along the intestines, there are multitudes of open-mouthed tubes 



How Blood is Purified. 213 

whose office it is to absorb, or withdraw what is real nutri- 
ment, from the passing mass of food, its essence. Some of it is 
ready to be withdrawn while in the stomach, other portions 
only become ready at various points along the intestinal pas- 
sages, some only at the end. Thus it is that some elements of 
food are not converted into nutriment until long after having 
passed out of the stomach. These diminutive tubes convey 
their contents towards the great central tube of the system, 
just as the various springs, rivulets, creeks, &c, of any of our 
great rivers, flow together until all are united in one magnifi- 
cent stream, which itself is finally emptied into the boundless 
sea. The heart is the great receiving sea of the myriads of nutri- 
ment-bearing channels of the human system. This nutrimental 
material enters the heart at the same time that another great 
river pours its contents into it ; that river of blood which 
started from the heart a very few minutes before, and having 
washed out the body, delivers the defiled mass into the heart 
again to be renovated, refined, vivified. So that at any mo- 
ment, the right side of the heart is industriously receiving two 
different kinds of fluid, the washings out of the body, and the 
imperfect nutrient material for blood, just as the Mississippi 
and Missouri pour very different waters together at their uniting 
point, soon mingling, however, into one homogeneous stream. 
The impure blood and the nutrient material soon coalesce, com- 
mingle and enter the lungs for purification, thoroughly mixed 
together. There meeting with the air, the nutrient fluid is in an 
instant converted into pure blood, and in the same instant of 
time, are the washings of the system converted into blood equally 
pure, by having had all its impurities abstracted at a breath. 
Thus we see, that in reality, our food does not become living, 
actual blood, until it has entered the lungs and been exposed to 
the life-giving influences of the air therein ; hence we see that 
if air has not its life, that is its purity, it is utterly impossible for 
the food we have eaten to receive that finishing stroke which 
makes it real, perfect blood. And if not perfect, the system is 
imperfectly fed, and debility and disease are inevitable. 

After the air in the lungs has given the finishing stroke, which 
makes pure and perfect blood out of the heterogeneous mass 
before described, it is sent back to the great receiving reservoir 
of the system, the left side of the heart, and is sent by thousands 



214 HalVs Journal of Health. 

of distributing pipes, or blood vessels, to every fibre of the hu- 
man frame, to be made into flesh, and bone, and joint, and liga- 
ment, wherever renovation is needed. And how minutely 
grand the process. The instant the air meets the impure and 
imperfect fluid mass in the lungs, it is converted into life, as 
instantaneous as chrystalization, as quick as the very lightning. 
This life consists in forming a little boat or cell, like a Nautilus 
on the sea ; in this boat is an atom of life-giving life, which is 
freighted along the current of the blood, until it arrives at its 
destined port ; the instant of its striking, the vessel is broken, 
the living atom, as instantaneously as the needle to the arma- 
ture, bounds to its new home and is a part of the living man, 
in its turn to die and be washed away to make place for others. 
How wonderful is our life ! How grandly mysterious, and 
how beautifully wise, is He who made it. 

The reader has no doubt felt long ago in this narration how 
doubly essential to human health is the pure air of heaven, for 
it alone can purify the blood ; it only can make blood out of 
the nutriment of the system. How infinitely essential, how glo- 
riously useful is pure air and A plenty of it, in making the 
human frame all that it ought to be — all that it was intended 
to be. 

But if the food be imperfect, its nutritive essence must be im- 
perfect, and no air, however pure in quality, or in quantity 
large, can make a perfect blood out of it. We thus arrive at a 
sweeping general fact, that in order to have a perfect life-giving 
blood under the most favorable circumstances, the food we eat 
must be perfect. 

The vegetables we cook must be fresh and perfect of their 
kind. The meats we consume must be the untainted meat of 
healthy animals. And both vegetables and meats should be 
properly and well cooked, and no more. 

But to return to the new-born tubercle. How does it destroy 
the lungs? In going into an apple orchard, some trees appear 
to be well filled with fruit, equally distributed. Other trees 
have bunches of apples in patches, and by reason of varied ex- 
posure to the sun, we observe apples ripened in one spot, ripen- 
ing in another, and quite green in a third. So it is, if we could 
see the lungs of people. In some, tubercles are thickly and 
equally distributed over the lungs. In others they are scat- 



How Tubercles Destroy. 215 

tered about, a patch here, another there, a third yonder. A 
patch ripening in the first place; just beginning to turn in the 
second; while in the third, they are young and hard, and may 
never be different. A blackberry patch is a good and useful 
illustration of this point. It is the key which unlocks all the 
mysteries of quackery. There is a truth here, which every con- 
sumptive should understand, for there is more curative virtue 
in it, than in all medicine. It is wonderful how it has been lost 
sight of professionally. It is amazing how people won't see it. 
And the honest physician remains but a Cassandra still — a pro- 
phet, whose teachings, truth as they are, are wholly disregarded. 
But more of this in another place. 

As an apple grows, it takes up more room, and soon touches 
its neighbor. Tubercles increase, meet, soften, and rot away 
together, eating up the lungs as they go. That is consumption. 
But what makes them grow, and what makes them soften and 
decay away together ? The nascent crude tubercle may remain 
stationary for half a century ; may be inappreciably hurtful ; 
may and does remain innocuous for a life-time ; may be as 
harmless to the system as powder is harmless, if fire is kept 
away. In proof of this a fact is stated — a fact of every-day oc- 
currence in the dissecting-room. Out of fifty people, dead of 
other diseases than consumption, and being over forty years of 
age, scarcely one will be found who has not more or less tuber- 
cles in the lungs. This important fact is conclusive as to one 
interesting point : tubercles do not necessarily destroy life, as 
they may lay dormant for a life-time. 

But what causes the tubercles to enlarge, soften, and rot the 
lungs away ? Instead of writing down a long list of specifica- 
tions, some of which might be omitted and many forgotten, it 
is of prime importance to notice one effect, instead of a hundred 
different causes. 

Tubercles enlarge and are softened by debility of body, long 
protracted. Whatever then has a debilitating effect on the 
body, whether of a mental, moral, or physical nature, is the 
match which fires the magazine of life and burns it to ashes. 
Whatever keeps the body in a debilitated condition for weeks 
together, is capable of softening tubercles. If there be a great 
many tubercles of about the same age, as it were, any debilitat- 
ing cause, acting for a comparatively short time, commences the 



216 HaWs Journal of Health. 

decay, which, from the number of tubercles, soon becomes gen- 
eral, and the constitution fails rapidly. This is rapid consump- 
tion. It is like a spark applied to a wooden tenement which 
has been standing for half a century — every inch of wood is a 
tinder-box. 

The evidence of softening tubercle is the spitting up of mouth- 
fuls of yellow matter, which falls lumpily or heavily on the 
floor, with uneven edges, just as if one had been chewing a rag 
or piece of paper somewhat soft, and thrown it on the floor. 
If spit in water it sinks rapidly to the bottom, or if spit into a 
cup where there is but a spoonful or two of water, and the cup 
is tilted, the contents run rapidly from side to side. When an 
ulcer breaks or the lungs are decaying rapidly, the matter ex- 
pectorated is not unlike thick rich cream. 

A truth is about being stated, whose importance is such, that 
the whole civilized world should keep it in remembrance. As 
in a tree there may be a single cluster of apples, so in the lungs 
there may be but a single cluster of tubercles, and the remain- 
der of the lungs may be perfectly sound. Or there may be two 
clusters or a dozen; each cluster may be a large or a small one ; 
or they may be of various sizes. The symptoms of a ripening 
cluster are, first, a slight unfrequent cough ; then more decided, 
still dry ; next a little mucus comes ; soon a large and free ex- 
pectoration of yellowish matter is observed. If the cluster be 
large, this yellow matter is not brought away fast enough, and 
it is reabsorbed into the system. This reabsorption — this ming- 
ling of the matter of decayed lungs with the blood again — gives 
fever, hectic, night-sweats. As soon as the decayed matter of 
tubercle is removed, the patient begins to get better; the cough 
has disappeared in great part, if not wholly, the appetite im- 
proves, strength returns, flesh is gained, and the man may live 
half a century. 

Whatever was done remedially at the time when the matter 
was about got rid of, gets the credit of having cured a man in 
the very last stages of consumption. The ignorant administra- 
tor and the more happy recipient, are willing enough to give 
the remedy the credit, and with all due formality a magistrate 
is sought, the declaration written, the hat pulled off, the bible 
procured, the hand held up, the head bowed, the deponent there 
affirming that 



Important Fact. 217 

11 1, John Lubberlie, was supposed to be in the last stage of 
consumption in the year 'forty-eight, suffering at the same time 
under a severe attack of rheumatism, liver complaint, dropsy, 
gravel, and cholera morbus. Simultaneously, also, I took the 
yellow fever, bilious colic, and small pox ; the latter assuming 
the chronic form of scrofula, completely destroying my lungs, 
liver, spinal marrow, nervous system, and the entire contents 
of my phrenology. I finally got so low that I did not know 
my brother-in-law when he came to borrow money. For three 
months I swallowed nothing but twenty packages of Kunkel- 
hausen's pills, which effected an immediate cure in three weeks. 

" My uncle, Bacchus Pottinger, was afflicted so long with the 
gout that his life became a burden to him. He took only four 
boxes of said pills and life was a burden to him no longer. 
Further deponent saith not. 

"Sworn and subscribed to, &c, &c." 

Or if the patient happened at that critical time to go to the 
South, or North, or do any extraordinary thing, or any silly 
thing, such as drinking mule's milk, or goat's cream, or tar 
water, or brandy smash ; if he had slept in a pig-pen, or cow- 
house, or inhaled hot water, t>r cold alcohol, or any thing else, 
the thing last done, has the credit of cure ; and thus it is, that 
although the very next person who " tried " the same remedy 
died under it, the report has gone abroad, and like the cork 
leg, couldn't stop itself, and is going yet. Thus the world is 
full of cures, and any man you meet can deliver at sight half a 
dozen, any one of which cured a friend of his who was a great 
deal worse than you are. But to the crushing disappointment 
of multitudes, the experience is sadly uniform that " whatever 
it may have done for others, it has not availed for me." 

If there be two or more patches of these tubercles, another 
softens, as the causes of softening are applied, and the same rou- 
tine is gone through, perhaps until the dozenth time, which 
being the last, he may live on, to die many years after, of some 
totally different disease ; or if the constitution be not strong, 
the man succumbs under these repeated attacks, and passes 
away. 

The practical uses to be made of this narration of undoubted 
facts are various and important: first, it is useless to take any 
thing without the advice of a regular physician, who must be 



218 HalVs Journal of Health. 

acquainted with every constituent of the remedy, so as to know 
in what direction its curative agencies tend ; second, do nothing 
which common sense, joined with professional science, does not 
indicate as rational and wise. 

The reason of these inferences is, the wide difference between 
an antecedence and subsequence and cause and effect. It is 
clearly irrational to adopt any remedy, simply because it was 
applied and restoration followed its application. The scientific 
practitioner takes no such grounds. It is not until after re- 
peated experiments, made under every variety of circum- 
stances, extending through months, and. seasons, and years, 
giving a uniform result, that he lays hold of any remedy, 
but once laid hold of, he never rejects it for a single nor for a 
dozenth failure. Such is the difference between scientific 
medicine and quackery, between intellect and ignorance. It 
is only after many a long year's trial, that the skilful practi- 
tioner can be brought to say of any remedy, "I gave this, and 
it cured him." The charlatan speaks thus after the first trial, 
his ignorance sustaining his effrontery. 

Hope is the highest remedy of the soul, the most efficient for 
the body. This Cluster Doctrine* is a true groundwork for it, 
in consumptive disease. Surely it is Nature's remedy, for who 
among a thousand does not hope to the end, in consumption? 
The mischief lies in not making that hopefulness the ground of 
practical action. The consumptive hopes but does nothing, and 
thus it is that by hope he lives and dies. 

Some of the best medical minds in the world, men who have 
spent a quarter of a century in examining the lungs of the 
dead, state to us this important, every day fact, that few people 
die, after forty, who have not in the lungs, the signs of having 
the consumption, without ever having had the slightest suspi- 
cion of the existence of the disease, and who finally died of 
maladies having no approximation towards it in nature. These 
signs, are scars of various lengths, little excavations, or cavities 
or puckerings of various sizes ; all very small it is true, but 
eitill showing the great fact, that decay once existed there, and 
that the lungs may perfectly heal after having been divided or 
broken, or pierced, as numerous cases bear witness in the per- 
fect recovery of men who have been stabbed in the breast, or 
shot through the lungs. 



Important Advice. 219 

The great curative principle, to which the reader's attention 
is specially solicited, is this : In any attack of consumption, or 
its repetition, the patient should hope it was the last cluster 
to soften, and that if he can only weather this storm, it may 
be the last, and life and happiness may be his, for long years 
to come. Too much attention can scarcely be paid to this 
idea, and we hope every invalid reader will sleep on it nightly, 
and make it the ground of active, strenuous effort for health, 
every succeeding day, even until life's close, for the truly brave 
die striving. This being their motto, they do, in these dis- 
eases often, very often, outlive the prognostications of ignorance 
and presumption, for it is only such who can peril a prophecy 
of recovery or death ; they speak firmly, where the physician 
gives opinions with trembling on the tongue. 

Another practical fact, it is difficult to refrain from mention- 
ing here : 

On the partial or complete recovery from an attack of con- 
sumption, do not, as you value life, intermit a single possible 
effort for maintaining the highest possible degree of health ; 
keep it up, until a habit of health is established, and even then, 
until the close of life, make it your study to live rationally, ap* 
portioning your eating to your exercise, as true wisdom dictates. 

The symptoms of consumption have been described in a gen- 
eral manner. It is purposed under this head to speak of the 
far-off symptoms, which, if promptly treated, may eventuate in 
cure, with as much certainty as belongs to ordinary diseases. It 
is scarcely to be hoped that any attention will be paid to these, 
yet a book on this subject could not have claim to complete- 
ness of history without discoursing something on this head. 
It is certainly desirable, for it is highly practical, capable as it 
is, of making Consumption of the Lungs a manageable disease. 
But it is sadly feared, that it is to be the consummation of future 
centuries. 

It is with consumption as it is with cholera, easily manageable 
in its first stages ; in its last, utterly incurable. All men looked 
with horror on the Asiatic curse when it first visited our shores. 
When it was first described as sweeping the world with death, 
it was represented to be as instantaneous as a plague or palsy, 
and without one single warning note, hurrying multitudes to 
the grave ; and yet on more minute and scientific inquiry, it is 



220 HalVs Journal of Health. 

an established fact, that cholera, \yhen attended to, in its pre* 
monitory stages, is an easily manageable disease, and is now 
shorn of half its horrors. 

So of consumption, if we took note of its far off symptoms, 
and would then enter upon a course of life wisely energetic, it 
becomes one of the most manageable of diseases. The import- 
ant practical inquiry then arises, what are the earliest and most 
invariable symptoms of common consumption of the lungs? 

Cough is not an early symptom of consumption, necessarily, 
for there are many cases on record, in which cough was not an 
observed symptom, until within two or three weeks of death, 
and on examination, the lungs presented a diseased mass, bur- 
rowed with cavities. 

Spitting blood is not an early symptom of consumption, neces- 
sarily, for about one- third of those who die of that disease, do 
not spit blood at all. 

Among the very earliest symptoms of forming consumption, 
are combinations of the following ; not all, perhaps, observable 
in any one case: A quicker pulse than common, a paler face, 
easily chilled after eating, more readily put out of breath than 
common, less fullness of flesh than usual at the corresponding 
season of the year, an unusual feeling of unrest on getting up 
in the morning, a greater tendency to coldness of the hands and 
feet, every now and then a day passing without any action of 
the bowels, with a very bad taste in the mouth when first wak- 
ing up in the morning ; a cold is easily taken, is more frequent, 
and lasts longer and longer, until one cold runs into another, 
making the confirmed cough, so ominous of approaching ill. 

It will be seen at a single glance, from these symptoms, that 
they all indicate one thing, and that one thing is at the bottom 
of every case of consumption — a want of vitality * that is, a want 
of general vigor of system, of constitution. 

But of all the things named, it will be more practical to se- 
lect the two which are seldom, if ever absent, in any of the above 
combinations which result in consumption; hence it is import 
ant to be at some pains in stating them in their bearings. A 
quick pulse and a short breath pervade the disease from its ear- 
liest beginnings, during its entire progress, and down to its fatal 
end. Multitudes of lives might be saved yearly, if these two 
symptoms were promptly and wisely attended to. The im- 



The Pulse Test. 221 

portance of so doing, no language can adequately portray, and 
if it did, the people would not attend to it, with only here and 
there an exception. But a great truth is of small seed and of 
slow growth ; yet that growth is certain, and its spread uncon- 
trollable — the more so, as education becomes more general. 

The pulse beats about sixty -eight times in every minute of 
healthful adult life. The range is from sixty-six to seventy- 
two. When it is below sixty-six, there is something at fault ; 
when it is over seventy-two, during all the hours of the twenty- 
four, there is always disease ; and if it continues so for weeks 
and months, there is the strongest ground for apprehension that 
consumption is approaching. 

There are intelligent men in the profession who will not coin- 
cide with this statement, but it will be because they have not 
had the opportunities of observation. 

Whatever may be said of auscultation, of plessimetry, of 
sounding, of expectoration, there is in none of these a guide so 
sure as the condition of the pulse, with the aid of a competent 
interpreter ; more, it is worth, to such an one, all the other 
modes of determination put together. It is said that the phy- 
sicians among some of the Orientals are not allowed to see their 
female patients, the hand only being put out through the bed 
curtain, and by feeling the pulse, prescriptions must be made. 
If the powers of life are being pressed to death, the full, soft, 
slow pulse tells it in an instant ; if active, aad actual destruc- 
tion of organic life is taking place in the body, the inflammatory 
pulse, quick, wiry, angry, spiteful, at once raises the note of 
alarm. Every physician knows how gratefully the pulsation, 
as of a woolen yarn beneath his finger, strikes upon his percep- 
tions, on some urgent call, and how troubled if it gives the 
feeling of a quick vibrating small wire. The multitude of 
shades of difference between these carry with them their varied 
impressions, all highly instructive. In strongly-marked cases, 
however wan the patient may look, however hollow or fierce 
his cough, at first sight, an instantaneous feeling of the pulse is 
sufficient for the conclusion, " You have no consumption." 
But inasmuch as there have been cases of no appreciable activity 
of pulse, and even diminished pulse where consumption existed, 
the wise physician will never pronounce an opinion on any one 
single symptom. In some cases of spinal irritation, for exam- 



222 HalVs Journal of Health. 

pie, there may be a troublesome hacking or hemming, and a 
quick pulse for months and years, without any special disease 
in the lungs. Still, this one broad fact should stand out promi- 
nently as an instructive beacon to all : 

A pulse steadily over eighty beats in a minute, for weeks together, is 
a forerunner of consumption. 

The physician in his kindness or hopefulness may tell you 
that some persons have a high pulse constitutionally, heredita- 
rily, or some other plausible reason may be given for its pres- 
ence in you ; but if you are wise, with a pulse among the eigh- 
ties, you will set it down as consumption begun, and will act 
accordingly. 

Acceleration of the breathing is never absent in any 
case of actual consumption. In the last few weeks of life a few 
steps puts the patient out of breath, even if those steps be over 
a level floor. But long before this there was observed an ina- 
bility to walk fast without considerable discomfort. In fact, a 
slow and measured tread is the symptom which first strikes the 
ordinary observer. The man himself may be scarcely an appa- 
rent invalid, except on close scrutiny. He may be lively in 
conversation, he may eat heartily, may have little or no cough, 
but any effort on your part to induce him to greater bodily ac- 
tivity is instinctively avoided. At a still earlier period one 
thing has been forced upon the attention of the patient: that 
he does not mount a pair of stairs with the same celerity as 
formerly. In days long ago he could take two or three steps 
at a stride, and even feel the better for it when he reached the 
top ; but now, such an effort would make him puff and blow 
inconveniently. At an earlier period still, there is an observa- 
ble feeling of tiredness about the legs and knees on going up 
stairs, a feeling of weakness there, not known in earlier years, 
implying a want of bodily vigor not pertinent to that stage of 
life. 

It is to be hoped that no one will haste away with the im- 
pression that a little feeling of fatigue in going up a pair of 
stairs is a sign of consumption. This book is not written for 
quibbling critics; it is written for the instruction of people of 
sober views, who can look at a subject steadily, willing to be 
informed, but unwilling to run away with either end of the sub- 
ject, or precipitate themselves into the weakness of extremes. 



The Spirometer. 223 

But it is an instructive fact, that if this easiness of fatigue in 
ascents, be conjoined with the quick pulse, and be so for 
months in succession, it is an impressive warning of coming 
consumption, and millions would be saved, if it were heeded. 

A man may be lazy, it may be summer time, or various other 
things may give rise to a transient exhibition of acceleration in 
pulse and breath, or they may arise from the mere habit of se- 
dentariness ; but there is one easy, decisive, infallable method 
of determining whether these symptoms are from transient 
causes, or from an actual change going on in the structure of 
the lungs themselves ; and that is, by measuring the quantity of 
air which the lungs are capable of drawing in, at one deep, 
full, free breath, that is done by the use of an instrument 
often seen in the street, tl The Lung Measurer," or ll Spirometer," 
as Mr. Hutchinson, of London, its inventor, names it. The first 
instrument of the kind ever made in the United States, was 
made for the Author of these pages, in 1847, since which time 
a number of eminent English practitioners have learned to em- 
ploy them, and some few in this country. As a general thing, 
it has not found favor here, as it is expensive, is liable to abuse, 
and to the mass of physicians, the opportunities of making varied 
observations upon it, are not offered. Besides, it requires 
time and patience to classify the phenomena which it presents; 
and unless a man have a considerable practice of that kind, it 
does not pay, either in money or in data for scientific results. 

In the Author's practice, then, the great preponderating indi- 
cations of consumption are, accelerated pulse and breathing ; 
no judicious practitioner will rely wholly on the pulse, or 
any other two or three symptoms, but on the whole set of 
symptoms which any given case presents, together with the 
history of his life, his temperament, his Habits, his hereditary 
tendencies and idiosyncracies, that is, peculiarities, of consti- 
tution. 

The more obvious symptoms of consumption have been 
already sketched in a general way. So few persons recover from 
what is called confirmed consumption, that it was not consid- 
ered profitable to enter into a critical enunciation and descrip- 
tion of all the symptoms, real or imaginary, and in their vari- 
ous stages, degrees and progress ; such a thing would materially 
detract from the practical, utilitarian design, which has been 



224 Hall's Journal of Health, 

ever prominent. There is so little hope of clearing out the Au- 
gean stable of a confirmed consumptive, in any given case, that 
it is considered only worth while to direct attention critically to 
the symptoms and stages which admit of a comparatively speedy 
and permanent arrest or cure. 

The large majority of deaths by consumption, are out of mar- 
ried life, indicating the general fact, that its victims are mainly 
the young, from twenty to thirty. As dying at twenty, or soon 
after, proves the actual existence of the disease in its forming 
stages, while yet in the teens, our hope lies in parental influence 
and intelligence, for then, they can enforce by authority, that 
course of life, most appropriate towards arresting and removing 
the disease. 



LATENT INSANITY 



Kesulttng from a morbid condition of the nervous system, 
superinduced by confinement to close rooms, by eating too 
much, by cherishing secret passions, appetites, propensities, 
whether of revenge, or hatred, or envy, by dwelling on imagi- 
nary slights, inattentions, indifferences and the like, is not a very 
uncommon calamity in general society. It is a very terrible 
social and domestic evil,' making a clean wreck, as it sometimes 
does, of whole families. 

It is a form of Insanity which comes on by the most imper- 
ceptible degrees. The very existence of it is now and then 
hinted at by a half playful, half chiding expression, " Why ! 
you must be crazy." Months pass on, and sometimes years, 
but they bring with them their sure accretions. The symptoms 
become intensified, and decidedly foolish things are done, and 
affection exclaims, " ! he is only trying to be singular."' " She 
affects eccentricity." In a long stretch of years, there is a link 
with the mad house here. 

Sometimes, this malady presents a strong contrast in the cha- 
racter of the individual. He may perform most of the duties 
of social and commercial life with the utmost propriety, and 
with scrupulous exactness, while at the same time, he exhibits 
antipathies and cherishes dislikes and suspicions against the 
closest friends and the nearest relations of life, and yet for years, 



Latent Insanity. 225 

this mad mask may be so adroitly worn, that no tangible sus- 
picion of active disease is entertained, until some terrible trans- 
action reveals the unwelcome truth, in all its horror — He's Mad ! 

There is many an unrecognized maniac loose in society, who, 
in the language of high medical authority, acting under some 
one predominant morbid idea, may bring destruction into a home 
once beautiful and a household once happy. Such a man may 
become a tyrant, a brute, a spendthrift, a suicide, and yet pass 
through life as a rational and healthy man. What we charitably 
call "Eccentricity" is but too often, hidden madness. Such per- 
sons are curious in their ideas of dress, walk singularly and 
use a great variety of odd expressions ; and yet, in other re- 
spects, they exhibit such an acuteness of intellect, such a light- 
ning-like rapidity of perception, as to the proprieties of things, we 
cannot bring ourselves to believe that there is insanity there ; 
and we wait and hope on. But look a little more closely. 
Their temper is furious, utterly uncontrollable. The slightest 
occurrence makes all the difference between a lamb and a lion, 
so of the man ; while in the woman, naturally and in health, 
all that a woman should be, kind, loving, gentle, humane, pity- 
ing and pure, the most trifling causes wake up an ungovernable 
fury, and every thing like feeling, and sentiment and refinement, 
in speech and action, disappears in an instant, and there stands 
before us, an angel ruined I 

By all our love for human happiness therefore, we say to 
every reader, especially to those who have authority over others, 
discourage everything like a love of seclusion in your children. 
Do not leave young people much alone. We doubt much the 
propriety of allowing any member of a family " a room to 
themselves." The children of a household should be taught 
never to lock their doors on the inside, for more reasons than 
one. The feeling should abide on us all, day and night, "you 
are observed." 0, what a vast amount of wrong doing and 
crime, the prevalence of that single idea would prevent! Let 
young girls and boys be made to learn, that every box and 
drawer and letter and book and port folio, must be left accessi- 
ble, always and under all circumstances, to a loving mother's 
eye. 

There is a wise lesson here, of infinite value, for it will save 
many a mother's brain from wreck, if properly heeded. Especial- 



226 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ly do we address ourselves to young wives. Don't pout. Don't 
shut yourself up in a room and cry by the hour for some trifling 
inadvertency or imaginary neglect of your husband. He has 
won you and now has a living to win. He has to deal in the 
rough world, and jostle and be jostled by rough men. He has 
money to pay, and to keep up his credit and his honor, he has 
it to .earn, or having earned it once, he may have to earn it a 
second time by endeavoring to collect it. In these things he 
has daily disappointments, and severer losses. He loves you, and 
in that love, seeks to confine trouble to his own bosom, and 
thus many a time his mind is away from himself, as well as you, 
and any neglect of you, is a necessity, not an intention. But 
feed the feeling ! Take counsel of passion ! and you fan a 
spark, which lights up a disease which, but too often, locks you 
up in an asylum. 



THE FEUITS OF A FALSITY. 

An editorial of a Wall-street Daily, has been extensively pub- 
lished as an " Advertisement," conveying the impression, that 
several of the " editors and proprietors of the New York press" 
were among the " remarkable cures" of consumption, by Medicated 
Inhalation. To make the statement more specific, the family 
names of these persons were given. 

The editor of the " American Medical Gazette" for September, 
declares, as to one of the names mentioned, that the whole state- 
ment was untrue, as the person alluded to, to wit, the editor and 
proprietor of the Commercial Advertiser, had been his own pa- 
tient for many years, had never had consumption, nor had ever 
employed the Inhalationist referred to. 

A person replies to the editor in the form of an " advertise- 
ment," in terms, not appropriate to this Journal, but the pith of 
the statement is, that in the latter part of 1853, he had an attack 
of pleurisy. After medical advice here, he went South, re- 
• mained a month and returned hopeless of a cure, having " a 
racking cough ;" "profuse night sweats;" "very bad expecto- 
ration, streaked with blood;" "losing flesh and no appetite." 
In February, he began the Inhalation treatment, eventually got 
well, and remains so to the present hour. 

Every educated physician will recognize this as a description 



Inhalation. 227 

of the rise, progress, and termination, of a case of common 
pleurisy. And all controversy could easily have been avoided, 
if a plain straightforward statement had been made of the simple 
facts of the case, to the following effect : 

" I, John Smith, formerly a proprietor in the job department 
of the Commercial Advertiser, hereby declare, that in 1853, I 
had an attack of pleurisy, and failing to be cured in two or three 
months, employed Medicated Inhalation, eventually got well, 
and remain so at the end of two years." 

This would have been plain sailing, and would have misled 
no one, as no very important fact was communicated ; for after 
all, it amounted simply to this: 

" I had pleurisy, got well in three or four months, while In- 
haling, and remain so." 

But there is nothing remarkable here. Quite a number of 
persons get well of pleurisy, without doing any thing at all. Mul- 
titudes are cured of pleurisy, annually, all over the globe, by 
the very commonest physicians. We do not exactly see the 
use of publishing the cure of a case of pleurisy. It rather indi- 
cates that the Inhalationists are greedy of a cure of any thing at 
all, by their system. Elated to the very skies, because a man 
got well of pleurisy while inhaling, it being just about the time 
that a " pretty good case of pleurisy" ordinarily gets well of 
itself, especially with the aid of approaching warm weather, as 
in this instance. 

But it is very clear, that the intended effect of the " adver- 
tisement" of this editorial " Affidavy" was to produce an im- 
pression, that a New Yorker, of character and standing, being 
one of the editors and proprietors of the Commercial Advertiser, 
had been cured of consumption, by employing Medicated Inha- 
lation. This was the idea which the veteran editor of the 
Medical Gazette declared to be wholly untrue, and all the parties 
know it to be wholly untrue. 

But as few men can calmly bear being placed in a false po- 
sition, especially, when rightly done, a person, claiming to be 
the brother of one of the editors and proprietors of the Com- 
mercial Advertiser, exclaims: 

"Whereas, it is true, I never was one of the editors of the 
Commercial Advertiser; but my brother is, and although I 
never was one of the proprietors of the Commercial Advertiser, 



228 HaU J s Journal of Health. 

I was once one of the proprietors of its job department. And if I 
never had consumption, I had pleurisy, and got well of it, while 
employing Inhalation — and whereas, I, who am not, nor ever 
have been, one of the editors and proprietors of the New York 
press, but was once one of the proprietors of the job depart- 
ment of one of them, and got well of pleurisy while employing 
Medicated Inhalation — therefore, I am one of the editors and 
proprietors of the New York press, and am a case, (very true,) 
among " the remarkable cures" of consumption, by means of 
Medicated Inhalation." 

Does any true system require machinery like this ? 



Disenfectant. — One pint of the "Liquor of Chloride of 
Zinc" in one pailfull of water, and one pound of Chloride of 
Lime in another pailfull of water. This is perhaps the most 
effective, theoretically and practically, of anything that can be 
used, and when thrown into privy vaults, cesspools, or upon 
decaying matter of any description, will effectually destroy all 
offensive odors. The cost of these substances is thirty-five 
cents. 

We know of a better one than this. Keep every spot of 
your dwelling scrupulously clean and dry, from cellar to garret, 
and from the line fence in the rear to the center of the street in 
front. 



Tooth Wash. — The safest, cheapest, most universally acces- 
sible, and most efficient, is a piece of White Soap, with a mo- 
derately stiff tooth brush, every morning. In addition, imme- 
diately after each meal, use simple tepid water, with a brush 
not so stiff, use it slowly, with a perpendicular twist, so as 
to remove particles of food more thoroughly from between the 
teeth. At the same time, twist the brush horizontally across 
the back part of the tongue. In this way, the smell of the 
food on the breath of a recent meal is at once removed. It is 
a bad plan to defer teeth cleaning from supper until bed time, 
as it only gives the accretions several hours to work their 
mischief. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



QUE LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS : FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH; AND WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] NOVEMBER, 1856. [NO. XL 



Tip; EARLIEST SIGN OF CONSUMPTION. 

A quick pulse and a short breath, continuing for weeks to- 
gether, is the great alarm bell of forming consumption ; if these 
symptoms are attended with a gradual falling off in flesh, in the 
course of months, there is no rational ground for doubt, al- 
though the hack of a cough may never have been heard. Under 
such circumstances, there ought not to be an hour's delay, in 
taking competent medical advice. 

The vast mass of consumptives die, not far from the ages of 
twenty-five ; and this, in connection with another fact, that con- 
sumption is several years in running its course, suggests one of 
the most important practical conclusions yet announced, to wit: 

In the large majority of cases, the seeds of consumption are 
sown between the ages of sixteen and twenty one years, when 
the steadily excited pulse and the easily accelerated breathing, 
may be readily detected by an intelligent and observant parent, 
and should be regarded as the knell of death, if not arrested, 
and yet it is easily, and uniformly done, for the Spirometer 
will demonstrate the early danger, and the educated physician 
will be at no loss to mark out the remedy. 

The quick pulse and short breath go together; rather " easily 
put out of breath" is the more common and appropriate expres- 
sion. Ordinarily, persons breathe once, while the pulse beats 
four times ; this is an approximative average, a general result. 
A person in health breathes seventeen times in a minute, and 
during that time, the pulse numbers sixty eight strokes. A per- 
son decidedly consumptive, breathes from twenty to twenty-four 
times in a minute, the pulse being proportionably rapid. A 
man whose pulse is among the nineties, with a breathing which 



230 HalVs Journal of Health. 

corresponds, lasting for weeks, may with great uniformity be 
pronounced to have unmistaken consumption. And even here, 
the permanent arrest of the disease is quite a probable thing, 
if men could only be induced to act wisely, promptly, and ener- 
getically. But unfortunately such is not the case; nine out of 
ten are led away with the hope that it may be something else, 
that it is only Bronchitis, and this is confirmed in their own 
judgment by two facts, they have no pain in the breast, and 
they triumphantly strike upon it with their whole force, as a 
demonstration of the soundness of the lungs; and this other 
feeling, equally fallacious comes to their aid, the prominent 
trouble is a mere tickling at the bottom of the neck, at the little 
hollow there. They should remember that no Bronchia are 
there, it is the windpipe. Bronchitis is situated in the branches 
of the windpipe, and it begins to divide into branches below 
that spot. That little hollow place is the telegraphic station, as 
well for the distant lungs as the Bronchia. The news comes 
from afar ; that is the point of enunciation only. It is the news 
of mischief in the lungs, that something is there which requires 
removal, which is working harm and may breed death ; and it 
does breed death. That very tickling at the little hollow, ex- 
citing cough for months together, is the forerunner of consump- 
tion in perhaps, at a moderate calculation, four times out of 
five. If a person could be amused at such a serious symptom, 
the physician would be, at the very indifferent, unconcerned air 
and tone and gesture with which the patient often announces 
this symptom, "Doctor, I have Bronchitis, I believe, a trifling 
little tickling at the bottom of the throat here; I wish you 
would give me something to take it away. I'm not sick at all, 
I feel as well as I ever did in my life, all except this kind of 
itching here." Upon a closs cross questioning, a large amount 
of undiscovered truth will be elicited in almost every instance, 
of symptoms dated many months and even years before. If 
then, a patient for himself, or for his child, has any apprehension 
of the disease, let the family physician be requested to notice 
the pulse with care and accuracy, at different hours of the day, 
not within half an hour of active exercise, or within two hours 
after a regular meal, and if the invariable report be preternat- 
ural excitement, there is ground for alarm, in proportion to the 
intensity of that excitement. 



Impure Blood. 231 

It has been seen how invariably the derangement of pulse 
and breathing go together, showing that the cause is one, and 
the locality the same, the Lungs. As the heart is always pump- 
ing its blood into the lungs, to present it to the action of 
the air, in order to render it fit for vital purposes, the faster 
the pumps work, the faster must the lungs work. But what 
makes the heart work faster ? The blood in it is more impure 
than natural, that is, more thick, it does not flow with ease, it 
is sluggish, each motion of the heart does not get rid of its 
proper quantity, and it must work faster or drown ; as the re- 
fractory poor in the workhouse, who are unwilling to work, and 
are placed in a large tank or tub, into which water is pumped, 
and they have the alternative of pumping with another pump, 
or drowning. This thickened nature of the blood makes itself 
felt in the lungs, in the same way as in the heart, with the addi- 
tional effect of the formation of tubercles, and these taking up 
more room in the lungs, leave less room for the requisite amount 
of air, the person must breathe faster and consequently shorter, 
the result being to aggravate the difficulty. Thus it is that con- 
sumption does not get well of itself, like many other diseases, 
any more than a fire will go out of itself, until it has left the 
building in ashes, unless for the want of one of two things — a 
want of burning material or an artifical barrier. But in con- 
sumption, there is material, as long as there is a body ; and how 
it is destroyed, until nothing is left but skin and bone, we need 
no information ! The only remedy then, is the artificial barrier. 
What is it? 

But before replication is made to that inquiry, it is practically 
useful to go another step more remote in our inquiries in the 
way of a reminder. What makes the blood thus preter naturally 
impure in the heart, so as to lay the foundation for such vast 
destruction? This is answered in preceding pages, beginning 

at where it is shown that the fundamental origin 

of impure, consumption-originating blood is, imperfect nutrition 
and the habitual breathings of a still atmosphere in-doors. And 
let it be painted before the mind's eye in living light, that either 
of these causes can alone certainly originate consumption, 
however wholly and completely the other may be absent. That 
all our care as to our food will not save us from consumption, if 
we habitually breathe a confined air. Nor will an active out 



232 HalVs Journal of Health. 

door life save us from consumption or other fatal disease, if we 
live upon improper food, or habitually eat more of the best food 
in the world, than the digestive functions can turn into pure 
nutrient blood material.* 

Here then, we are brought square up to the important inquiry, 
the prevention, the permanent arrest, or lasting cure of con- 
sumption. It is found 

" In the Food we eat — In the Air we Breathe." 

A perfect digestion of wholesome nutritious food, and a 
habitual breathing of out door air, under circumstances of proper 
bodily activity, is competent to cure consumption, from its first 
beginnings to its last stages, that is, the stage of actual decay 
of the lungs. 

But as very few, in the latter stages, possess the energy requi- 
site to secure the amount of out-door activity, necessary to the 
proper digestion of substantial food, we must go back to a point 
where we can secure the intelligence of the parent, acting au- 
thoritatively over the child. There must be Light and Force. 
There is power in concentration. And it is of interest to in- 
quire, to which of the two causes of blood impurity, is the origin 
of consumption most attributable? Then, by directing most of 
our energies to that one principal cause, we may act more effi- 
ciently. A stream of water puts out a fire, if played on one 
spo*, but may be wholly unavailing, if thrown over the whole 
building. 

The consummating act of Creative Power was to make man. 
The consummating act oi Infinite Beneficence, is his preser- 
vation. We evidently were made to people the globe ; wher- 
ever we live, we must subsist. Thus we find that the stomach 
makes out of all things, one thing, a fluid mass, which does not 
materially vary in color, consistency or nature, whatever we 
may eat. So that in a modified sense, we can, in health, derive 
nutriment from almost any thing we can swallow, from the lion 
to the worm ; from the eagle to the insect ; from the tree bud 
to its root, whether leaf or fruit, or bark or wood. Hence then, 
we come to an important practical fact : In consumption a man 
may eat almost any thing, if judicious as to quanity. Thus 
it is, that uniformly, we have, in our own practice, as 
a general rule, given the broad direction: Eat what You 



Necessity of Pure Air. 233 

LIKE, and which is not followed by any uncomfortable feeling 
within an hour or two afterwards. 

It is a truth which should be kept sight of in all human 
maladies, that great Nature is our safest and wisest Teacher, 
and with an almost unerring instinct creates in us a desire for 
that kind of food which contains in it those elements which the 
body most needs at the time. An. instructive illustration, occur- 
ring within a few years, may not be out of place at this point, 
as serving to impress an important truth on the mind : 

A girl fell down a flight of stairs, receiving an injury from 
which it was thought she would not recover. But with the ex- 
ception of hearing and sight, she did recover. For some weeks 
her appetite called for nothing but raisins and candy, then for 
several months nothing but apples were eaten. At a later 
period, she commenced eating maple buds, since which time she 
has nearly regained her former health, and at the end of three 
years, her sight and hearing were restored. 

"We knew a child, twelve months old, abandoned to die by 
several of the most skilful physicians of New York, from teeth- 
ing and attendant summer complaint. As a last resort, it was 
sent to the sea shore in a two hours journey ; on arriving there 
in a cold raw afternoon of August, the only attainable thing 
that seemed at all suitable, was a bowl of boiled milk, which 
she took ravenously, and would take nothing else for a week, 
improving from the first hour, and at end of a year is among 
the heartiest and most rugged of children. And to make the 
prescription more impressive, having nature still on our side, 
we say to those under our care : 

Let no man's appetite be a guide for your stomach ; but only 
eat what you crave, even if it be a piece of pound cake or sole 
leather ; eat it in great moderation first, so as to be on the safe 
side, and gradually increase the quantity. On the other hand, 
never swallow an atom which you do not crave, for nothing 
nor nobody. A pig would not so violate nature. It should 
strike us as one of the most reasonable of inferences, that the 
stomach would most easily digest that which it most eagerly 
craved. There are morbid and unnatural cravings, but these 
are exceptions. We are speaking as to general rules, here and 
elsewhere in this volume, and it will help the reader to a more 
truthful appreciation of the principles advocated in these pages, 
if this distinction is kept clearly in view. 



234 Hall's Journal of Health. 

If then in the two great points of digestion and out door 
activities, the former may be, to a considerable extent lost sight 
of, as being, under a wise arrangement of providence, able to 
take care of itself, we naturally throw our whole attention to 
the other and only one great remedial means in consumptive 
disease, which is — 

Out Door Activities. 
Any train of argument may look beautifully conclusive until 
a missing or unbelonging link is discovered ; the removal of 
the latter or the replacement of the former, makes sad havoc 
sometimes, of splendid theories. But when facts coincide with 
theories in the management of consumption, there is a triumph 
for science well worthy of being recorded. And we are led to 
the inquiry : 

Do out door Activities Cure Consumption? 
If in answering this important question, we gave cases com- 
ing under our own management, they might be questioned as to 
their authenticity, by reason of our personal interest in the 
same. So we will first give a history or two from undoubted 
medical authority. 

Edentown, K C, February, 1830. 
Dr. Physic, Philadelphia — Dear Sir : 

In the month of April, 1812, after having been extremely 
reduced by an attack of bilious fever, I was seized with a 
cough, which continued, with great obstinacy and severity, 
until the month of November, when decided symptoms of 
Phthisis (consumption) began to make their appearance. I had 
every evening an exacerbation (recurrence) of fever, preceded 
by chilliness, and succeeded by copious perspiration. My cough 
began to be less painful, but was attended with an expectoration 
of mucus, mixed with pus, (yellow matter.) Before this com- 
plaint came on me, I had accepted a surgeon's commission in 
the army, and was stationed at Tarborough, about seventy-five 
miles from this place. In the month of December the part of 
the regiment which had been recruited, then having been order- 
ed to Salisbury, it became my duty to repair to that place. 

a Accordingly, about the middle of the month, in the situation 
I have described, I set out on my journey. 

" In two days I reached Raleigh, without having experienced 



Necessity of Pure Air. 235 

any material change in the symptoms of my complaint. During 
my stay in Kaleigh, the disease increased every day, so that I 
was obliged to remain there nearly a week, at the expiration of 
which time I had almost determined to retrace my steps, return 
home, and take my station among the forlorn and despairing 
victims of this unrelenting malady. 

11 But reflecting deeply on my situation, and recollecting that 
scarce a patient in a thousand had been known to recover from 
the disease after having been confined to bed by it, I was re- 
solved to resume my journey, and to reach the place of destina- 
tion or perish on the road. It will be impossible for me ever 
to forget the effort I had to make in pursuing this resolution. 
On a cold and blustering morning about the 20th of December, 
weak and emaciated, having been literally drenched in perspi- 
ration the night before, I ascended my gig and proceeded on 
my journey. The first part of my ride, this day, was exces- 
sively irksome and fatiguing. Every hovel and hamlet on the 
road seemed to invite me to rest, and to dissuade me from the 
prosecution of my undertaking. Often and anxiously did I 
wish that my disease had been ot such a nature as to allow me 
to indulge in the inclination I felt, to desist from motion. But 
I continued my ride for three hours, when I found it necessary 
to stop for a little refreshment. While dinner was preparing, I 
lay down on a bed to rest. It was, perhaps, an imprudent act. 
Never was a bed so sweet to the wayworn and exhausted tra- 
veller, as was this to me. I lay on it for an hour, wrapped, as 
it were, in elysium. When summoned to dinner, though sleep 
was fast stealing on me, and inviting me to be still, I arose and 
attended, and after having made a very moderate meal of very 
common country food, I resumed my ride, and at night, about 
half past six o'clock, arrived at Hillsborough, which, is distant 
about 36 miles from Ealeigh. The inn to which I had been re- 
commended was unusually crowded, and I had to accept of a 
room that was out of repair, the window-sashes rattling in their 
casements, and the wind passing through the sashes in several 
places. In such a chamber, at such a season, and in the situation 
already described, was I quartered for the night. To my sur- 
prise, however, I had a better night's rest than I had had for 
several weeks, and less perspiration, and coughed less than 
I had for a month before. 



236 'Ball's Journal of Health. 

u In the morning, considerably refreshed, I proceeded on my 
journey, and travelled in a foggy misty atmosphere full 40 
miles ; the next day about 35, and on the 4th day about 12 
o'clock, I arrived at Salisbury. On my arrival, I heard it men- 
tioned as a matter of astonishment, that a man in my situation 
should think of travelling in the cold and inclement season of 
winter ; much more astonishing that I should venture to ap- 
proach the mountains at such a period. But I had taken my 
resolution, and was determined never to relinquish it while I 
had power to walk or ride. The regiment to which I was at- 
tached, was encamped about four miles from the town of Salis- 
bury. To this place I tasked myself to ride twice every day, a 
duty I regularly performed in the coldest weather until I left the 
service. 

u Early in January the officer in command received orders to 
repair with his regiment to Canada. While preparations were 
making for that purpose, believing that such a climate would be 
too severe for me, and that I must of course soon cease to be 
useful to the Government, I addressed a letter to the Secretary 
of War, soliciting permission to retire from the army. This re- 
quest was promptly and kindly granted to me. In Februarjr, 
1813, I commenced the practice of my profession again in this 
place, and continued to attend to the most laborious duties of it 
at all times of the day and night, in rain, hail, snow, storms, and 
sunshine, whenever I was called on, for eighteen months. 

"At the end of that time, I had lost my hectic fever, night- 
sweats, purulent expectoration, and my cough had nearly left 
me ; my chest had recovered its capacity of free and easy ex- 
pansion, and the ulcers in my lungs had entirely healed. Many 
who read the foregoing statement, will no doubt be curious to 
know what medical means were used as auxiliaries in the cure 
of this very alarming state of disease. It would not be in my 
power to satisfy curiosity on this point were it a matter of any 
importance, which I conceive is not the case, the complaint hav 
ing been cured bg hardy, invigorating exercise, continued without 
interruption in every variety of temperature and weather. 

11 That palliatives of different kinds were resorted to at various 
periods, must at once be supposed, but I do not consider it a mat- 
ter of consequence to name them, as they were such as would 
readily suggest themselves to physicians of every grade of skill 



Important Advice. 237 

T 

or intellect, and never produced more than a temporary allevi- 
ation of symptoms. Perhaps it may be material to state, I never 
used opium in any form whatever, and that I never incautiously 
wasted the resources of my constitution by depletory, or debil- 
itating means. When symptoms of high arterial excitement 
occurred, which would sometimes be the case, it was my prac- 
tice to abstain from strong, high-seasoned food, from all fer- 
mented and spirituous liquors, and from active exercise until 
they subsided. By this negative mode of management I gen- 
erally succeeded in removing inflammation without materially 
impairing the energies of my system ; and on the increase of 
the purulent discharge, subsequent to such inflammatory ap- 
pearances, I betook myself again to my exercise, and ate and 
drank everything I wanted. I always found that the incon- 
venience produced by a full meal, yielded very soon to horse 
exercise, and that I generally coughed less while riding than 
at any other time. The hectic paroxysm was generally inter- 
rupted, and sometimes cut short by a hard ride, and often, 
very often, during the existence of my disease, have I checked 
the exhausting flood of perspiration, and renewed my strength 
and spirits, by turning out of bed at midnight and riding a 
dozen miles or more ; many a time, too, have I left my bed in 
the early part of the night, wayworn with coughing, restless- 
ness and sweating, for the purpose of visiting a patient, and 
after having rode an hour or two, returned home and slept 
quietly and refreshingly for the remainder of the night. 

" Another thing which I remarked in the course of my ex- 
perience in the disease was, that some of the most profitable 
rides I ever took were made in the coldest and most inclement 
weather, (air dense and plenty of oxygen for assimilation,) and 
that scarcely in any situation did I return from a long and 
toilsome ride, without receiving a sensible amendment in all 
my pulmonary complaints. In short, sir, were I asked to state 
in a few words the remedy which rescued me, 1 should say it 
was a life of hardy exercise and of unremitting toil, activity, and 
exposure. With pectorial medicines, or those articles or com- 
positions denominated expectorants, I seldom meddled in my 
own case ; without opium, which from a constitutional pecu- 
liarity, I have not been able to take for many years, I found 
them too debilitating ; and with it, had I been able to use the 



238 HalVs Journal of Health. 

article, I should not have been disposed to take them, lest their 
effect in disposing to rest and inactivity might have operated 
against the course I had prescribed for myself, and from which 
I expected relief. 

" It remains for me to mention another agent which I think 
excited a very curative influence upon my disease, and that is 
singing. In first using this remedy it was my custom to sing 
in a low tone, and not long at a time, so as not to occasion 
much pulmonary effort. But by degrees I became able to 
sing in the most elevated tones, and for hours together, al- 
lowing myself only such intervals of rest as the lungs re- 
quired to obviate injurious fatigue. So long and so frequently 
did I repeat this act in the course of my disease, that the 
exercise of singing became so strongly associated, that as soon 
as I mounted my horse or ascended my chaise, I found myself 
humming a tune, and often 'in my lonely rides through the 
country, at late and unseasonable hours of the night, have I 
made the woods vocal with the most exhilarating music. Sing- 
ing seemed always to have the effect of clearing the bronchial 
passages, of opening the chest, and of giving a greater capacity 
of motion and expansion to the lungs. [The Doctor was killed 
by accident, in 1850.] " Yours, etc., James Norcom." 

Dr. Norcrom mentions a case as having occurred in 1810, 
which in 1830, twenty years later, was wholly free from any 
disease of the lungs. All this patient did, was to ride ten miles 
a day, gradually increasing to twenty miles a day, and by a 
continuance of exercise, was eventually restored to perfect 
health. All the medicine this man took was tincture of digi- 
talis ; but as it is now generally acceded that this remedy is 
worthless in consumption, the cure must be attributed to the 
exercise, just as the following case as given by Dr. Stokes, 
whom we have personally known at his own home in Dublin; 
and whom we found to be, as is universally accorded by the 
profession, among the very foremost of living medical minds. 
The case was first reported in one of the British medical peri- 
odicals in 1854, and republished here in April of the succeed- 
ing year. 

" Some years ago I saw a gentleman who came to town labor- 
ing under all the symptoms of well-marked phthisis. The dis- 
ease had been of several months' standing, and the patient was 



Consumption Cured. 239 

a perfect picture of consumption. He had a rapid pulse, hectic, 
sweating, purulent expectoration, and the usual physical signs 
of tubercular deposit, and of a cavity under the right clavicle. 
I may also state, that the history of the disease was in accord- 
ance, in all particulars, with this opinion. I saw this patient in 
consultation with a gentleman of the highest station in the pro- 
fession, and we both agreed there was nothing to be done. This 
opinion was communicated to the patient's friends, and he was 
advised to return to the country. In about eighteen months 
afterwards, a tall and healthy-looking man, weighing at least 
twelve stone, entered my study with a very comical expression 
of countenance : " You don't know me, Doctor," he said. I 
apologised, pleading an inaptitude that belongs to me for recol- 
lecting faces. "I am," he said, " the person whom you and 

Dr. sent home to die last year. I am quite well, and I 

thought I would come and show myself to you." I examined 
him with great interest, and found every sign of disease had 
disappeared, except that there was a slight flattening under the 
clavicle. 

" ' Tell me,' said I, ' what have you been doing ?' j Oh ! ' he 
replied, 'I found out from the mistress what your opinion was, 
and I thought as I was to die I might as well enjoy myself 
while I lasted, and so I just went back to my old ways.' • What 
was your old system of living ?' said I. • Nothing particular,' he 
said, ' I just took what was going.' ' Did you take wine ?' ' Not 
a drop,' he replied, \ but 1 had my glass of punch as usual.' \ Did 
you ever take more than one tumbler ?' ' Indeed I often did.' 
! How many : three or four ?' 'Ay, and more than that : I seldom 
went to bed under seven !' ' What was your exercise ?' ' Shoot- 
ing,' he said, 'everyday that I could get out.' 'And what kind 
of shooting?' 'Oh! I would not give a farthing for any kind 
of shooting but the one.' 'What is that?' 'Duck shooting.' 
' But you must have often wetted your feet.' 4 I was not very 
particular about the feet,' says he, 'for I had to stand up to my 
hips in the Shannon for four or five hours of a winter's day fol- 
lowing the birds.' So, gentlemen, this patient spent his day 
standing in the river, and went to bed after drinking seven 
tumblers of punch every night ; and if ever a man had recovered 
from phthisis he had done so when I saw him on that occasion. 
Suppose now that he had been confined to an equal temperature 



240 HaWs Journal of Health. 

and a regulated diet, and had been treated in all respects secun- 
dum ariem, what would have been the result? Any of you can 
answer the question. In point of fact, this very treatment had 
been adopted during the first three months of his illness, and his 
recovery may be fairly attributed to the tonic and undepressing 
treatment which he adopted for himself, and which his system 
so much required, to enable him to throw off the disease." 

In this case of Dr. Stokes, it should be remembered first, that 
he is one of the best judges of consumption in the British na- 
tion, and that he considered it hopeless of cure. We must 
also in this, as well as in the case given by Dr. Norcom, attri- 
bute the cure to the exercise in the open air, and not to potations 
of punch. We have had, in our own practice, a variety of cases 
similar to the above, and complete and permanent recovery took 
place without resort to digitalis, or whiskey, nor to an atom of 
nauseants or alcoholic preparations of any sort. It can not fail 
to strike the reader with peculiar power, that when under a 
certain variety of treatment a person recovers from a particular 
disease, but that in that treatment one element is always present 
largely under all circumstances, while as to the other elements 
there is great diversity as to combination, as well as to their very 
nature, we are obliged to conclude that restoration depends on 
the one large ever present element, and that the other elements, 
various in nature, quantity, and combination, are without 
any material efficiency. 

A. P., a lawyer poet of some renown, a native of New Eng- 
land, a sixth child. His parents had died of consumption, all 
his brothers and sisters as they approached the age of twenty- 
one, paled away and died of the same disease. No one of his 
neighbors looked for any different result as to him, and begin- 
ning to grow feeble in his twentieth year, and being the last of 
his family, with dear associations around the home of his child- 
hood, he, in utter recklessness, penetrated the forests of Arkan- 
sas, lived a hunter's life, camped out for weeks and months 
together, and now, at the end of twenty years, and in perfect 
health, weighs over, at our last report, a hundred and seventy- 
five pounds. 

Gregg, the author of " Commerce of the Prairies," for some 
months preceding 1831, could scarcely walk beyond his cham- 
ber, from a complication of chronic diseases, unable to ride on 



Remarkable Cases. 241 

horseback, he left Missouri for Santa Fe, in a carriage, could 
saddle his own horse in a week, and at the end of a quarter of a 
century is, we believe, an official, under our Government, in 
some of the islands of the Pacific Ocean. 

On the tenth of June eighteen hundred and forty-eight, E. B., 
aged twenty-eight, slender, six feet high, lacking half an inch, 
a New Orleans merchant, called upon the author for medical 
advice. He had weighed one hundred and sixty pounds, now 
one hundred and eighteen, pulse one hundred a minute, breath- 
ing twenty-five, most drenching night-sweats which nothing 
ould control, pain in the breast. There seemed to be a large col- 
lection of matter in the hinder part of one lung, and steadily accu- 
mulating; the pain became incessant, and almost insupportable. 
His cough was constant. He could not cough without pain. 
He had piles so badly that he could not sit down without pain, 
while the pain in his breast would not allow him to lie down in 
any natural position. He literally staggered across the floor 
when he attempted to walk. He could get no rest at night, and 
we began to fear for his mind. 

Under all the circumstances of the case, we advised him to 
start instantly for Canada by railroad, so as to get there at once, 
and then to travel on horseback until he got well, and to cor- 
respond with us in the mean time as to modifications of treat- 
ment in his changing condition. 

He reached Niagara Falls in safety, but on his arrival had a 
leg bone fractured by the kick of a horse. To show his own 
views of his condition he wrote : " I hope to spend the few days 
I shall live out here, in making a perfect preparation for that 
place where our state is invariably and forever fixed." 

Six months later I met a gentleman in the streets of New 
Orleans so much like my former patient in general features and 
form, that I thought him a brother, but it was the man himself, 
just returned in a ship from New York. He seemed in every 
respect well. He was one of the most grateful of men. In the 
language of a member of a mercantile firm, who had introduced 
him to me, his recovery seemed " almost miraculous." 

D. H. called for advice July tenth, eighteen hundred and 
forty-four. Pulse ninety-two, constant pain in the breast, had 
frequent spittings of blood, as much as a pint at a time, with 
various correlative symptoms. 



242 HalVs Journal of Health. 

In endeavoring to find out his business relations, so as to 
adapt the advice to them as far as practicable, I found he could 
change his present occupation, and obtain the office of Sheriff; 
which, among other things, I advised him to do by all means. 

Some six years later he wrote tome voluntarily, that he con- 
sidered himself in perfect health. That he had done enough to 
kill a dozen men, had ridden through the country day and 
night, winter and summer, regardless of all weather, after hav- 
ing to walk for miles in slosh and snow half leg deep, and not 
only did nothing seem to hurt him, but he got better in spite 
of his exposures. 

David Brainard, the great missionary, while a student at Yale 
College in seventeen hundred and forty-two, was expelled for 
what he considered an unjust cause; still it had its depressing 
effect upon the mind, while his body, exhausted by repeated 
hemorrhages from the lungs, seemed to be sinking under the 
general disease. But determining to be useful, he obtained per- 
mission to preach, went among the Indians, lived twelve 
months first in a wigwam of his own making, and then in a 
cabin, and all the time with returning health, but unfortunately 
returned to civilized life and its habits, his symptons returned, 
and he died of consumption towards the close of seventeen hun- 
dred and forty-seven. There is but little doubt that a contin- 
uance of Indian life would have wholly restored him. 

A few years ago a gentleman was declared by the best and 
most skilful examiner of the lungs, to have partial decay in the 
right breast, with the ordinary attendants of night-sweats, dis- 
tressing cough, spitting blood, emaciation and debility. On 
consulting me, I advised him, as the only certain mode of re- 
covery, under the circumstances, to purchase a farm in the 
West, and convert it into an extensive fruitery. This was in 
September. He at once began to carry out our suggestions, and 
without wearying the reader with minute details, he wrote us 
from his Western home late in November: "I could not have 
believed that so great a change could have taken place in so 
brief a period. I have superintended the setting out of some 
two thousand fruit trees, working more or less myself all the 
time, sometimes standing on the ground for hours in a drizzling 
November rain, with an umbrella. The roof of my cabin is de- 



Valuable Letter, 243 

fective, so that wherever I place my head, and there is a leak 
anywhere, it is sure to find me out." 

And, most marvellous, with all this improvement he returned 
to his family in Philadelphia to spend his Christmas time, with- 
out consulting me. I wrote him at once, " You have made a 
great, if not fatal, mistake. I advise you by all means to return 
at once to your occupation in the West, and remain there until 
perfectly restored." And such was his determination. But, 
unfortunately, not being under any pecuniary necessity to 
labor, having nothing to do but to eat and drink, and loil about 
on chairs and. sofas, he soon began to imagine that the weather 
was too cold, and that he would defer it until spring. The 
second and the third time did he try the out door life with 
surprising results, but with amazing infatuation he lingered 
around home, and all the symptoms returned, with aggravated 
power, and on going to the out door activities for the fourth 
time he found that all his recuperative power was gone, there 
was nothing to build upon, and he died. He was our brother. 

On the twenty-fourth of April, eighteen hundred and forty- 
nine, D. W. M. wrote from Georgia for medical advice. The 
prominent symptoms were hacking cough, soreness in the centre 
of the breast, quick pulse, cold extremities, constipation, narrow 
chest, from a consumptive family. 

This case was brought to remembrance by a letter, dated 
January 18th, 1856: 

Dear Sir, — I frequently see in the papers extracts from 
" Hall's Journal of Health." The pieces sound like an old 
benefactor of mine some years ago. If you are the same man, I 
can say something of your system of treating pulmonary di- 
seases, which will be of much service to the afflicted, and of 
interest to you. I have been raised from death to perfect 
health. If you are my physician you will remember my case. 
I am at my old trade of bills and answers, and have no thought 
of turning doctor. Yet I am disposed to think that if I were 
to turn my attention to the curing of pulmonary ailments, I 
could have some success from the light which you and my own 
experience have given me. 

The great trouble in the practical operation of your system 
lies in the obstinate indifference and total want of thought of 
most invalids. It is next to impossible to get people to accept 



244 HalVs Journal of Health. 

the truth that their own reason and heroic perseverance in the 
employment of remedial means, must co-operate with the phy- 
sician. The vast world of human beings are mere machines. 
They are deaf to all the whispers of nature. Men are now as 
they were at the foot of Sinai, believe in no Divinity unless it 
assumes a visible and tangible form. If they could be prevailed 
upon to think a little, they would see that oils and inhalations 
and nostrums can never expel a disorder which comes from 
physical inaction and the want of pure air. I am indebted to 
your suggestions for the little common sense I have, in relation 
to the preservation and restoration of health. I have never 
ceased trying to impress upon other sufferers the truths to 
which I owe my life and the enjoyment of its blessings. But I 
need not say to you that my lectures are mere sound to most 
persons. They may be willing to assent to the truth, but when 
it comes to acting in a way not prescribed by custom, they are, 
like monkeys, apt enough to do like others around them, but 
incapable of original thought and action. 

I have seen no man outside of a coffin who was as low as I was, 
several times since I received your prescription. I have fol- 
lowed your advice till I got well, and then relapsed through im- 
prudence, and want of thought. At last, I saw that the next 
relapse would put me beyond resuscitation, I began to think to 
despise custom, and to follow nature. I am now restored, but 
do not cease to work. 

But in spite of the insanity of the suffering world, I trust you 
will continue to find a few favored spirits who will joyfully ac- 
cept your light, and return to health and happiness. Pardon 
me for thus boring you, and also for feeling towards you as a 
brother, certainly as your friend." 

The above letter is valuable — every line of it is suggestive; 
it was volunteered, not written for pay or publication. Not 
written in the excitement of the first month's improvement, nor 
when it was undecided whether the benefits were reliable and 
permanent, but after seven years' testimony to a solid improve- 
ment, a permanent restoration. This communication is valua- 
ble also, not as being the production of John Smith, " his 
mark," or of some down-trodden child of poverty, whose heart 
is carried away with gratitude for the slightest attentions, the 
more impressive from their infrequency, but it is the sponta- 



Our Daughters. 245 

neous expression ot a professional man, of a lawyer, whose talents 
have made for him a name and a fortune. If there is any one 
practical truth more important among the many than another, 
it is this : The continuance of remedial means until long after 
the health seems to be fully restored. It was the neglect of this, 
which proved fatal in the case preceding this last. 

The mode of treatment in this case was first, the use of the 
ordinary medicines employed by educated practitioners to re- 
store the digestive functions, and the circulation, to their natural 
condition, this was done in a short time, and then, and after, the 
only means were out-door activities, with the usual attention to 
the daily habits and practices of life. On the fifth of July, eigh- 
teen hundred and fifty -six, I saw this gentleman for the first 
time. He reported himself to be, and appeared to me to be, in 
the enjoyment of good health. 



OUR DAUGHTERS 



Are the hope of our country's future. Their physical, mo- 
ral and domestic education, are of an importance which no 
array of figures can express, which multitudes of ponderous 
tomes could not adequately portray. 

As is the mother, so is the man. If she be a woman of phys- 
ical vigor, a high guaranty is given of healthy children. If her 
moral character is pure, formed in the mould of Bible piety, we 
may anticipate for her offspring, lives of the selfsame piety, 
with its benevolent influences spreading far and wide, from all 
their habitations. 

If the mother in her domestic relations, be a pattern for all 
that is cleanly and systematic, and punctual and prompt and 
persevering, with womanly dignity and lovingness pervading 
all, then may we look for every son of such a woman to be a 
man of mark for his time, and for every daughter, to become a 
wife well worthy of a king. 

"When such destinies hang upon the future of our daughters, 
ought they to be hurried from a loving mother's side at seven- 
teen, at fifteen, at twelve, to the purchased care of a governess ? 
To the herded tuition of fashionable boarding schools, where 
glitter and superficiality and empty show predominate ; where 



246 Halfs Journal of Health. 

nothing that is radically useful and good is thorough ; where 
associations are inevitable, with the children of the parvenue, 
as well as with the scion of the decayed aristocrat, thus expos- 
ing the pure heart to the withering and corrupting examples of 
mere pretence and of baseless pride ? 

The theatre, the ball-room, the sea-shore, or the Spa — are 
these the schools to mould aright the character of the girls who 
are to be the mothers of the next generation ? Is the hetero- 
geneous weekly newspaper, the trashy monthly, the "last 
novel," be it from whom it may — are these suitable text books 
to form the principles of her who is so soon to become the wife, 
the mother, the matron ? 

We trust these suggestive inquiries will arrest the attention 
and command the mature reflection of every parent who reads 
this article. 

LIQUOR DRINKING, 

As an habitual thing, not only impairs the health of the 
drinkers themselves, but entails scrofulous disease on their 
children as to body, and imbecility as to mind ; as witness of the 
latter, Asylum reports are full abundant ; and of the former, 
every day's observation tells the tale. 

It is useful, therefore, to inquire, and to point out, now and 
then, some of the ways in which drunkards are made. An im- 
pressive incident is given in the New York Evening Post, which 
ought not to be permitted to perish with a daily paper. 

A gentleman, a few months married, on coming home one 
evening, tired and depressed from a long summer day T s toil, 
having dined in his office from press of business, found his 
young wife in a rocking-chair, slip-shod, in a soiled morning- 
gown, one leg over the knee, reading a novel. 

" Why Fanny, not dressed yet ! what have you been doing 

all day?" 

u O, I have been reading this book, and it is so interesting; 

there is only one chapter more. Please ring the tea-bell ; I am 

so tired, and it is too warm to be dressed up." 

11 But before we were married, I never found you not dressed." 
( ' ! then I dressed according to the company, and do so 

still." 

Being discomposed, he thought he would take a short walk 



Liquor Drinking. 247 

to dissipate his unpleasant feelings, and soon passing a cheery, 
well-lighted room, he entered. It was a debating-club ; he 
found several of his acquaintances there, all married men! 
Falling into conversation with them, the evening passed ra- 
pidly. 

It was a week before he spent another evening out. But 
being annoyed at the continued slovenliness of his wife, ho 
left her to her novel and slip-shod shoes, and became a regular 
attendant at the debating-room, the " exercises" of which, 
uniformly closed with various mixtures of brandy and water 
for purposes of imbibition. In due time, the once exemplary 
husband became a hard drinker. 

We know a case of some resemblance : 

An up-town gentleman, living in his own house, who never 
went out alone after tea, had been greatly pressed all day in 
meeting some bank calls, which to him were heavy and un- 
usual. He came home late in the evening in a state of ex- 
haustion. And most unusual for him, he did not go down to 
tea, but stretching himself on the sofa, and feeling as if he were 
about to have a chill, asked his wife, who was sitting by the 
fire, if there was any such thing as brandy in the house ; and 
if so, he would like to have a glass of brandy and water. She 
left her seat, saying she was very tired, but would get some for 
him. After waiting a full half hour by the clock, she returned, 
saying she had been talking with the cook about to-morrow's 
dinner, but that she would get the toddy if it was still wanted. 
Feeling anxious to keep off the chill, and not wishing further 
delay, he said to her it was of no consequence; and taking his 
hat, went into the street, and stepping into the first grocery he 
came to, for the first time in his life, paid for a glass of liquor. 
It was just dark as he came out of the den, but the chill came 
on him in the street, with several days' sickness succeeding. 

Whether that man will die in the gutter, a sot and an outcast, 
no mortal can tell. But if he does, it is not difficult to answer 
the pregnant inquiry of the Evening Post, 

Who's to Blame? 

While we do not deny that men fall into bad practices from 
want of principle and from yielding themselves to the gratifica- 
tion of evil appetites and passions, it cannot be denied, that 



248 Hull's Journal of Health. 

pecuniary, moral, social and domestic ruin, is properly laid at 
the door of a wife, who, as a girl, had two curses : 

First, The curse of an education at a fashionable boarding 
school or li Institute." 

Second, The curse of having means to revel in novel reading. 

And we wish here to express our fullest conviction, that 
Female Boarding Schools, as generally conducted, are properly 
denounced by some of the best medical writers, as the hot beds 
of moral corruption and physical degeneration ; and that they 
wholly unfit their pupil, for the positions which they are des- 
tined to occupy in subsequent life. 



PERSPIRATION 



Is the transfusion of water from the interior of the body, 
through the skin, to without us. This transfused fluid is not 
pure water, it is saltish to the taste, and it conveys, is the car- 
rier of, a large amount of various impurities out of the body ; it 
is one of the scavengers of the human frame. If the passage 
ways, the hose-pipes, through which the perspiration is con- 
ducted, are closed, these impurities are retained, are remixed 
with the blood and the whole mass of it becomes impure from 
that cause within two minutes and a half; and every two 
minutes and a half the impurity is more and more concentrated, 
and so rapidly does this corrupting process go on, and so dele- 
terious are its effects, that if the whole of them are kept closed, 
by any gummy substance, or we are completely enveloped with 
an India rubber garment, we would die in afew hours.. 

Moderate exercise keeps these passages open, hence those per- 
sons who are moderately exercising all day, whether in or out 
of doers, are the longest lived, the world over. This moderate 
exercise is to the body, what a fire engine or a common pump 
is in practical life, it keeps the fluid passing along, and as it 
passes, washes us clean of all impurities. 

A quart of water, laden with concentrated impurities, passes 
through the skin of a healthy person every twenty four hours, 
hence the necessity of keeping these sluices of the system 
always in operation, by moderate exercise, and their extensive 
openings free, by the strictest habits of thorough personal 
cleanliness. 



Southern Climate. 249 

This one idea, of keeping the pores of the skin steadily 
open by means of habitual moderate exercise and strict per- 
sonal cleanliness, would, if generally practiced, contribute 
more to human happiness than tons of physic or millions of 
money. 

SOUTHEKN CLIMATE. 

It is a standing direction to go to a warmer climate in threat- 
ened or actual consumption. 

Warm weather takes away the energies of the healthiest 
among us, and the universal experience of physicians and 
patients is that it debilitates consumptives greatly. If warm 
weather at home debilitates, how can it fail to debilitate when 
away from home ? 

The chemist knows that there is more nutriment in a pint of 
cold air than there is in a pint of warm air, because it is more 
condensed. It is a conceded point in consumption that the 
larger the quantity of air the patient can consume the greater 
are his chances of recovery. The fewer lungs he has, the more 
reason there is that he should consume the most concentrated 
and purest air there is. Besides the rarefaction of a Southern at- 
mosphere, it must necessarily be loaded with vapor, and partly 
so with miasm, the fruitful cause of violent diseases. These 
suggestions will bear study. 

In some liver affections, the person loses flesh, pales away 
and with more or less cough, the friends become alarmed, and 
fear that he is going in a decline. He is sent South, and relief 
from business cares, change of air and scene, and food, and 
habits of life, soon restore him, and he returns home a well 
man. And, like the drawing of the highest prize in a lottery, 
the one success sends thousands on the same errand, to meet 
with a hopeless failure, for, in the first case, it was a disease 
of the liver, which readily yields to the remedy, because it was 
applicable, but in the other case it was a disease of the lungs, 
which, if in the advanced stages is rendered more speedily and 
certainly fatal. In forming consumption, out-door activities 
abate all the symptoms, and the patient hurries home, feeling 
well, but not having kept up these activities long enough, the 
tendency to disease of that kind has not been fully broken up, 



250 HalVs Journal of Health. 

a habit of health has not been established, and slight causes 
bring a return of the symptoms, and you see such persons going 
to the South every winter, until the system loses its power of 
recuperation from these fitful efforts, and the final result is 
" died of consumption " the very case that had been noised 
about a few years before as having been cured of consumption 
by going to the South. Thus it is that the gross error is kept 
alive, and is almost a universal belief. A few years ago, a 
gentleman of note sufficient to have his movements chronicled 
in the papers, left home for a throat affection, with a view to 
spending a winter in the South. Circumstances led him to call 
on the author for advice, in this city, and he returned home, 
and is in good health to this day. But shortly after his resump- 
tion of professional duty it was announced in the papers that 
this gentleman's visit to the South had fully restored him. 

It is a significant fact, that the British government sends its 
consumptive soldiers from its Southern stations towards the 
North. The reader is referred for statistical statements on this 
subject to Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases, 8th edition. 

Very much has been said of Italian skies, and of the South 
of France, but the simple fact that the natives of these locali- 
ties do not reach the average of human life which prevails in 
England and more Northern latitudes, is an unanswerable argu- 
ment against the salubritv of those far-famed localities. 



DIETETIC ECONOMIES. 

As winter is approaching with its pinchings of the poor, it 
may be well for many to study, what articles of food are the 
most nutritious and cheapest; that is, what kinds of food will 
go farthest for the least money. Not a few in our large cities 
lay the foundation of incurable and fatal diseases, by being 
stinted in their food, and who would not have been stinted, had 
they expended what money they had in the most judicious 
manner. The ignorance and inconsiderateness of the poor is 
sometimes amazing. The ladies of the Widows' Aid Society, 
who do so much for humanity every winter, have found it ex- 
pedient to refuse giving money to any of their beneficiaries, 
but ascertain their actual wants, and give them orders for such 
articles of food as are deemed best. They found that when money 



Important Food Table. 



251 



at 75c. per bus. or 1 l-4c. per lb 



was given, it would be expended for tea and coffee, and fine 
flour lor the luxuries instead of the necessaries of life. We 
trust the following table may be of practical advantage to this 
humane society, as well as to many poor, and prudent and 
worthy families in this, and other large cities and towns. We 
believe a man feels as happy after a plain dinner, as after a luxu- 
rious one ; certain are we, that he sleeps the sounder that night 
and feels the better for it all next day ; all the advantage to the 
luxurious liver, is in the transient passage down the throat. 
1 lb. Cucumbers, at — per doz., yields — per cent of 
nutriment, - 

" Melons, 

" Turnips, - - - 

" Cabbage, 

" Carrots, - 

" Beets, - 

" Apples, - 

" Peaches, - 

" Potatoes, 

" Cherries, - - - - 

" Grapes, 

" Plums, 

" Oat Meal, at $4 per cwt. or 4c. per lb. 

" Eye Flour, at 7 per bbl. or 4c. per lb. 

" Eice, . - 5 per cwt. or 5c. per lb. 

" Barley Meal 3 per cwt. or 3c. per lb. 

" Wheat Flour, 10 per bbl. or 5c. per lb. 

" Corn Meal, 3 per cwt. or 3 1-2 " " 

" White Beans, 2 per bus. or 4 1-2 " " 

As to the blanks above, any housekeeper can weigh the ar- 
ticles, and by comparing the price per bushel or dozen, with 
the amount of nutriment yielded, can determine at once, the 
relative value as a food. But it will be seen at once, that white 
beans, whole or split peas, hominy, oat meal, corn meal, samp, 
hulled corn, crushed wheat, rice, are among the cheapest, most 
wholesome and most nutritious articles of food, and are alike 
recommended to those who want to be economical, and those 
who want to be healthy. If fruits were largely used with the 
above diet, either baked, if green, or stewed when dried, both 
the digestion and health would be greatly improved, to say no- 
thing of the agreeableness of the addition. Not one person in 



2 1-2 

3 

41-2 

7 1-2 
10 
15 
16 
20 

22 1-2 
25 
27 
29 
75 
79 
86 
88 
90 
91 
95 



252 FlalVs Journal of Health. 

a thousand has any adequate idea of the value of fruits as an 
article of diet. A thousand bushels of grapes and apples 
should be grown where one now is, especially as considering 
the outlay and labor, they are the most profitable of all crops. 



LONG LIFE. 

The physiological law of animal existence is, that the dura- 
tion of life should be at least five fold that of growth. The 
horse is four or five years attaining his full growth, and lives 
twenty-five years. The ox lives fifteen, and the dog ten years. 
The cat lives six times the growing period ; the rabbit eight. 
Men usually attain their growth at about twenty years of age, 
and yet, comparatively few, reach four score years. More than 
one-half of all who are born, do not attain the age of twenty. 

Being made to live an hundred years, it is a sad reflection, that 
nine-tenths die before they reach the half-way house; before 
half the work of life is done. This result is owing to three 
main causes : — 

First. To artificial modes of life. 

Second. To over-indulgence of the appetites and passions of 
our nature. 

Third. To the wearing ambition, to the wasting anxieties, 
to the depressing cares of life. 

A cultivated intelligence, and a well informed conscience, 
and these only, are competent to remove these causes of the 
premature decay of our race. But mark — a man must be con- 
scientous, as well as intelligent. He must be wise to know 
what is duty ; he must be moral, to impel him to its discharge. 

The secret of long life is given in the short history of one 
who, in his eighty-fourth year, was the picture of a mellow old 
age, and bade fair to live twenty years longer. Sharon Car- 
ter, of Philadelphia, at that great age, had rarely been sick. His 
life was one of industrious out-door activities. He traveled 
much, always on foot, slept with his window wide open, in all 
kinds of weather, and maintained a cheerful equanimity. 

Therefore, in the beautiful language of that ripe medical 
scholar, Dr. Thompson, of London, — Let our education be so 
conducted, as to train the mind for tranquil superiority to pas- 
sing cares, and to qualify for the exhilarating occupations of a 
useful life. 



HALL'S JOURNAL OF HEALTH. 



OUR LEGITIMATE SCOPE IS ALMOST BOUNDLESS: FOR WHATEVER BEGETS PLEASURABLE 

AND HARMLESS FEELINGS. PROMOTES HEALTH ; AND "WHATEVER INDUCES 

DISAGREEABLE SENSATIONS, ENGENDERS DISEASE. 

VOL. III.] DECEMBER, 1856. [NO. XII. 



MEN WANTED. 

Passing through the Bowery some time ago, a flag was ob- 
served, extending over the side-walk, in large black letters, 
"Men Wanted." 

So they are ; wanted everywhere ; for the pulpit, for the press, 
for the judge's bench and the halls of legislation. In our opi- 
nion, it requires a man to do anything well, to black a shoe, 
construct a locomotive or build a ship ; men of mind and men 
of body ; stout men, strong men, men of vigor and of high 
health are " wanted." 

But the object for which " men" were " wanted" at the place 
above, was enlistment as soldiers for the United States Army. 
All over the world the best specimsns of physical humanity 
are selected for the army. The halt, the lame, the deaf, the 
blind, the little, the sickly, the deformed, are turned off with 
contempt by the inspecting officer. Of such importance is this 
physical perfection in some despotic countries, that boys are 
purposely trained by all sorts of gymnastic exercises, until their 
feats of agility are scarcely surpassed by the professed circuit 
rider or rope dancer. 

So it seems that tyrants and despots are the first to perceive 
the value of physical training for developing the highest 
capabilities of man. 

But if it is thought of such importance to have well-develop- 
ed men for purposes of killing their fellows, it might be well to 
inquire if it would not be advantageous to train men to high 
bodily health and physical perfection for better callings and for 
nobler purposes. How long will it take to teach the world, 
that physical perfection and mental power of the highest order 



254: Halls Journal of Health. 

go hand in hand. We cannot say that the world is any the 
better for the ivhole work, of any mind that operated through a 
sickly body. 

" A GLASS OF BRANDY 

Can't hurt anybody ! Why I know a person, yonder he is 
now, on high change, a specimen of manly beauty, a portly six- 
footer. He has the bearing of a prince, for he is one of our' 
merchant princes. His face wears the hue of health, and now, 
at the age of fifty odd, he has the quick elastic step of our 
young men of twenty-five, and none more full of mirth and 
wit than he, and I know he never dines without brandy and 
water, and never goes to bed without a terrapin or oyster sup- 
per, with plenty of champagne, and more than that, he was never 
known to be drunk. So here is a living exemplar and dis- 
proof of the temperance twaddle about the dangerous nature of 
an occasional glass, and the destructive effects of a temperate 
use of good liquors." 

Now it so happened that this specimen of safe brandy drink- 
ing was a relation of ours. He died in a year or two after 
that of Chronic Diarrhoea, a common end of those who are never 
drunk, nor ever out of liquor. He.left his widow a splendid 
mansion up town, and a clear five thousand a year, besides a 
large fortune to each of his six children ; for he had ships on 
every sea and credit at every counter, but which he never had 
occasion to use. For months before he died — he was a year in 
dying — he could eat or drink nothing without distress, and at 
death, the whole alimentary canal was a mass of disease ; in the 
midst of his millions, he died of inanition. That is not the half, 
reader. He had been a steady drinker, a daily drinker, for 
twenty-eight years. He left a legacy to his children, which we 
did not mention. Scrofula has been eating up one daughter for 
fifteen years ; another is in the mad-house; the third and fourth 
of unearthly beauty, there was a kind of grandeur in that beauty, 
but they blighted, and paled and faded, into heaven we trust, 
in their sweetest teens; another is tottering on the verge of 
the grave, and only one is left with all the senses, and each of 
them is weak as water. Why, we came from the dissecting- 
room and made a note of it, it was so horrible 



Sugar and Teeth. 255 

A gentleman of thirty-five was sitting on a chair, with no 
specially critical symptom present, still he was known to be a 
"Dissipated young man" as the saying goes. He rose, ran 
fifty feet, fell down and died. The doctors see a beauty in 
death, the chance of cutting up a fellow and looking about for 
sights. The whole covering of the brain was thickened, its 
cavities were filled with a fluid which did not belong to them, 
enough to kill half a dozen men with apoplexy ; a great por- 
tion of one lung was in a state of gangrene, and nearly all the 
other was hardened and useless ; blood and yellow matter plas- 
tered the inner covering of the lungs, while angry red patches 
of destructive inflammation were scattered along the whole 
alimentary canal. Why, there was enough of death in that 
one man's body to have killed forty men. The doctor who 
talks about guzzling liquor every day, being u healthy," is a 
perfect disgrace to the medical name, and ought to be turned 
out to break rock for the turnpike for the term of his natural 
life at a shilling a day, and find himself. 



SUGAR AND TEETH. 



In a previous number it was stated that pure sugar and can- 
dies, having no residue, could not, by lodgement about the 
teeth, injure them ; and that if used in moderation, neither 
sugar nor candies were prejudicial to the teeth or health of 
young children or grown persons ; that there was more or less 
sugar in all vegetable food ; but as concentrations were liable 
to abuse, we advised that they should be taken at regular 
meals. 

The Medical Journal of Charleston, S. C, states the conclu- 
sions of M. Larez : 

1st. Eefined Sugar injures teeth, either by immediate con- 
tact, or by gas developed in the stomach. . 

2d. That a tooth soaked in sugar water, becomes jelly like, 
from the sugar combining with the lime of the tooth. 

To which the Scientific American, good authority in cogs and 
pulleys and piston-rods and all that, dogmatises thus : "The 
foregoing conclusions are correct, and candies and condiments 
Bhould be avoided, especially by children. Maple Sugar ren- 
ders the teeth sensitive." 



256 HalVs Journal of Health. 

The whole statement is based on the assertion, that a tooth 
put in a saturated solution of sugar becomes gelatinous. This 
is not denied. But it is no argument. The gastric juice be- 
gins to eat up the stomach, as soon as a man dies. But we 
know that the gastric juice has no injurious effect on a healthy 
living stomach. What injures a dead tooth, may have no ef- 
fect on a living one. The argument from the living to the 
dead; from the hospital to the private-house; from the rich to 
the poor ; from the tropics to the poles ; from the healthy 
to the diseased ; from animal phenomena in the natural state, 
to those presented when agonizing under the knife or virulent 
poisons, has strewn multitudes of delusions throughout the 
whole of medical literature. If an isolated case were worth 
anything, we can state for ourselves, that we ate all the sugar 
we could get while a child; and now, use "lasses" three times 
a day, and we think our teeth will compare favorably with 
those of any other person, on our side of forty-five. It 
is general ill-health which makes us toothless before our 
time, induced by over eating and under exercise, by hot 
bread, and late and large suppers. Away with your single 
hobbies, gentlemen. Widen your views. 



NO COMPASS AT SEA. 

It is a boon of priceless value, to have an unfaltering reli- 
gious belief. One of the most affecting incidents in the history 
of the Divine Eedeemer, occurred, when looking over the mul- 
titude, he was moved with compassion on them, "because 
they were as sheep having no shepherd." 

That state of mind which no gold can purchase, whose value 
no costliest gems can express, which finds perfect repose in 
contemplating the present individual condition of humanity, 
and its future irrevocable destiny, in the expression, " The 
Judge of all the Earth will do right!" 

Such a state of mind we say, bears with, it, a sweetness of 
comfort, worth, more than all worlds. And fortunate beyond 
computation is that child, whose reverence for Scripture teach- 
ings has become so incorporated with its very nature, that even 
in mature life the Ultima Thule as to duty and morals is, 
" The Bible says it." 



No Compass at Sea. 257 

Seldom have these views had a stronger corroboration than 
in a meeting which we attended lately in this city. A 
" Shaker" was to discuss the doctrine of celibacy. The room 
was well-filled. The Shaker was to speak ten minutes, and 
any one else might reply for the same length of time. In all 
that assembly of men and women, we failed to discover one sin- 
gle countenance which indicated composure. There was an 
expression of anxious unrest, so general, that we were moved 
to pity. The women had a kind of he-look, which was grating 
to our feelings. There was only one female face there, to which 
we could turn for relief, which was found in a certain benig- 
nity of expression, which eventually cleared away that " first 
impression," of one of the ugliest, little, old, phizzes, which we 
had been lately called on to contemplate. 

As to the men, there were two classes. One whose " expres- 
sion" indicated that they had missed the aim of life, that they 
were deeply dissatisfied with their " status" and were seeking 
revengefully, for a change. 

There was another set of countenances, few in comparison, 
but as widely different as daylight is from darkness. There 
was the high broad forehead, benign and intelligent, as if the 
owners wished all men to be happy, and felt it to be their duty 
to labor for that happiness ; conscious of their intelligence, and 
of their duty to employ it in search of the true secret, of the 
highest human good. 

In the speeches made, there was a frequent quotation of 
Scripture, but in such a way, as to impress us with the feeling 
that the quotations were made, not because of a loving and rever- 
ential confidence in Scripture authority, but from a conviction 
that it was authoritative, in most of those who were present 
As much as to say, " you see I am on the side of the Bible, do 
not be afraid of me, as of an infidel." 
• Be assured reader, that no scheme of human amelioration 
ever can succeed, where the Bible is not received "in the 
love of it." Hence, the miserable failures of Ann Lee, of 
Fourier, of Brisbane, of Owen, and the thousand and one mo- 
difications of the Agrarian of ancient times, of the Arcadian 
and the Philansters of the present. 

To make all men happy, we must first make them unselfish, 
in obedience to the Bible precept, " Thou shalt love thy neigh- 



258 HalVs Journal of Health. 

bor as thyself." Bat when that is done, the world becomes 
truly religious, and nothing more is needed. 

Asa means then, of making earth a paradise, where love, 
and intelligence and plenty, shall universally prevail, leaving 
no room for dissatisfaction, disquietude, for wasting anxieties 
and corroding cares, nor for want and famine and disease, we 
earnestly commend one item of early education — 

Implant into the very nature of your children, from earliest in- 
fancy, an affectionate and implicit belief in ALL Bible Teachings. 



HUMAN HEALTH. 

The most forcible argument, is an appeal to the pocket ; be- 
fore it, independence crouches ; prejudices vanish ; the pride 
of consistency veils its face ; and the warm love of kindred, 
and party, and religion congeals to a stone ; it teaches men to 
observe, and compels them to the exercise of common sense. 

A New York drayman or hack driver, considers his horse a 
part and parcel of himself, and the moment his animal ceases 
motion in cold weather, that moment he covers him with a 
blanket. Why this care? He knows that if neglected, the 
horse will take cold, and that in a day or two, he will 
most probably die of some form of inflammation about the 
lungs; yet multitudes of people perish every year, from being 
cooled off too quick after exercising. 

More people die prematurely from want of care in any given 
year, than perish by plague, famine, pestilence and war. 

The Duke of Wellington died of an over hearty meal of 
venison in November. 

General Taylor was taken from the White House to the 
grave, by a bowl of fruits and iced milk, on a fourth of July. 

One of the most eminent and enterprising citizens of Phila- 
delphia, died of a New York dinner, consisting of champagne 
and lobster. 

Stephen Girard lost his life by a milk wagon running against 
him, and which he might easily have avoided. 

Jacob Kidgeway, his great rival in wealth, perished from a 
like cause. 

Alexander the Great, died in a debauch. 



Suicide. 259 

And we need not enumerate the countless multitudes, who 
are gradually led to the grave, by the various intoxications of 
alcohol, opium and tobacco, from ignorance of the fact, that the 
appetite for them feeds upon itself, and grows by its indulgence. 

No reformation can be relied on, which is not founded on in- 
telligence, associated with a stern religious principle. Hence, 
it is not the doctor who is to renovate human health, and build 
up a new physical constitution for coming generations. All 
radical reforms aim at prevention, rather than rectification. 
To prevent a man from getting sick, is a more glorious mis- 
sion than to cure him. The parent, the teacher, the minister, 
these are the parties who are to co-operate in raising sons and 
daughters of robust health, and cultivated intellect, and edu- 
cated consciences, to occupy the responsible positions of a com- 
ing age. 

It is a good omen, that intelligent, reflecting and humane 
teachers in different parts of the country, are beginning to make 
personal health, one of the branches of an elementary educa- 
tion. Is it not wonderful that more efficient steps have not 
been taken in that direction, long ago. 

In the school for Young Ladies at Mystic Hall, West 
Medfordj Mass., Mrs. T. P. Smith, the accomplished principal, 
has a distinct professorship of Hygiene, while J. H. Northrup, 
at Millville, N. J., has procured the services of an educated 
physician, for especial instruction in that direction. No school 
is entitled to the name of "respectable and thorough" where the 
pupils have not regular and stated teachings about health. 



SUICIDE. 

" Self-slaying" falling by ones own hand, is the literal mean- 
ing of a term, which, by common consent, is regarded as a 
crime against ourselves, against society, and against the Great 
Maker of us all. And yet in these latter days, it has found its 
advocates, like Congressional ruffianisms, polygamy, public 
plunderings, and the like. In a recent number of the New 
York Observer, a communication from a clergyman appears, se- 
conded by an editorial remark, " Self- Killing, not Self-Murder? 
And the sentiment, so shocking in itself, has passed unrebuk- 



260 HalVs Journal of Health. 

ed. Has it come to this, that one of the most conservative re* 
ligious papers in the whole country, can stand out, unreproved, 
as the palliator of one of the gravest crimes which a human 
being can perpetrate, inasmuch, as it is one that is not repented 
of? We can scarcely believe, that any man in his right mind, 
can kill himself; nor, properly speaking, can a man commit any 
sin atall, if he were in his right mind. A drunkard fires his 
neighbor's barn, or strikes his wife to the earth, and in his rage 
beats her to death. In his right mind, he would not have done 
so. But common consent sends him to the penitentiary or the 
gallows, without a question, because he put himself out of his 
right mind by his own act, by the indulgence of his own appe- 
tites ; and just as guilty, do we beg leave to say, is the man, 
who, greatly gifted, abandons himself to study, to abundant 
eating, and a total neglect of those means of health, which our 
Maker, in his mercy, has placed within the reach of all. We 
are accountable for the right use of the reason which has been 
placed within us for our guide. Going mad after study, 
is not less a crime, than going mad after liquor, or after any 
other appetite; both are equally the unrestrained indulgence 
of a passion ; one is the passion for brandy — the other is the 
passion for study. Are religious editors asleep, that they 
should allow to go unrebuked, an apology for self-destruction? 
We pause for answer. 



SIMPLES. 

There are simple drugs and simple brains, the latter having 
the majority. "It can do no harm, if it does no good," is a 
simpleton's speech about a a simple remedy." Let us see if this 
will bear investigation. 

One of the sweetest " seventeens" we know of, in driving a 
nail on which to hang a canary cage, hit her finger instead of 
the nail — a thing not unfrequently done. In fact, a multitude, 
Which no man can number, fail to hit the nail on the head, as 
to the great object of life ! In a few moments, she began to 
practice a piece of piano music, which added to the injury, and 
in the course of the evening, the finger became painful. A 
friend advised to poultice it with the white of an egg } which, in 
its place, is a very mild article. Why ! a dozen might be taken 



Sound Sleep. 261 

into the mouth and passed along, even to advantage, if a man 
was hungry. She retired, but spent a night of agony ; the 
whole house was in commotion, and the next day we were 
called on to prescribe for a felon, the safest treatment for which, 
if early, is to drive a lancet to the bone, and scrape upon it, so 
as to be sure of having gone deep enough. But to treat the 
pretty finger of a pretty patient in that way, was not to be 
thought of, until the last resort. Upon cross-examination, as 
necessary in physic as in law, all the above facts were ferreted 
out, when we concluded that there was nothing the matter but 
fright and the white of an egg. Thus : it had dried over the 
skin of the finger-end and became as impervious to the exhala- 
tion of that heat and moisture which pass out of the system 
unceasingly, as if it had been hermetically sealed with an en- 
casing of brass. The result was, the heat and fluids accumulated, 
the parts became dry and hot and hard, and the pain became 
as unendurable as a pirated thumb-screw. 

Moral. — " Simples" are only simple when in their proper 
place ; and the familiar quotation, "It can do no harm if it does 
no good," is, in medicine at least, a dangerous untruth. 

Eeader! Let us give you the most wholesome piece of ad- 
vice of the season — 

Do nothing remedially without your Doctor's consent. 



SOUND SLEEP. 



Any man who can bound out of bed as soon as he wakes of 
a mid-winter's morning is worth something ; no fear of his not 
making his way through the world creditably, because he has 
the elements of a promptitude, decision and energy, which 
guarantee success. To invalids we make a comfortable sug- 
gestion worth knowing. If you have force of will enough to 
keep you from taking a second nap — and it is the " second nap" 
which makes its baneful influence felt on multitudes — it is 
better for you to lie awhile and think about it, until that feel- 
ing of weariness passes out of the limbs which you so com- 
monly feel. But to sleep soundly, and to feel rested and re- 
freshed when you wake up of a morning, four things are essen- 
tial— 

1. Go to bed with feet thoroughly dry and warm. 



262 HalVs Journal of Health. 

2. Take nothing for supper but some cold bread and buttei 
and a single cup of weak warm tea of any kind. 

3. Avoid over fatigue of body. 

4. For the hour preceding bedtime, dismiss every engross- 
ing subject from the mind, and let it be employed about some- 
thing soothing and enlivening in cheerful thankfulness. 



MEMORY, 

Like every other faculty, is cultivatable. It is improved by 
exercise, and like a good friend, the more we trust it the better 
will it serve us. But memory may be aided. For example : 
you may take a newspaper or a magazine, perhaps several, and 
it may require inconvenient attention to bear in mind when 
the time expires for which you have paid for each. Now we 
will give you a lesson in " Memory made Easy." 

Idir 3 Make all your subscriptions payable on New Year's 
day, and lay by the amount long before the time, so as to make 
assurance doubly sure, and let all be paid at once. Thus a 
publisher will know his position at the end of each year, and 
you be saved from a multitude of resolutions, with all their un- 
comfortable attendants ; among which are a half mad, half accu- 
satory feeling embodied in the expression, with an appropriate 
gesture, as likely as anything else to be a kind of gritting of 
the teeth — " Well, I must send on my subscription to-morrow." 
But it so happens, and not seldom, that the collector comes be- 
fore your to-morrow, and you have cheated your publisher out 
of ten per cent, of his bill without benefiting yourself a single 
penny by the fraud. 

No insinuations towards our subscribers. We have no delin- 
quents. We do not believe in the morality of affording oppor- 
tunity for such a dereliction. There is no consistency in saying 
daily, u Lead us not into temptation," and as habitually tempt 
others to get in debt by offers of credit. The " Forerunner*' 
of this Journal is the Inevitable Dollar, and it is against pub- 
lic morals, and to the ruin of many a benevolent and hard- 
working publisher, that pre-payment is not the universal law 
of the press ; it is the most bootless ruin in the whole commer- 
cial world, for it all falls on one man, while the pecuniary benefit 
to each, of a multitude, is too insignificant to be appreciable. 



The Good Physician. 263 

The less a debt is, the greater is the turpitude of not paying 
it. There is a looseness of feeling on this subject not easily 
accounted for, and more surprising still, " Religious News- 
papers" suffer more heavily from this cause, than any other 

class. 

THREATENINGS OF DISEASE. 

All serious diseases give their far-off warnings. Intelligence 
and careful observation would make a doctor's calling almost a 
sinecure. A gradual failure of the memory is a sure indication 
of approaching bodily infirmity or decay. Another important 
fact is, if any set of muscles are unduly exercised, they will 
lose their power ; so also, if any function of the mind or brain 
is unduly stimulated, the result is temporary prostration or 
permanent destruction, according to the intensity and duration 
of that stimulus. Thus it is, that the young, who learn by 
memory, if highly stimulated to learn, become precocious, and 
either die early, or disappoint the expectations of their friends 
by settling down into mortifying mediocrity. Hence 

1. Let the young learn slowly. 

2. Under intense bodily or mental application, if you find 
your memory failing you, as you value bodily health, and the 
mind itself, break away at once from all your engagements, 
and spend weeks together in out-door recreations. 



THE GOOD PHYSICIAN. 

No man can fully discharge the responsible and delicate 
duties of a practitioner of medicine, unless he possesses largely 
four cardinal qualities. 

He must be Learned, Observant, Courteous and Moral. 

Learned, that he may fully understand his business. 

Observant, that he may daily add to his knowledge and 
know how to apply it. 

Courteous, that he may win his way to the hearts of the suf- 
fering. 

Moral, that he may obtain and secure the highest confix 
dence of those who place their lives in his hands. 



264 HalVs Journal of Health. 

NEWSPAPERS AND PERIODICALS. 

Whose mind does not run back to the sunnier days of child- 
hood at the repetition of the dear familiar lines : 

" In works of labor or of skill, 
I would be busy too; 
For Satan finds some mischief still. 
For idle hands to do.' 7 

And how much better, too, is the good old Presbyterian cus- 
tom of causing children to commit to memory such plain and 
wholesome truths, than of lumbering up their brains with the 
doggerel rhymes of Old Mother Goose, and such as 

" There was an old woman, she lived in a spoon, 
And all she wanted was elbow room." 

Then again : 

C( 0. Miss Mary, quite contrary, 

How doos your garden grow ff 
" Silver bells and muscle shells, 
And cucumbers all in a row." 

Eminently suggestive are such lines of — nonsense. 

But what connection is there between newspapers and idle 
■children ? There is no connection whatever, reader, and that is 
precisely the point we are trying to make. We wish to express 
it: as a mature conviction of our own mind, that one of the best 
protections for our children against the temptations of city and 
village life, is the habitual reading of a well-conducted family 
newspaper or periodical. If you want a child to take an inter- 
est in a pap3r, let it be his paper, sent to his address. In a rea- 
sonable time he will get to look for its coming, and feel the 
want of it, if it does not arrive at the usual time. Soon it will 
be a kind of necessity, and rather than be without it he becomes 
willing to make sacrifices and self-denials for the sake of saving 
any stray dime or half-dime which may happen to come into 
his possession. Peanuts and gingerbread, monkey-shows and 
fire-crackers, are vetoed, and the increment of a quarter of a 
dollar to a half, and so on, to the subscription price, is watched 
with an interest and a pleasure which few would imagine, and 
lo ! the germs of an economy and a self-denial are planted 
before we are aware of it, which will grow to health, and wealth, 
and position. 



Newspapers and Periodicals. 265 

The moment any child has learned to save, that moment such 
a child is rendered safe for life ; safe from the penitentiary, safe 
from the poor-house, safe from her whose chambers go down to 
death, Not only so ; during this time, the lessons learned from 
week to week, inculcated in short articles of precept and of fact — 
lessons in history, in finance, in morals, are indelibly impressed 
on the mind, and help to build up a character, which, with others 
like it, is to hold up the society of the next generation. Such 
being the case, no small responsibilities to our common country 
rest on the editorial profession ; and glad are we, that to be well 
informed, to be educated, is the first, the essential requisite, in 
an editor ; without it, he cannot keep his head above water. 
In law, physic, and divinity, an ignoramus may sail with the 
wind, may float on the tide of family, fortune, or party ; but the 
only life-boat of a living editor is actual intelligence — no sham 
can live an hour. 

Be assured, reader, that the price of a periodical for each 
child in your family, who has entered the tenth year, is an in- 
vestment which will yield a dividend of a million per cent. The 
very idea of " taking a paper" elevates a child, increases his self- 
respect, and that feeling of self-importance which is the germ of 
manly and womanly dignity. 

Truth, knowledge, has an infectious influence about it. The 
possession of one item of intelligence leads to the desire of 
knowing a kindred truth ; this stimulates to investigation, when 
proper facilities, and encouragements, and aids are afforded; 
and all at once, we find the child an investigator, with an inter- 
est which insures its remembrance ; and here we have a student 
in embryo — a self-taught scholar, the very kind of persons who, 
the world over, make the men of note of their time. 

We have been a very long time in coming to the point of in- 
viting parents, who take this journal, to look over the list of 
exchanges, on the last page of the cover, and make a good be- 
ginning for eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, by selecting some 
publication for each member of your family — that is, one for 
each child, one for your wife, and one, at least, for yourself — 
then, a good religious paper for the whole household. Perhaps 
you would do well to let each one choose for himself, subject to 
your superior judgment; then, count up the advance subscrip- 
tion price of all, and send it right away, to commence from and 



266 HalVs Journal of Health. 

after the first day of January, eighteen hundred and fifty-seven, 
and their renewal every year will be among the pleasant events 
of " Christmas Times" which will not easily be forgotten : then, 
the editors will be sure of their money, and you sure of your 
papers; thus enabling them to labor cheerily, while you and all 
yours are reaping weekly gratification and instruction. 

Two suggestions we give you as a matter of opinion only : — 

1st. Give preference to the publication of the kind you want, 
which is nearest to you. ''Local papers," as they are called, 
are of more importance than is generally supposed, when they 
are industriously edited. They keep you acquainted with the 
history of things around you, of the growth of your village or 
county, their improvements, changes, and the like. One of the 
most deeply interesting volumes in any man's library is a regu- 
lar file of his village newspaper of twenty, of forty years agone. 
What reminiscences — how glad are some ! others, how sweetly 
sad are they ! And what a photographic panorama is given of 
the whole past! 

Here we step aside to say to the editors of local papers, it 
will add to your permanent and best interests, to spend less 
time in scissoring city papers, and more in being "around" 
your own diocese, talking with the old people, hunting out 
early incidents of local interest, making yourself at the same 
time familiar with what Sam and Young America are about. 
In this way you, almost any one of you, will add a large per- 
centage to your subscription list every year. Try it for a single 
year, gentlemen, and neither you nor your neighbors will ever 
repent of it. 

Another suggestion : do not allow one member of the family 
to read any other paper than his own. This will have several 
very beneficial effects, not thought of by the superficial. 

1st. It will prevent the very bad habit of borrowing a news- 
paper. Why ! I would rather lend my umbrella, and even my 
dinner — sometimes ! 

2d. It is not profitable to read a variety of newspapers, no 
more than it is to hear a variety of preachers. We never saw 
a good Christian made by the latter practice, nor a head well 
filled by the former. 

One paper well read, is more profitable than to have the 
Bkimming of a dozen ; which last gives a kind of general diffu- 



Newspapers and Periodicals. 267 

sive knowledge, which is the farthest possible from being prac- 
tical, and practical knowledge is the great want of the age. It 
is the knowledge of minutiae, which is remunerative. While 
we would confine each one to the actual reading of his own 
paper, we would allow him to tell its news to the others. Does 
not any one know what pleasure it affords to tell to another 
what is supposed to be new ? The desire to tell would induce 
greater care in impressing upon the mind the particulars of 
what was intended to be communicated, and this would culti- 
vate a habit of minuteness, and accuracy of narration, which 
gives to conversation its instructiveness and its charm. 

Then, again, a love of conversation is engendered, as to the 
useful and the true ; a facility in expressing ideas grow up, 
which is invaluable; and we are never pained with the blunder 
of the pretender, " I have the idea, but can't express it satisfac- 
torily." The fact is, an idea which can't find a medium of ex- 
pression in words, is as empty as the head which holds it. 

Suppose, then, a family should be of a size which would 
allow of the taking of some publication every day; we can 
scarcely imagine a more agreeable occupation for a winter's 
evening, than all gathering around the fire, and the father or 
mother, or eldest child taking the lead, to draw out the recipient 
of that day's paper, with the various side-issues connected 
with it. 

Parents of New York and Philadelphia, and other large 
cities, it is a fault which has broken many hearts among you, 
that you failed to make home inviting to your children ! and your 
sons sought amusement in the streets, or worse places; and 
your daughters in parties, with their frivolity, and heated 
rooms, and late suppers, and thin shoes, and gossamer dress — 
and the son, where is he ? the habitue of the club-house or 
billiard room, or lower down still: and your daughter — let the 
combination of the lily and the hectic tell. 



Buckwheat Cakes. — To every three bushels of buckwheat, 
add one of good heavy oats ; grind them together as if there 
was only buckwheat ; thus will you have cakes always light 
and always brown, to say nothing of the greater digestibility, 
and the lightening of spirits, which are equally certain. 



268 HalVs Journal of Health. 

OUR DAUGHTERS RUINED. 

Where ? 

At fashionable boarding-schools. 

How? 

In manner and form to wit : 

A young lady in good health was sent to a distant city, to 
finish her education at a boarding-school of considerable note. 
In one month she returned, suffering from general debility, 
dizziness, neuralgic pains, and headache. 

It must be a very telling process, which, in a single month, 
transforms a rollicking, romping, ruddy-faced girl of sixteen, 
to a pale, weakly, failing invalid. It is not often done so 
quickly ; but in the course of a boarding-school education, it 
is done thousands of times. Public thanks are due to a cor- 
respondent of the Buffalo Medical Journal, for the pains he took 
to ferret out the facts of the daily routine of the establishment, 
the proprietors of which so richly merit the reprobation of the 
whole community, both for their recklessness of human health, 
and their ignorance of physiological law. Said an accomplished 
lady to us not long since, " My only daughter is made a wreck 
of — she lost her mind at that wretched school!" 

At this model establishment, where the daughters of the rich 
and of the aspiring are prepared for the grave every year, 
twelve hours are devoted to study, out of the twenty-four, 
when five should be the utmost limit. 

Two hours are allowed for exercise. 

Three hours for eating. 

Seven hours for sleep. 

Plenty of time allowed to eat themselves to death, at the 
expense of stinting them to the smallest amount of time for 
renovating the brain, the very fountain of life, upon whose 
healthful and vigorous action depends the ability of advan- 
tageous mental culture, and physical energy. 

But what is the kind of exercise which prevails in city 
boarding-schools ? The girls are marched through the streets 
in double file, dressed violently, of course, so as to inure to the 
benefit of the proprietors, in the way of a walking advertise- 
ment, knowing well enough that a file of young ladies, from 
the families of the upper ten, would monopolize attention on 



Bathing. 269 

any thoroughfare, even Wall-street. But what does an hour's 
prim walk effect, when, conscious of being the cynosure of 
every eye, they are put on their most unexceptionable be- 
havior, when a good side-shaking, whole-souled laugh would 
subject the offender to a purgatorial lecture, to be repeated 
daily, perhaps, for a month? Verily, Moloch has his wor- 
shippers in this enlightened age, when parents are found to 
sacrifice the lives of their daughters, for the reputation of having 
them at the fashionable boarding-school. 



BATHING. 

Once a week is often enough for a decent white man to wash 
himself all over, and whether in summer or winter, that ought 
to be done with soap, warm water, and a hog's-hair brush, in a 
room showing at least seventy degrees Fahrenheit. If a man is 
a pig in his nature, then no amount of washing will keep him 
clean, inside or out. Such an one needs a bath every time he 
turns round. He can do nothing neatly. 

Baths should be taken early in the morning, for it is then 
that the system possesses the power of reaction in the highest 
degree. Any kind of bath is dangerous soon after a meal, or 
soon after fatiguing exercise. No man or woman should take a 
bath at the close of the day, unless by the advice of the family 
physician. Many a man, in attempting to cheat his doctor out 
of a fee, has cheated himself out of his life ; aye, it is done 
every day. 

The safest mode of a cold bath is a plunge into a river ; the 
safest time is instantly after getting up. The necessary effort 
of swimming to shore compels a reaction, and the effect is de- 
lightful. 

The best, safest, cheapest, and most universally accessible 
mode of keeping the surface of the body clean, besides the once- 
a-week washing, with soap, warm water, and hog's-hair brush, 
is as follows : 

Soon as you get out of bed in the morning, wash your face, 
hands, neck, and breast ; then, into the same basin of water, put 
both feet at once, for about a minute, rubbing them briskly all 
the time ; then, with the towel, which has been dampened by 
wiping the face, feet, &c, wipe the whole body well, fast and 



270 HaWs Journal of Health, 

hard, mouth shut, breast projecting. Let the whole thing be 
done within five minutes. 

At night, when you go to bed, and whenever you get out of 
bed, during the night, or when you find yourself wakeful or 
restless, spend from two to five minutes in rubbing your whole 
body, with your hands, as far as you can reach, in every direc- 
tion. This has a tendency to preserve that softness and mobil- 
ity of skin which is essential to health, and which too frequent 
washings will always destroy. 

That precautions are necessary, in connection with the bath- 
room, is impressively signified in the death of an American 
lady of refinement and position, lately, after taking a bath, soon 
after dinner ; of Surgeon Hume, while alone, in a warm bath ; 
and of an eminent New Yorker, under similar circumstances, all 
within a year. 

A HAPPY CHRISTMAS 

Is an impossibility to any man who has any money to pay 
within twenty days of New Year. This is a kind of negative 
"recipe" reader, but if you will attend to it, there will be a 
quietude and a luxurious "abandon," about Christmas Eve, 
which few people ever know. For the sake of humanity, try it 
once — only once — and the beauty of it will so enrapture you 
that it will never be forgotten. So, go and pay every cent you 
can, the moment you lay down this journal ; and if there is a 
demand which you cannot pay, make a timely and satisfactory 
arrangement, so that your creditor may not calculate on you. 
He'll think the better of you for it, and be easier with you here- 
after. This thing of waiting until the very last moment, and 
then going to a man who was relying on you, with your finger 
in your mouth, and a hang-dog look, is enough to give an hon- 
orable man an apoplexy. 



NEW IDEAS. 

Mournfully pleasing are many of the reminiscences of our 
childhood. Ebenezer Sharpe, so portly, rubicund, and good! 
He inaugurated us into our Latinity. But of all he said and 
did, an act and a fact only now remain — a theory and a prac- 



Small Pox. 271 

tice. Of the two, we rather think the practice was the more in- 
delible. It was a practice, too, of singular uniformity and 
regularity, to give the girls a kiss of a morning. There was one, 
the sweetest of them all, whom, in forgetfulness, he would kiss 
twice. The theory, rather less impressive, but as durable, was 
in these words : 

* Kemember, young gentlemen, every new idea is worth a 
silver dollar to you." 

According then, to this money value of ideas, we find our- 
selves enriched to-day, and own our indebtedness to Wm. G. 
Haeselbarth, Esq., the editor of the Bochland County Journal, 
published at Nyack, N. Y., to the reading matter of which pa- 
per do we feel our indebtedness from time to time. Says our 
confrere, " If health is a duty, to subscribe for HalVs Journal of 
Health must be a duty also ; for by means of one, the other can 
be preserved." Q. E. D. 



SMALL POX. 

From extended and close observation, the following general 
deductions seem to be warranted : 

1. Infantile vaccination is an almost perfect safeguard, until 
the fourteenth year. 

2. At the beginning of Fourteen, the system gradually loses 
its capability of resistance, until about twenty-one, when many 
persons become almost as liable to small-pox, as if they had 
not been vaccinated. 

3. This liability remains in full force until about forty-two, 
when the susceptibility begins to decline and continues for 
seven years to grow less and less, becoming extinct at about 
fifty, the period of life, when the general revolution of the body 
begins to take place, during which the system yields to decay, 
or takes a new lease of life, for two or three terms^ of seven 
years each. 

4. The great practical use to be made of these statements is — 
Let every youth be re-vaccinated on entering Fourteen. Let 
several attempts be made, so as to be certain of safety. As the 
malady is more liable to prevail in cities during winter, special 
attention is invited to the subject at this time. 



272 HalVs Journal of Health. 

SLEEP. 

The unwisest of all economies is time saved from necessary 
sleep, for it begets a nervous irritability, which masters the 
body and destroys the mind. When a man becomes sleepless, 
the intellect is in danger. A restored lunatic, of superior men- 
tal endowments, said : " The first symptom of insanity) in my 
own case, was a want of sleep ; and from the time I began to 
sleep soundly, my recovery was sure." 

Let this be a warning to all who are acquiring an education. 
Every young person at school should have eight hours for sleep 
out of every twenty-four ; for, as the brain is highly stimulated 
all the time, in the prosecution of study, it will break down, 
just as any other part of the frame, unless it have time for full 
recuperation. Better, a thousand times, to give another year to 
the completion of specified studies, than by curtailing sleep, to 
endeavor to get through that much sooner, at the risk of mad- 
ness. 

OUR DESTROYER. 

The New York Herald, which makes itself called for all over 
the country by its prompt and liberal publication of documents 
of general and scientific interest, in an article on the mortality 
of New York, states a fact which will surprise many who look 
at the mere surface of things, that for the single week ending 
November 1st, 1856, not less than seventy-two persons died of 
diseases of the brain and nervous system ; the week preceding 
numbered seventy. The maladies of the mind, how terrible ! 
How does anxiety and care, and wounded pride, and vain am- 
bition eat out the hearts and drink up the life blood of the stir- 
ring thousands of a large city ! Medicine cannot cure these 
nervous diseases ; in the vain attempt to do so, many lives are 
sacrificed every year. Employment, employment — that is what 
they want, such as will compel the mind away, pleasurably, to 
steady physical activities. 



THEOLOGICAL STUDENTS, 

With warm hearts and eager expectations, feed on the hopes 
of good to be done by them ; when they have left the seminary. 



Theological Students. 273 

In their anxieties, not to be found working with untempered 
mortar, and to make of themselves laborers, who need not be 
ashamed, and that from unfaithfulness or incompetency the blood 
of souls may not rest on the hem of their garments — in these soli- 
citudes, they very often apply themselves so sedulously to 
study, that they have not time for taking an amount of exer- 
cise, absolutely essential to the safety of their constitutions. 
We remember the names of many, who, in our schoolboy days, 
considered every hour out of their study, so much time lost, 
and they have died, long, long ago. As for ourselves, we let 
Yenable, and Clelland, and Allen, and the lamented Congress- 
man, J. G. Miller, study for us, while we "knocked around," and 
here we are yet, on this side of forty -five, our eyes not specta- 
cled, our head not bald, nor hair gray. We remember, how- 
ever, several things connected with our college course. We 
lived by system. Got up at daylight, were never a moment be- 
hind time at recitation, never out of bed at ten o'clock, except 
on Society nights, and were always in a good humor, because 
we were never out of money — that affliction came on later. 
Now, with system, regular habits, moderate study, good humor, 
and money, what collegian could get sick, even if he were to 
try ? And there was our friend, K. H. A., whom we found re- 
citing in the senior class, when we entered college with the ju- 
nior, and on graduating two years later, under that great orator 
and Christian gentleman, Gideon Blackburn, left him in the pre- 
paratory department. He never studied at all, took the world 
easy, never was sick a minute, and although he never got 
through college, he got out of it, wriggled himself into the min- 
istry, got a wife, a fortune, and then a D.D., and has made one 
of the really useful men of his time. Now, we consider that as 
infinitely better than studying oneself to death at the threshold 
of the pulpit. 

We believe that the first duty of a theological student is to 
take care of his health, and chew Hebrew roots and Greek 
themes afterwards. 

As to one of our seminaries, nearly one-fifth of two specified 
classes died before the completion of their professional studies. 
To the friends of religion, this is an alarming statement, and in 
view of it, we call attention to the subject, with the suggestion, 
that lectures on the general laws of health, by educated physi* 



274 HalVs Journal of Health. 

cians of long practice, should form a part of the course of study 
during each session, from the first Freshman year at college, 
until they leave the seminary ; and then, instead of a race of 
sickly imbeciles, as to bodily health, our pulpits would be filled 
with giants in intellect and physical vigor. 



" I FORGOT IT." 



It's no such thing. It's the biggest fib a man ever told to 
say, " I forgot it." It's a libel on memory. It's a misnomer. 
There are " sets 11 in lying, as well as in society. Away down 
yonder, about circle one hundred below par, where mean lies 
are current, a falsehood which gives you no chance of getting 
behind it — " I forgot it" is one of them — refuge is taken in 
the untangible. The chambers of the memory are impenetra- 
ble. The true interpretation of "I forgot it" is, "I don't care. 11 
This simple idea well merits reflection ; its bearings are far 
reaching. " I forgot it" is nothing more nor less than indiffer- 
ence, and indifference is uncourteous and dishonorable, wherever 
it is applied, in reference to an engagement or a duty. Does 
an honorable merchant u forget 11 an engagement? Can we im- 
agine such a thing as a Christian a forgetting 11 his duty or a 
mother her first-born ? Only the milk-and-water folk, the do- 
nothing-no-bodies can "forget," — such as haven't "character" 
enough to keep them from falling to pieces. 



PURE MILK. 

A glass of it, how delicious in New York! But such a 
thing is not believed to be possible by multitudes of country 
people. Reader, we can furnish you with a glass of it any day 
in the year. We have been supplied with it ever since "we 
went to housekeeping 11 in Gotham. It is furnished us by Friend 
Gurney, of 203 West 19th street, no doubt a lineal kinsman 
of Joseph John, and Mrs. Fry. He gets it from "Friends" too. 
" But how do you know it ?" says one. We know it by various 
signs and symptoms, which are quite satisfactory to ourselves; 
as, for example, a gallon of it yields no sediment of dirt, sand, 
or anything else; second, it is of the right consistency, as meas- 



Studying Grammar. 275 

ured with a scientific instrument, which "gives" the density of 
any fluid ; the density of Mr. Gurney's dairy being compared 
with the yield of a hundred dollar cow, belonging to a neigh- 
bor of ours, when we lived at beautiful Yonkers, opposite the 
Palisades of the Hudson ; thirdly, a large yield of thick rich 
cream is found on the surface of our daily supply, every morn- 
ing ; and all know that nothing but pure milk, from a healthy 
and well-fed cow, can spread over its surface, after a few hours 
rest, a layer of rich cream. 

Now, these reasons are perfectly satisfactory to ourselves. A 
more conclusive test we offer to our inquisitors. Just look in 
the face of our little two-year-old " Alice Hall," who feeds on 
this milk twice a day, and has done so for years I She weighs 
now more than her elder brother " Bob," who was raised on 
Jersey milk, happening to be over there in the sand flats, when 
as yet he hadn't happened himself. 

Our friend, Mr. P., went a hundred miles up the river, for 
the express purpose of getting pure milk for his child, and in 
a short time its entire scalp was covered with a disgusting erup- 
tion. On inquiry, it was found that it was not manufactured 
milk ; it actually was yielded by the cow, but she was fed en- 
tirely on grain which had gone through the process of distilla- 
tion. On making a change, the child speedily got well. Let 
families look well into the quality of the milk which is supplied to 
them. |3|r* The brightest and most tidy-looking milk carts 
are often as suggestive as the " whitened sepulchres" of Scrip- 
ture story. 

STUDYING GRAMMAR 

Joseph T. Buckingham, one of the best of living writers and 
grammarians, once said that " Not one child in a thousand ever 
received the least benefit from studying the rules of grammar 
before he was fifteen years old." 

We believe that countless thousands of dollars are more than 
thrown away, in defective modes of modern school-teaching. 
Children are put to studies long before their time— long before 
their minds are capable of comprehending their nature — and in 
the vain and painful effort to do it, disease is often engendered, 
by the premature and undue straining of the brain, to say no- 



276 Hall's Journal of Health. 

thing of that distaste and utter aversion to study, which is a 
very natural result, lasting sometimes for life, thus destroying, 
in embryo, minds which, had they been duly led, might have 
been the ornaments of any age. 

"We consider it a radical defect in our schools, that children 
are made to study branches which are above their comprehen- 
sion, allied to an error not less mischievous, of being sent to 
school too early. A child should never be allowed to enter a 
school-room, not even a Sunday-school, if it has religious pa- 
rents, until the seventh year, and for the next three years, 
should be allowed to study but one branch at a time, for a pe- 
riod of not over two hours at a time in the forenoon, and one 
in the afternoon ; to have no studying to do at home, and be 
compelled to play in the open air, at least three hours after 
breakfast and two hours after dinner ; the remainder of the time 
being expended in some pleasurable and useful handicraft. 

From ten until sixteen, we would have them give four hours 
daily to brain work, learning one thing at a time, making thor- 
ough work of that one thing, so as never to have to learn it 
again, or unlearn a portion of it. 

Be assured, it is for the want of some system like this, that 
so many of our children enter life with a general knowledge of 
many things, but knowing nothing critically or thoroughly; 
for after all, the only knowledge which makes us practically 
useful, is that which makes us acquainted with the minutiae of 
any subject. 

CLEKICAL EMPLOYMENTS. 

The Doctor of Divinity, who recommends clergymen to take 
up some other employment, as additional means of earning 
money for their support, has lived to little purpose, if he has not 
observed two simple facts, and observed them millions of times. 

1st. That there never was a time, in the history of our coun- 
try, when an efficient ministry — a ministry working day and 
night — was more pressingly needed. 

2d. That to be efficient in any calling, to make every stroke 
tell, all the time and energies of the man, soul and body, must 
be concentrated on that one calling. 

The Master said the laborer was worthy of his hire ; the serv- 
ant thinks differently. 



HALL'S FIRESIDE MONTHLY. 

One Dollar and Fifty Cents a Year. Single numbers, Fifteen 

Cents. 
Two dollars pay for Sixteen numbers, thirty-two pages of 
reading matter, besides cover, 8vo. Address, 

"Hall's Fireside Monthly, New York," I 

Published by H. B. Price, 

No. 3 Everett House. 

This publication is also edited by Dr. W. W. Hall, 42 Irving Place, New 
York ; but, instead of being exclusively written for by him, as is the case 
with the Journal of Health, it is filled mainly with original articles from 
such men of eminence in Science, Literature, and Art, as can be induced from 
time to time to contribute to its columns. It contains one-fourth more pages 
than the Journal of Health — hence the difference in price. It is stereo- 
typed, and is bound uniformly with the volumes of the Journal, giving, 
however, near four hundred pages, 8vo., a year, instead of three hundred. 

With a view to extend the circulation of the Journal of Health and 
the Fireside Monthly, and in a manner to benefit largely that class of 
persons whose labors contribute more largely than any others to elevate 
and happily and save this great and growing Union of States, to wit, the 
ministers of our holy religion, extraordinary inducements will be presented 
by the publisher, on application by letter, by which a few hours' personal 
effort on the part of some energetic young man, or intelligent lady, or other 
influential member of a society, parish, or congregation, may secure for their 
minister an addition to his library of twenty or thirty dollars' worth of books, 
without the expenditure of a single dime, by simply going round any sunny 
day and obtaining a few subscriptions. The books selected should be such as 
Allibone's Dictionary of Authors, two vols., a thousand pages each, two 
columns on each page, and a hundred lines to each column, giving a brief 
sketch of all " English and American Authors of note" from the earliest 
accounts to the present, with a list of their publications, and of all the 
authors who have written on any given subject — being to literature, what a 
dictionary is to the language, or a concordance to the Bible, compiled by S. 
Austin Allibone. a student, a scholar, and a Christian gentleman ; the first 
vol. issued 1859. the second in 1860, five dollars each, containing in all 
about thirty thousand biographies and literary notices. Or, " Sprague's Annals 
of the American Pulpit," five vols., for twelve dollars and fifty cents. Or, 
the eight vols, by Dr. Hall, at nine dollars and a quarter, to wit : 

Five vols, of " Journal of Health," bound, $1.25 each... 
" Bronchitis and Kindred Diseases," ninth edition, 1859 

" Consumption." second edition, 1859 

;: Health and Disease," second edition, 1 859 

All published by H. B. Price, No. 3 Everett House. New York. 



$6 


25 


1 


00 


1 


00 


1 


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(C. 


Or, 



The Land and the Book: or, Biblical Illustrations, drawn from the 
Manners and Customs, the Scenes and the Scenery of the Holy Land. By 
W. M. Thomson, D. D., Twenty-five Years a Missionary of the A. B. C. F. M. 
in Syria and Palestine. With two elaborate Maps of Palestine, an accurate 
Plan of Jerusalem, and several Hundred Engravings, representing the 
Scenery, Topography, and Productions of the Holy Land, and the Costumes, 
Manners and Habits of the People. Two elegant large 12mo. volumes, 
muslin, $3.50. 

The object of the " Fireside Monthly " is to supply families with a 
monthly reading differing from that of any other monthly publication known at 
this time. It is a periodical not claiming to be religious, yet will be 
always on the side of sound morals and an evangelical Christianity. Ficti- 
tious reading will be almost entirely, if not altogether excluded. 

There is one chief reason why such a Monthly should be published, and 
should be patronized by all good men and true : 

The weekly and monthly publications which have by far the widest cir- 
culation in the country, and which are not professedly religious, largely 
abound in fictitious reading, and are written for, to a too great extent, by men 
whose principles are levelling and infidel — an infidelity not far from a prac- 
tical atheism. Some of these are men of mind, of genius, of science, and of 
a high culture, are splendid writers, and too often use their power and 
opportunity in darting into the mind of their readers arrows barbed with 
a rankling poison, which, when once carried home to the heart of the young, 
at an opportune moment, remains there ever after, to fester, and worry, and 
unsettle, if not to destroy all religious belief. It is simply hoped that some 
families of the many who cannot afford two Monthlies, but will take one, 
may decide to take this in preference, as being at least safe, even if it does 
not give as much reading matter. Parents will not fail to observe that the 
generality of the Weeklies and Monthlies, not claiming to be religious, con- 
tain so much reading, and that very largely fictitious or utterly frivolous, 
that it requires nearly all the " spare time," so called, to read them ; and 
more, time is too often spent upon them which ought not to be spared from 
the necessary duties and avocations of life. It is truly believed, therefore, 
that those parents who would not for a world that a child of theirs should 
grow up to be an "'infidel/'" will consult the present and future welfare of 
themselves and their offspring, by taking the u Fireside Monthly/"' in 
preference to such publications as those above referred to. 

Until the completion of the first volume, the following inducements are 
presented : 

Four copies will be sent one year for five dollars at one time. 

Nine copies will be sent for ten dollars at one time. 

Twenty copies will be sent for twenty dollars at one time. 

Any one sending Ten Subscriptions at a time, will be entitled to five 
dollars' worth of any of the books named above. 

Any one sending Twenty Subscriptions, will be entitled to twelve dollars' 
worth of any of the books above named.